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Cbftpt«7 IT. - Agriculture. fiat 

HusbBiiilmra ; Block 1 Soit ■■■ ■■■ ■■■ ■■• t*i 
Spice UiLrdenBtBeLel-palms, C&rdaniomii, Black Pepper, Wliite 

repp-r. W.W Pepper, BeUfMcikt 5-11 

Fii-I'' TiMilg ; Amlilo ArcB : Irrii^ntioa ; Earari or Woodash 

Tilla^ : Manon ; Hcltliiigr ) Fiuld Stock 12-1 A 

Cnps ; Bio«, Oilseeds, Narcotics, CondimonU, Coffee, Root«, 

Suj^rctuur, Vegetable* ... 16-SO 

Frail Trees ... ... 81 

8ftd Smsons ~ ... eS-SS 

OtApter 7. Capital. 

Cspitaltsta ; Cnrr^aey ; Exchuige Bills ; Cliuaes who Save ; 

InTWtinoots ; Interest; Botrowers ; Land Horlgsge . . 24-8t 
Labour Mortgago ; Wages , Pri(*8 ; 'Weiglita 33-$3 

Chtpter VL - Trule ud Crafts. 

ComniBnicBtioiuc Karlj Boutes ; Pasaeii; Roadfi; Tolls; 

Bridges; TrfcTeUera'BangnlowB; R«8t«Hou8c»;Fcrriet; Post 

Oflicn ;TpIei;n>{)h; Ltgkt'HouscH 89-4S 

Trade ; Uistorj (B.clOOO. a.d.IOO-300. 500-lSfl2) ... 4T.B5 

Tradft CeotrMi Fairs; Shopkeepers; Peddlers; Exports; 

Imports ... jift.fid 

Sea Trade ; Stcwaors ; Sultog Yessela i Ports ; Exports; 

Tmports-- .. .. ... 60-68 

Crafts ; Snndalwood Carrinff ; Motal Wcrk; Horn Work ; Cane 
Work; Earth and SU>oo ; Oil Pressiiig ; Mglasscs ; Cat«cho ; 
Salt : Steam Saw Mills i Jail Indtistries 09-74 

ChapUr Vn. - History. 

Early History (b-C. 242) ; Esrty KodamUs (150 560) ; Early 

Cbalnkyaa (£G0-760); Second Kidamhas (750-1050); 

Btolitrakntaa (760-973); Ssoond CUInkyaa (973-1192); 

Bnynlu (1102-1216) ; DovgiH Yidara (1188-1316) ... 75-1 

Vijayanagar Kings (1330-IS80) 95-117 

TliePortogneB«(lWi0l600) , 118-119 


BijApnr Kings (1600-1670); Sonda Chiefs C155il-17e3); pabi 
Bednar Chiefs (1560-1763); The English (1638.1675): 
ShiT&ji (1665-1675); Marithto (1730); Haidar Ali 
(1763-1782); TipoSiiltin (1783-1793) 120-144 

The English (1799-1882) ...145-153 

Chapter Till.— Land AdmlniBtraUoa. 

EaWj System (1250-1799) ... U4-ir,5 

BritUh System (1799-1882) 156-181 

Land Tenaras ; Season lUports 182-193 

tihapter IX.— Jturtice. 

Early System (1802-1816) ; Coarts; Civil Suits (1870-1881) ; 

Registration ; Police ; Crime ; Jails 194-202 

Chapter X. — Berenne and Finance. 

Balance Sheets; Local Funds; Monicipalitiea ... 203-209 

Chapter XI.— Inrtmction. 

Schools ; Readers and Writers ; Libraries 210-216 

Chapter XIL— Health. 

Climate ; Diseases ; Dispensariee; InGrm People; Vaccination ; 

Births and Deaths 2l7-22e 

Chapter XIII.— Sah-DiTisiou- 

Boundaries; Area; Aspect; Soil; Climate; Water; Stock; 
Survey; People ... ,. 223-248 

Chapter XIT.— Placet of Intereit 249-356 

IKDSX 357-366 

K A N A ii A 


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. AccOBOENO to the 18^1 ocnsm returns ngricnlttire snpporte<1 nhool Chaptsr If. 
(60,000 people or sixt^^oDO per oeot of fcbe popalabioa. Tbe detaila Agrienlt^B| 






OnrmwB .. .. 
Vftol ... 







Proia tiio W^intung of the century when BrittRli mle wm 

introduced t<vo cUm^ee bavo been connected vritli tUa land, larjo^ 

- iind bu><bAniltuen. In somo cases the larst) Inndlioldeni 

work thti land. Bat. as » ralo, men wlio ovra estates 

_ itevornl villagL-a, let tlieir Iiimls t-itlicr to pcrm.'incnt teiuLiits 

mmlgeniydn, or to yearly tonauU called ekaJgenigdrg, and set 

l^pni » portion of tbcir cstato to bo tilled b/ bircd laboor as a 

iw w Mrnt. 

M*i*i cf the land is in tbe hands of Br^thmnnsj who, except tbe 
thr Unbbas, do not vrork in tlif CoKIa. hi the lowland 
ill 1^ ul Kiirw&r and Anknlu tbo rhic>f lundlortls nro Sltcnvis 

aod Kutikiuii.i who mrcly tbeninelres cultivate. lu Kuuita Bonitvar 
Bhatkal ibu prciprit-tora DRDally let the land from year to }rear, 
are bnnl itiid exacting landlords taking* from tbe yearly tenants 
St as mttch an hnlf of the trholo produce.' Bosides Havi^ and 
aim Br^i-limaoe the chief Uu'lholaiu^ i^laase& are Sdnujvat and 
tbkani Brabui^ias and Nuv^ij-at Nl u.salmAn8. S)(rasTOt8 aro 
ployed in tiovoniinent service or other literate pursuits and do 
r cnlm'Bic. Navdiyata aro large cloth and timber merchanW who 
. good doal and make mach money. As on religious gronndfl 
ipio to lund money thuy invest their savinpfs in land which 
lit to tenants and sp<*ud much capital in improving their estate^. 
lirei Sidddpnr and YulLdpar the land i^ almost entirely in the 
U of HamgB, with a (uw Koakanis, Sbenvis, and Ling&yats. 
h tbcy realise largo incuinos from thnir properties tbe 
wnors of Strsij especiaUy in Yelldpnr, labour under many 

_■ Wmb aatnteU .soppltoil W MfSBra. A. R. UudoiuU, C8^ lad B. E. Ctady, C.S. 
^S«r. Bar. B*p. 1 W^ 2Ut Fcbniary 1871 . 


Chapter IV. 

I Agrienlnr*. 
I HtuboailBMii, 


disadTantBgee. They live in most feverish places, labonr ia ee 
anA bii8 tol>e hiffhly paid, aud thu outlay of capital is conaiderali 
Their gardeos yield largo profits bub uol out of proportion to the gi 
laboDr wliich i» bestowed on tlioin. Th« owneni of garduns 
gonerully Havigor Haig Brilhmaua who brinff labour from tbt* 
and live in their gardena bU the year. Thoy are the beat culiivutoi 
in Kfinaraaod give tho coontry its fTJOcial character. Xiiey bi 
change, and arw frnffa), S(iWr, and hardworking. Their «tront 
built hoQsea ^ocraUy Btii.D(l in a spioo garden surrouuded bjrj 
thicket of bnuhwood whose leaves supply exoellent manare." 
Mundgod and Supa, which border on Dluirwfir and Belgaum i 
hare few of the features of KAnam proper, much of tho land is 
tho handii of Liiigfiyitta, Masilmling, Dc^bai^th aiid She 
Brttmans, Manttha Kuubia or Arcra among whom are boi 
families ol De«iui. Withio the la^t ten years much of K&nani 
beoD dorroyod and settled on tho Bombay rovenoe aurrey sj 
All the BurvoTod btads hare been divided into fielda or anrv^ 
numbers which are grouped into Iioldings or khiitng. As the rei 
of thc«o KniuU plotd ot land are now fixed they can be 
traiisfierred> and already many of tho larger estates have be 
broken into a numbur of muderuto holdings. 

Of landholders who tilt with their own hands tho chief chusesi 
Habbu BriihmnnR, HaleplikR, Kom&rpiiiks, Blmnd^ris, ranc-haii 
Konkau KanhiSj Xadors, Konkau Mar^th^, Arers, Mncntm^ns, 
Christians. Of these, Habbao, numbering about 250 and cla^socl i 
Briibniana, are found chiefly in Kfirwftr. Halepiiks, numbering al 
43,000, are found in llondvarand Hhatkal and in thonplands. 
are an important class of proprietors, permanent tenants, and ye 
tenants or !i fid- workers. Their chief employment ia growing ni 
tbuugh feuuio of tbe poor are palm-tappern. They are a well-i 
good-looking pooplf, fond of drink and pleasure, their favour 
amuHement being attendiny fairs and cock-fight-t. They reap toi 
and take thom for ealo to the market towoa. Their houses are strong 
built with roofs of thatch, and in fmut of all of them 13 an open 
ewcpt court with a basil altar. The Komdrpaiks, who namberal; 
8700, are a Htroug well-miwle race, fonml in Kiirwilr, Ankola, 
Kuinia, Bofwi-o th(> Englieh ootupiiTod Kdiinrathe KomiSrpAibswe 
employed by tlio ehitifs and largy landlords at fighting men, swoi 
bearers, and retainera. ThoBO who distingnishod themselves 
ewordsmcu gained tho titlu of mcA^mnr masters which some fansil 
still keep as a snrname. In tho decline of tho chiefs' power 
Komiirp&iks formed themsc-trcs into bandH and lived by pluuduri 
highway robliery. The ustflhlisbment of ordnr under the P^ugll 
forced them to take to tillage, but some of the old lovo of \>\nni 
still lingers among them. Most of them are tenants! or fi( 
workers, and in Kumta many are cotton carriera. Their favoi 
employments are drinking, cock-fighting, and attending ft, 
BhanudriH, who number about D800 and are found almost entil 
on the const, are bad hiisbandmeiij preferring to ettm their Ih 

I RcT. Con. S. D.'s letter Ko. 0-9of Slit Atinl ISM. 


contntctore' soirantB, 

is midiilinE : us a riilo they uro froo from Jobt, 

tit 2000, aro foaiid ouly in Iba oplnnds 

..ipur. Somo of them aro Iflrgo land- 

' tiuie when Bilgi was rulwl by a Liug&yat cliii^. 

L -LJiyaltticrc are many LiDj^iynt hosbaiiclmeu, wJio 

a diL'^^t are lianlwurlciug, frugal, »d<I eober. Thty dn nob 
'cQtinl pcinU from tbo Liuglijata of the noiglibuoriii^' parts 
Koukiiu Kiiubia {l+,8l>0), NAdors (OOOl.anJ Konkan 
-« l^JOO"), mniiy of ' ■ varijtldn orp- f-niml 

; nplnri'lnnd in lov nara. Above ■ ; - thpy 

.■jiHc, iind nij/i'. Thff N(liIoi"8 ore miicb iiko Decciui 
_; vygvinblos nnd soiling them in tho larg-u tuwiid. 
.'U rionrisbodtuid fnir, aod liro iu wplUboilt lioiiuos, which 
.x.f.i .H< <Saliyddrlt are tliut-chud, but In the KfLtiiiiidi ralloy nnd 
other Iu«!aii']s!ireoft4»n tiled. Their women are ranch like Urithiiuin 
trutDfU ill tljcir stytu of dre&a aud oruaincrit. Thoy too bard- 
workin;;:, onkuly, «nd thrifty. In some plares they are lAadowner.4, 
bal the balk of them ai'O pertaanent tenants. Of Ajx-ra tliere 
•re abiiiit ir,0<Kl. They are fonnd mostly among the Sahyiidris and 
wcro formerly mach gireo to kumri or hill tillage ; most of thorn wo 
ooir yearly teuants. Thoy upe poor biit genemlly free from debt. 
They »ru n simple frugal jwople, very ignorant except in matters 
cwmerted with woodcraft ana sport. They are fearless in Iweting 
Ibc forcslifor big game, and are adopts at tmekingand hunting tho 
liL^cn. They are also much used as carriers and road-workers. Their 
hoii'V^ art> tcioll nml simple and their worldly goods aro few. 
1i -e Hindu husbandmen,thoreareabout 5000 Alusalmiinund 

ttb'-'> -> ' 1 Christian kudlordit. In lowland Kdnora the Mosalmdus 
an gDopntlly liuty and often in debt and their lands mortgaged. 
Tfaoy think it beneath them to hold the plough and know nothing 
of hnsbandry. In u{j1aud Kanara, in Munugod and Supa, somo 
HnsilmiLnH till titoir nnu firhls, but not »o saccussfully as Hindoa. 
Tbcy aru uoithcr hardworking nor thrifty, and spend much on 
marrtages and other cnremonioa. Tho Christiune, with few 
cxc«ptioui.are found oluog ih^ ooaJit. Thuy are skilful huabundmonj 
bat A4 a rule aro toaant« and Guld-workurs, roaring pigy uod fowls 
ami kuoping iiiilcti «itlle. Tho men are much given to drink and 
arc lA7.yft(id tbrifilcsB. The women help in tho field and work ui^ 
laboon-n*. AtxiTti the Sabyidria are a fow Goaneao labonrerii and a 
ctadg of Christian Sidis who aro husbandmen and work in tbu 
Tellilpur sftw-milhi and as foresters. 

Of Iiii<bftiulni«n who were formerly serfs or rural bondsmen, 
I>eTli:i ab<Mit i'ZW found in E&rw&r, Ankola, Kumta, Honivar 
wid Hbalkal, till lands attached to tomplen and are employed as 
tmnpIe-Memmt'S. Their women work in the fields, perform meojal 
teniDlu nervices, and act as pn>.<ititutc!i. Above the BaliyfLdritt a 
similar caHte called KabberH are found at Baoavitai, Mnlgo, and 
IVIa. Padii.i abont 3900, and Derdigs about 3(K)0, are tenaut^-at. 
'1 labourers who work in rice fields aod betel gardens. 
. ?o ihern are two early and nlosoly similar tribes, Karo 
VitkiuU ttbout 10,000 and Kob Vakkals numbering about 2000. 

— -"^^ - — "' 




I Charter IV. Tbcy arc known by the generic ttamo of Oaadgalns anil (t«»i*lf 
' Ag^'JjjJtora. the two maia diviBions include Uim VakkaJa nad Uiilvnkl 
^^^^^ Vnkkals. They are found iu the lowlands Ijetween Ankola 
Bhatkal.aadalaoabovethoyahyidriH. Tho men art; atroug, thhf 
eober, and hardworking. Most o( tkcui are daj-laboiirers, bo 
many work aa yeurly tvnnntH^ (he landlorde being careful 
allow thorn to remain mom thim iivo years on one plot of 
lust they should claim n tenant's right. Tb© womon work 
Gelds and are largely employed in bria^ug kead-IoatJH of „ 
firewood from the forests into towns oud rillngos. They aro darl 
and ilUfeatured, WBaring no boditxtj and with many cliainfl uf 
hanging from the Deck over the brtatst*. From an ornament Tft 
under the chin the robe fails between tho breusta half hiding tl 
and is fixed nmnU llie wjuhI lisnf^iug in folds over the leg". 
hair is twisted into a coil which ia worn on tho k'ft ^idc of the h 
of the head, and above the coil a flower of the lijailvti Aitri 
Pandanna odoratiAHimua, is stock liko a pin. in the hit) vit] 
above the Sahyfidris Kare ViikkaU are found B8 landowners. 
Vakkala are labourora in »pico gardens. Ilolayorsi or lilhiira 
few and ilegradL-d. They are much given to drink and show 
eigns of improving. They are labourers or tonants-at-will. 

(9U>ck. All large landholders own bullocks and if neceesary lend tlieta 

their tcnanta. Cows of a rery small breed are nnmeron^, and buITaltii 
aro Bometimes kept. Little or no care is given to cattle-breedinj; 
In lowland KiUiara cartn are few and the cattle are small and weftH 
The ploughs an* umull and the muuure is moutly dead leaves wjthj 
little straw and cowdung. With rich soil, nbnmlant rainfall,^ 
hardworking hiisbanduou the outturn wonld bs greater we 
ttllagu loss roagh, tho ploughing less shallow, and the manare 
scanty. Above tlie Sahyjtdris theru are more and liottop cattle, 
owing to tho feverish climate tko people are sluggish and weaklj 
The husbandineu do not export the produrn of their lield^ 
come to their farms with pack- bullocks and buy the produce. Sir 
ia tlie centre of the ciirdainom and betelnut tradn, and fuAd aui 
gnrdon prodnco and spices are exported from Uouavar and I:k!aiot 
The cultivating clauses are well-to-do.' The produce commai 
a foir price and the Government asitesament la moderate, 
relations between tho landlords luuant:i and labourers are friendlyj 

Below the Sahy&dris tho urablu land constats partly of san^ 
plains ntfiiig the Rea-shore and the banks of riTcra, and partly 
narrow vaJleys among tho hills, most of thcra watered by oufailini 
Bbreams. The saady soil called niu/a/u or Kjriitn is generally i 
and much broken b^ salt-water creeks. The soil in the ^ 
slopes of the valleys is called lelbi, a hard enrtli made of crni 
iron (^ay or laterite, which if not constantly worked stiffens' 
clods and stiftee growth. At the upper ends of the valleys ft__. 
alluWaJ soil called ItagdaU with shining particle* of mica ia oftaj 
fonnd. Farther down the Taller, as the hills begin to draw ba 
a black looM salt marshy earth called gnjini oocure, apparenttv'ol 
TCgctabic origin, and near the mouth of the valleys is a still richol 
•ou called haiUt. The chief products of the sandy pluuia are ric 


-palms, and betcKpalms. Along tho coast and on some of the 

is tk vulunUto luiQdy or alluvin] soil known oe jiulan or tkitla. 
often cuforcd wtlii drift siuid, but wbun tbo sand it) cimred 
iiMun yields excellent rice, tlia richest cocua-palmsf aud Hdu 
■ImwouL, and i4?iJ( trees Calopb_vl]uia iiio))bjUiua. 

Jtire the SabjiUlris, ex«cpt wboro tbo underlying iron clay rises 
~ mirfaop, the Kuil is good. The bent called kngiali is a rod 
coutniDin? Tory aoukil stoncw. In (tome places the eoil is a 
sifitutv-h'jldiDK clay. Beititles garden land, rice land or tori 
p laud or ku/hki ore found, Kicc land, as a ru!o, yields 
. p which IS i^'rowu cither with or without watfring. In 
10 porta much of the rice land yields two rice crops or a crop of 
and an aftor-gruwtb of pnlse. Sugarcane is grown once in 
' jrefcTs, fine fields being often seou up the GangAvali ^ley. 
Kappty of water is the tnniu difference Iwtween good and had 
land. Above the SabysJrLs Tpry little water is stored. The 
" -/r and small, and the rice depends on the rainfall rithur 
i] it-^elf or ou roiu water bronpht fmni the nplaiidH 
Bioall ditchea Most of tho well-watered valleys thab crma 
forests and many level plots of excellent ooit Ue waate and 
tJii;il>er-coTered from want of buabaadmcu aod from tbo skkliness 
-■■ ■• air. 

■:*• the Safayidria garden crops are the staple produce of the 
Wfwt and rlco of tho east. The cuast gnrdcus are very nnlike 
iliK I'iiml gardoQ tillage in Dhirwar or in the Kannm villages that 
on DhAr^ar. In tho inland carta, as a lulo, garden crops 
urx jjfmwd only round wells and ponus. But along the coast, if 
only care and skill are giroD to it, almost all of the rice land will 
g&rdencrupN. Much of tbo coaM hind irhicli is osticsoed as 
len land had originally nothing either in soil or in position 
lly soiled fur the f^rowtb of ^rdun crups. On the const mont 
ibe garden land is given to cocoa-palms, whoso proper eultnre 
ivqDtrca lauch oaro and skill. A little inhirnd the cocou-pAlm is 
u niiiud with the jujmrt or beteUpalm. Further inland in the 
ays at the foot of the Sahy^n<i and on their lower slopes are 
rich palm and spire gardens, which are the special glory of 
Kxccpt in Sapa in tho north, where tho gBiden-i are poor, 
hout cardatnoiDS or l>etel vines, with few cocoa or betel palms, 
with plantains il-s thw iitaplu produce, tlieHO apicc gardens are 
lerfnlly rich and are managed with great skill.^ They vary in 
from a fifth of an acre to ten acres, and may be roughly 
ttod to average about one acre. Their shape depends on tho 
' ' valley. As a rule they are long and narrow, hid among 
iiith evergreen forests, in deep sbady delU watered by 
jtwvrk of runiinLs, They an; gunrch-d by high Ittmks or by a 
jlt bolt of forest timber and bruKhwood. Within tho belt ia a 
fence and within the fonco a second ring ofmangoea^ jacks, 
plniitaiiu, eocoa<palmH, oranges, cilroos, pomoloes, apples, 
trull Gurcinia parpnrca, otambs Artocarpas lukoocha, and other 

Chapter IV. 


S|>ice Quda 

1 Smr. fSvrrty 491, Stb Umy 1880. Bom. Gov, B«v, Kee.979 ot 1880. 


dupter XT. 

fniit trees. Dosioles Uio frnit trcoB arc roso and jees&miue buabfl 
and of vogetAlileRCucambers anil cornereil caciimbera, guanla a^ 
Buakv-gounl?, radishes, y&n>8, chilljen, nnd brinjals.^ In the cent 
of tho gardens are rows of iK-tcl-palioa vr ith Muck pepppr and " 
TiQCS trained up tbetr stems, and curdamom bllt^llC3 in cliad;^ at 
licLwefD tbe rows oF pnlms and plantains. Moat uf the owut 
UaWj; Jlrahmans HomQ with divided aud »vme with one 
families. Their hoiiHen arc on raiard Kites outside of the guc 
Tbe garden work ia partly done hy dubtorg who have pledf^d tl 
labour, but chie% by gangs of labunrors from the Goa, Uon&i 
and South KAnara ooants who come in Noromber and go home ' 
June. The Uavig's family do tho house work, look after iJib L-att 
gatbor cowdang for mnnure, pick aud «eparat« the biHelnuis fr 
tho bask, clean boil and cat thtjm in half, clean and dry carduuot 
make bundles of newly plucked butol luavca, and prepare nud 
pepper. The hired aud tho pledged labourers aro oinployod 
digiraig and carrying earth to tho roots of plajits and trees, 
fotching ««^/)(i or green leaves for uiaonre, aod in climbing * " 
palius tu gather bot>€lnub9 and hotel loaves. 

In chcoaiiig a siw for a hotel garden tho chief points are __ 
position, water, and mannro. The best suil is a red soapy clay, dan 
and easily worked. Tho garden should if possible face eaal, as ■ 
evening enn often does harm. As the garden must have ahplter 
loitf-mautire, it in important 1o secnre an outer belt of forc-st ni 
brushwood. Tho fence, which is five or six feet high, is made of li^ 
ihoru busboflj the bmnc-hea being held together by split bumbc 
&etened to wooden or bamboo poiit» about six feet high and six 
eight Euot apai-t. In some cases the fence ia entirely of haml 
posts and is renewed onc« a year. The fence surrounds tho 
and has only one narrow gate. A ditch three or fonr foot doep i 
three foet bn>ad surrounds the fence and serves the double 
of strengthening the fence against the attacks of animnls and ' 
draining the garden dnring the wet months, Inside of the gardl 
the ground is dug into a lino of beds about, twenty feet wide aa 
aurroandcd by trenches which ma parallel to each other in 
direction of tho length of the valley, generatly nearly east aud 
These trenches act as drains and in some gardens drainage is want 
all the year ronnd to give an outlet to uudergctmnd springe. Sc 
which is full of nndcrgronnd springs is t-pocially Falunblc. 
gpring water if left stagnant docs hartn, and nothing grol 
unices tho soil is cnrchilty drained. Tho trcnchos aro about a fd 
brxjud, aud, according to the moiature of tho soil, a foot to a foot and 
half deop. Tho gnrdon nutst couimand an unfailing supply of wi 
Tho water in commonly brought from springs which abound at 
head of every valley. It is gathcrod in a suiall pond or reserra 
Bud from the reservoir is brought by a chuunul which passes a]< 
the upper side of the garden. Water is also brought in chaai 
from tko email livulota of which the conniry is full. Rich 

' Tbc Knako-KfniH Tridtooatitlis aiiga!i» tn Ktaante li padraki bti, Bod 
concrcd cscambor Cacuuu wutwcnlw in Jbtrt tdl. 


rionally fill the bed nf oue of tliMO rivniota nnd tarn it into a 

dill 'fbe LtiUywoEtho etrcoin-bcd abovo tlio gnrdpn tocomea 

jir^ and a caaol is cat outsiilc of tba ganlL'u to carry off Llio 

waters. A rircr-l>o<J giirdco is costly to mnko m Iho filling of 

cbiuinul IB cxpunHiTe, aoil as the rcaorvuir «di1 tbo caoiU lonst bo 

::h lo elatid tho torrents ot the raioy Kcuson. 

I - < r yoan)( plimtain trees aro set in rows vritkin two feet 

tof varh side of the ilroius and twrUu foot from uuch <itlicr. The 

wh.i!i L'ardon sihould tlitm if posnHilu Imj covered with tirancliBs of 

'•' ur Phyllantbaa etnblica; in any case, somo broncbea must 

.t-i) m-M i!tu:h juiiug pUataio tree, and at the same time the 

II;' • I lunel of each boa moBt bo luieod a foot and n bulE with 

''"Hiring' hills. ^NTiou iho rainy season in over 

.^pL-d in tho contro is spread over Iho bod, and 

iif a nmuiid .k cLunnel in dufr and wiOtr is yaaimd aloiiji- flio 

net once in tilte<>[L days. lu wiitoring the gnnicii tho cluiniiBl ia 

t and the water i^ &plu&ht>d or scooped from it oo tho roote of 

Itocs. At ihB closo of tho secoud miny seaBoo, between OTOty 

phuitoin trues a pit is dag a foot nod a half aquaro and a foot 

' " ' , anil, from the nursery where It ha« been raisied, a 

1 ie lifted with as much earth as possible and planted 

'ITiw pit is filloil with fresh earth, which is trampled in 

<t, and tho tjmcii tilleil with the loaves of tho Phyllanthus 

lea. In thia iray the unmber of Ijctol-palma is gi'Hdualty 

till tUognrden is fall. EiLch acre of well cttookcd garden 

hsa TiOO to 800 bek-l-paltna and about SOO cardamom bnahes. When 

lh« garden ia fall chto ia needed to have ourseries with a proper 

ppnpnrttuD of yoaog trees to take tho place of those which die or 

■vu down. 

Betel-]Milu], M. Bopnri K. Adifw, Areca catecha. The 
'.- from which tho young betel-palms ore broaght in managed 
fiiUnwing way. In February when the betolnnts are fnlly 
ny Ar<» cut and kept eight days in the houso. A bod is dug 
- I i) ■ ' in it the nuts are set nine inches apart, with 

■■■.-- ,4, covfrod with abont an inch ot earth. The 

w nimded vnth dry plimtnin leaves, and is spi-inklcd with water 
u day. About the cud of M»y, before the rains bugin. the 
iliiia IcnvDTi aro removed aud the young sprouta show above 
lo three raonihs more, or aft-er six months in all, tho 
ore half a foot high and are rcatily for planting. In 
^s about n year after the nuts were first planted, they 
li lure, and during the rest of the dry seaiiou th&y aro 

once in four to eight days according to the soil. About 
.n lator, that is when the [ilauts are about thre« years old and 
to Cour feet high, they are net in thuir 6nid places m Uaoa under 
shule of fall-grown plantain trees. Young botel-palnis are 
iroat«)d to be worth -1}'^ (3 a«.) tho bandred ; bat they arc soldom 
as 01' ■ i-owner genurally gets wliat ho wants from a 

<d or iJ The betel-palm begins to booLr fruit tbirteon 

,rs after its tirst or ten years after its Mtxxind plant-ioK*! lo five 
txKrn it reaches perfection nnd lives fifty to a hundred jean. 
a palm dies, another from the narscry is pnt in its place. 



iBombaj OanU 



KiAm Ukitlcti*. 
[The Akt Palm, 

To kc«p a gordon prMpcrooH, tlic eoit ought to bo niBiiarad 
in two years. Tbc practice among good fannore ta to iJivido 
garden in two, ooo-ltalf being nianarcd in dio first and thirH 
the other baU in tlio )«couil sod fourth years. Manuring oncej 
tliree yours is also common. Tn manuring a garden red clnj*^ • 
is dug from tlio side of the garden nnd thrown along the iniddlo 
the beds between the lines of lieteUpalms, to a height of eiglild 
tnohca to two foot. Bonnd the root of each palm n larf;^ bas| 
of niaoard la heaped and Hoiatl branches are laid over the mannre 
kCDp it cool. Cardnmoius and pepper arc always sopplicd with ' 
mould mized wiiJi red soil, and beiet-palms and plantains 
Mmctirnes mnnnred with oowdun^ mixed with leavOR. Tho ooab' 
these operations for each acre of garden id estimated at £1 
{TU. 14) for earthwork, £1 10.^. (Its. 15) for monorM, und £1 IS 
(Rs. 16) for broochea, or a total of £4 lOv. (Rs. 4b), that ie £3 " 
[Hs. 22^) a year if the garden is manured once in two years. 

Tho botol-polm giros little trouble except at two soasona, whon 
natsurc spi-outiug and when the nuta arc ripening. When tho Dt 
are sproutiug they are oflon attacked by a blight called ko{ earn 
by sudden changes of rain and auashinc. To prevent tho 
spreading, the broad librous sheath of a ripe betol-palm laaf l 
over each banch by a cloaa of men called Hossclras, who 
1«. (8 as.) for every fifty trees or IGs. (Ra. S) an acre, ^^^»en 
covering is neglected the blight frcqoontly rains tho whole 
Betel-palms which are too tall and filender to bear a man's waif 
have their bunchutt uf nuts luft uncovered. The buachoa of those ' 
yield &vo to ii hundred note, while two hundred nnts aro reckot 
the average produce uE a covered bnnch, aod in some coi 
banches five hundred nuts come to maturity. Bach tree 
yields two large or three smidl Imnchea. Tho betelnut h&rveetl 
dnriDg*NoTombor, December, and Janaary. 

In November when the nuts begin to ripon, much care is roqoit 
in watching and gathering thorn as tho nut loses greatly in valoo] 
it is cat at tho wrong time. Tho banchcs should bo cut before 
are ripe, for tho ripe nut is usod only for seed and by the loi 
classes. -The Hueatelrus who cover the bunchcn are also employ 
to cut tho note. Thoy aro vory clever at their work. In climbii 
abotel-palma HassoU-u fixes a rope uF plantain iibro round 
ankles and under tho soles of hm feet and sets hi» Feet firm 
either side of the st«m. He elimba hand over hand drawing up 
leet together with a jerk. When he reaches the top of the palm ' 
secures himself by taking a round turn with, a rope which he oairj 
in his hand. Ooe end of this rope is tied to the middle of a she 
board on which the man seats himself and niW off the nearly 
outs, drawing up whatever ho wants from an attendant below by*^ 
tine fixed to his girdle. When he has done, he unties his ^'" 
tastons it round his neck, and sways the tree backwards 
forwards till he swings it cloao enough to enable him to tl 
himself on another tree to which he again makes fast his i 
In this way he psesea over tho whole garden without comii 
to the ground. The fruit of trees that are too tall nud slender 



»ria man's weight is gatliered by liooking the head and drat^giog 
noighbouriug tree. T\w ^i^t clas^ nat is ca!lfrd ekthi! , that 
' » Uulu later Ls called bi-Uu , and tbo laet, which bos ouUrety 
iwl before it is gntliered and is n»ed only by the lowoat claasefl, 
.11...] .,^y^ 'pi,^ gathering of the uuta ooste S*. (Es. 4) an acre. 
■- days afti;r they liare been hnnrested, the kL-tmils are 
\:a huaks aad cut io half. The kerot<la are gt'oenlly 
.'<□ dE tbt: house aoJ sometimes Iiy the moii. If we 
no bj outside laliour it casta about 8n. [Us. 4) the ocre. 
iig tho koruc'ls are boiled for aboat na hour till tho 
at the out disapptiars. To give a coloor to tho first nuta they 
^ - 'i--< iu a mixture of ntrht Kagenia jambolana and laittl 
n raoemodA bark and matli Termiualia tomentusa leaves 
rtioQ of tno parts of the dye to ooo part of water. The 
lit; DUta of the first Uiiling is never rich and they never 
A iugh pnc«. for the second boiling two parts of tho water 
tbe Unt builiog ore added to one port of freah water. Aft«r 
boiled the niits are dried on screims aud are ready for the 
el. The ytsarly oattnm of prepared hctclnufn from a first 
cLiSa gftrdifu is estimated at sa much as 4) pounda a tree, and from 
■^rdcna at 2^ pounth^ a tree. The average is cstimati'd 
jjuunds a tree or abnut 10 cwL (2 khandu) au aon*. 
[iUrce-i]aarterH of this quantity is of seCtind class nuts. 
*^*^ crup 19 ready agents fomu round to the gurdena aud boy 
ue not^ They are paid at the rate of 2*. (He. 1) ou erory kh^ttdi 
•old. Tho jiriw of butolnuis is very variable. At present (1832) 
JJ i* £21 ">* ton (Its, 00 tho i/iati4i of twenty mnn*).' lietclnntd 
•anfi inland in Large qnunlitios. From hetolnata and idiio 
tbo SEBms of old botoUpnlma a catocha or Tenra iaponica is 
;tod which ia largely nsod ia dyeing as it yields a fast brown 

loina, Ytlohhi, Alpina cardamomnro, *ro common in tho 
__iatiFtil bill gardens thai occi)i>y the we8t<.Tn valleys uf North 
KAcara immpdiateljr abovp tho Sohyi&dris. Kxm^pt that thoy must 
pioutr of water, the growing of cai'damom.s give^ Httlo trouble, 
. new garden eardooionu are grown from Keod and in an old 
from cattinga. The aeed is sown in October after the outer 
bai been removed, ft raaiit bo cnrefnlly sheltered from the 
and takes throo months to sprout. Wbca the seedlings are a 
rh they nri> traD)t|iIanted, aod a year and a half later they are 
. ly places anx^n^ the hetc-l palms and begin to bear when 
^throe years (tld. The seed pods are gathered as they ripen 
Bber and October and are dried four days on a mat which 
ig the day is hnng in tbo sua on four Ktioks and at nigbt is 
la into Uto house. The pods ara then lit for sale, ^^'hon the 
la crop ban hcnm picked the plant ie taken out of tho ground, 
wood aad routs are cleared away, and it is again planted 
. frosh bole. The year after it has hooo moved the plant yiolda 
fnit, but iu the following year it agaiu beara. After the plant 

Cauptn IT. 

Spfoo GanlOBk 

. ■ - Ulclnnt iBcMam an 24 M(U= I Wkr, -IS aAfn^l moM, SO M-*«a 1 IHtaMli. 

iBomba; Ouett 



Chapter IV. 


Spioc Oudeni. 



W»d Pepptr. 

lias been mored the old Btem dies and a new atem. spriugs from 
root. The acre yield of cardninom podniH cnititnated at tv 
pounds (1 nuiii) in firnt claH-t gardens, at twcuty-oue poai" 
b man) in second rlasH gnrdeiis, and at neyen pomida (Jtli nl u 
ill lliird clasH gardens. The selling price is abgut 7it. the poB 
(Bs, 100 a man). 

Illack Pepper. Kare m^namf, Piper niKTam. When tliel)et''l-pai 
arc thirtnen yoara old, tbo garden is plfinted either with thii bl 
pepper viue or the bctoMeaf vine which climha the stem of 
ootel-palm. The pepper is of three varieties, hui mah'saru, got 
and arsina imirligu, which do not differ in quality hut in yield, 
the three, the kari t/indV/int is the best bearer, each vine yielding 
tanch as three poaods (5 ehcrg) a year, bnt it is not easy t-o gwm 
it thrives only in ka/jdali or xtony red mould. Samhar ana art 
mttriititi prow well in the light -coloured soil known as anina mtn 
bat aamlar ^-iehls only abont l^ths of a pound (1 a/itf) and ars 
murtigd. 1 ^ poanda (2 xh^m). In August four cutlinjrs of the pef 
vine, each about two feet three inches long, are mado for every 
palm. One end of caeh cutting is set fire or six iache^i deep 
the other end is tied to the stem of the palm. Tho ^'inc waatB ' 
farther care except tying its branchns once a year in May. It 
in six or seven years and lives about Iwenty-Bvo, so that one 
palm oullasts three or four sets of vines. The pepper ifti 
with the help of Indders in March and April. One man eannet^ 
and cure more than thn>e pound;; (b sAcry) a day. It is picked wl 
the borrioa are full-grown bnt not ripe. UTie pods «po pitod iot 
heap in tbc bouse and kopt (or three dayn. Tnoy are then ml 
with the foot, and when the berry ih sBpamted from all other 
it is fit for Jittle, Tbc average yt^arly >ield of each pepper nn^ 
nbotit 1]^ pounds, and lb9 acre outlum is about 280 lbs. (lOtfunwf 
a Sriit clftii:! gutdCD, 14-0 lbs. {b mane) in u soeond class garden, 
56 lbs. (2 mofu) in a third class garden. The selling price u 
Z\d. a poand (Rs. 4 tho man). 

A little white popper is made by allowing the pods to npen. 
five or six days tno pods are spread in the stm to dr^'. 
dry thOT are steeped in cold water and when thoroughly soaked tl 
are rubbed between the pulinsof the hands till the husk or skin 
off. They are agnin washed in fresh water and laid in the open 
night and day for three or four days till tho sun and the dew blei 
them white. They are thou ready tor use and are stored in 
earthen vessels whose mouLhs are stopped with plautsin or b 
palm IfcMves. White popper in twice as dear as bluck pepper, bul 
is ia little dcutaud, as it ia used only us a medicine. 

Besides in gardeua the popper vino grows wild in popper foi 
or menasu kilns. To keep a puppor forest in order the branches^ 
tho vines must once a year be tied to tho trees, and tho trcos ml 
be stripped of all climbing plants especially tho Polhos scbqc" 
and tho Acrosticbura Bcandens. Every third year all the ba 
in the forest should bo cut down ; and every fifth year the 
branches of the trees should be lopped m the vino clings 
roaod straight alendor stems. Where the trees are too far at: 



ab ora outtlug' shOBltl be planted; uid if no.peppor vine is 

t, a alioot or two eboald bo ftoi in tbo oarlii noar tuo ;nuDg trou, 

Uttu cared for tlie pepper vine lives aboat ten jeara. >VheD 

Id rine diss b young Bbooi laust be tr&iuod to take its place. 

tlireii kiodH uf p(<pi*Hr grow wild iu the forest, care must be 

to fixftouao tlic Ityaf of tbft fllioot to make eare that it is of the 

^kiiuL All kindii of troM are reckoned cqaaUr fit for supjiortiag 

DT vino ; bnt whore the wooda aro too tain the boruluhakt 

looly plaobi-d becausu it ca^Uy takes root. Fruit trepa aro 

ptanteil in case they sboold attract mcmkoyti. Vinos thrive best 

'fa-cm of middle siati and about four aud a half futtt apart. The 

of largo trees is useful, but tlio stems are not suited for Cbu 

, To proront the haroc Trhicb its fall mig'lit cautjo. when » 

tree is seen to Tritlior, its branches are cut, and a circlo ruuud 

.bolloin of the isteui is Rtripped of bark. Uadt-r tbiti trcntmcot 

alowl/ decaVB, and, as it is relieved of tbo wwiffbt of it« 

it rot-s tntbout falling; in a masa. Gicopt tuis rotton 

DO manure ia used. Probably from tbo -n-aut of tillugo and 

poppor raised in forests is inferior to pcppar groTni in 

iot, A wild popper vino, thongh much lorgor, seldom yields 

tban half what a garden riuo yioldeu A man in one day 

?ra ibe produce of twuntj- trees or rather more than twelve 

id^ : !iT)d ai th(? same time tics the brsaches which is oil tbo 

-'.'d. He climba tbc trees witli the help of a bamboo 

lu . , . ...L? of which arc sixty feet long. 

Tbo Uolel-leaf Vine, M. Pan, K. VilyadeU, Rper betel, is widely 

ia pUutiitions in Talluye clo«o to the main range both below 

|ft>7<'ro tliL- Sahyddria. When grown in gardens the bet«l-rine 

a maogoe trcci!. Tho shoots ax thoy grow an) fasteucd 

:^ .11 of fhe trees with oonI<i made from the spathes or leaf* 

of tbo betel-palm. Whon the plant is two years old sboota 

'- ' 1i far from their props arv pruned. After the third year 

i^'ht leaves can bo picked for salo or for use. Shoots 

auQiJer fur from their props arc planted and trained on uevr 

To airoid injuring tbo vines the men who pick the leaves 

ah thu trots with tbo help o£ ladders. A full-grown botol-vino 

U 100 lo 200 Icavofl every forlnit^ht. An aero of spice garden 

ing 500 beli:l-[>alm8 ia roaglily estimated to yield yearly 

•40,000 betel leavos worth abnut £2 (Rh. 20) and costing 

(Ra. 8) to grow. The leaves are generally eaten with beteluut 

arc largely exported. 

Though a fully stocked spice garden yields a bandsome proGt, t-o 

[itart it requires a largo outlay of capital and labour. The first 

ia from the plautaiua which Login to yield after the third 

CardftTnoms and bcttl-vinea begin to yield after three 

; •viues oftor eix years, but abont thirteen years pass 

[•ulioB aro in full bearing. Aftf>r this au acre of 

L'l and spice garden land is eHtimate<l to yield £)io to £36 

-E9.360) a year, and tbiti roturii will go on so long as euro is 

to plant new trees as thoold trees become worn ont. Estimatoa 

ie cnfit and profits of a botol-palm and of a belel-palm and spies 

show that iu u butol-palm garden the yearly ocro ooft is 

Spioe Ouileni. 


[Bombay G«ut 



Chapter IV. 


yield Tool*. 

tibout £8 Off. (Rs. 83) and tlie retnru £IS (Rs. 120), that is « 
[avfit of 43 14», (Rs. 37).' lo n betel and npire garden the JFI 
acre co»t is cbtimatod at £10 8f. (Re. 104) aud Uio jricid at £21 1) 
(Rs.21&), tliat tsaDet profitof £11 2j*. (Its.lU).' 

The chief field tools oi-c tho shovel or pdvda, the balf-pick 
huiar, the pickaxo or pihaa, ibe billhook Or Ai7a, tbo siL-klu btij 
or kudufjolu, the rakw barrow or fuiVsi, the doil crusSur or ai 
tbe plough nangar or ticgdlu, and the goving drill-Wx or 
Othor appliances are the water channel or Manhi, tba 
troogh-euapcii basket or *«/>, tho rice mortar or van, tbe 
or mura va wbicb rico is carried, and the wooden bludjfoon or 
The shovel or jxitY^a is cither ronndod or Konare-noeod. It is 
in turning Iooko soil in rice fields and garupnu, is of local 
and cotsU about In. 6d. (12 a«.]. Tbo balf-piok or httur, wfa 
is cither edgtnl or pointed, ia used in opt^omg bard imiU; it 
geueralty »f local inikko and costs about I». (8 aa.). The picl 
or luht", with an cdgo at one end and a point at tho other, is 
in opening hard atony gronnd ; it is generally of Bombay 
and costs about 2a. (Ko.I). The billhook or hila ia of two kii 
lighter more ciu-red aud pointed hook used in cutting graw, anj 
heavier leos carved and more ronndod hook o&ed in splittiug 
cutting wood and breaking coci:>auut8 aud costing aboat 1<. (8 
Tbe eickto or hrtdnijotu hns a thin much oiirvod blade, the h. 
edge being famished with a row of Bbnrp teeth like tho teetbi 
saw; it isof local make and costs (irf.todil. (4. 6(u.). The 
harrow, halki, is of wood, with a six-fcot long handle and a fo^ 
feet broad head with a row of about twelve wooden teeth j i| 
drawn eithvr by oxen or by n man and is osod in raking toget 
aiirface liller before the fleld is ploughed ; it is of local luako and. c 
'it. to 4*. (He. I-R8.2}. Tho clod crusher or alay is a plank 
feet long and n foot and a qnarter broad, witb a pole and buUo 
yoke drawn by a pair of hiillockti driven hy a man who Btandfl 
the middle of tho board. The ornsher is passed over aproutin^^ : 
to brcnk tho clods and qtiieken the growth of the young pinnta ; i^ 
of local make and costs about -kr. (Its. S). The plough called nAn^ 
or netjalu has a pole of porcupine that is cocoo-palni wood aboat eij 

' Tbe <i«faula M« : Tbo y««rl7 sore return is £12 (Ra. 120) tbarmlM «f tiro 
or 1920 A«r» of mpari tx <»« anna tii6 iher. The yeftrlj- a«ra coat it £4 10*. (B< 
M interut on a (wpit4Ll cf ilAO (Ra.GOO) ■pent in making tlia g^McA, £4 I0«, <r 
in tliree j'rara or £t lOt. (Ka. 13) yituty for m&niiiinj; ad acm of gud«ti one* in 
yMis, I6i). (Rk.S) fur cov«rint( tho ItonohM of nut* to prorent Uiclil dtiriag 
monaooa. 6a. (Bh. 4) fur K4tlietiiig tbe oron, 8«, t1U.4) for scp«nitnig uio haslu f\ 
tb* luinii^ BUil cuttiuu t]i« iMrnela in btlf, 4«. (R*. 2) tot boilinc ud ooloniiui 
onta, 4«. ( to broken at 3.. |Rc. I) thoMundJ, M»d 6«. (Ea.3r[or coniia 
Bwking A toUl of £S b. (Ra. S3) and iMving & pmHt nf £S 14*. fKa. 37). 

'The ileiAilnaro ; "Die yearU- acre return U £lSiR*.lSO)far IdSOatm oFj^.,..^ 
one anna the *A<r ; £7 10*. (Ra. 70} tor tlinm-fmirtlu nf n man of cardnnKiBU at j 
fBa. 100) a mnn ; anA A2 (R«. SO] fur WiJttrt of pepper U 2i^ (U nnnn) tt thfr, 
ft tot«l of £31 lOf. (Ra. 2l&t. Tba jvarijr acre imt ii, \miia £» ^. (Ra. 83|] 
dataikd m t)io fAf>lnot» for a b*t«l-palin garden, 8a. {Eta.4) Iot gathering and 
safdaaoBW, 1(V. (Rs. A) for trainine pqiper vinaa, &«. (Kii. 4) ((u- pruning and 
cardMnoma, 10*. (R«. S) for gatiiwfRf anil diyin; poppc*-, and &«. {Ra. 9)1 
conttnsetioiH, making a total of £10 fb. (Ra, lOt), and laaTing a profit of £11 
(, * ^ ^ 



loD^, nn iron ifaaro cightooo inches long, and a handle of obeap 

'ini? forM-unl fov ino nud a half feot and thuu buck for » 

■.«U. It is wopkfd b^' otio mnii ajid is drawn by a \irdv 

tballcifks ur buflaloea. Il is usod in rice Ci'lda to turn ttie Boil 

make it reetdy for tho seed. Hard aoil is opeuod with tho 

f-pick or ftuftif* bvforo tUv plougli is used, lu loose s&ndj soil 

: - -f>3 about a fout und iu bard soil about nix inrbes 

e. Tbf ploagb is of local make and cost* (is. to Itia. 

■uff drill-boi or Jcurige is iwed in »owiiig 

■ ft,, _ i. t3-4<7j».). 

•ppltaoces are tlie waler cbnunel or lola/nhi, made of k half 

palm stern hollowed fivo or six inches. It is usod t-0 lead 

to cane fields and gardena. For drawing water, the ishatlow 

liwanjr thmagh the wiUor by two men, the lever and bucket 

Or ffdin^ and the k-ather-bttg or kapali are n&ed.* Gmiu is 

iQiifTfd in shallow tr(mgh>«haped baskt'Iis calle<l xupjr, and rico is 

"cud iu a hollow piece of wuod or etoue called t?an aboot six 

aes adTOH and lux inches deep, and poandod hy two round pe«tte«i 

or six feet long whoeo ends are armed with iron rin^B. When 

. rice is buiikeil it is laid in gmsa and the grass 13 bound with 

'sto a ball or mvra of ahuut nioety-aix pounds (16 kudara), 

' is sliaped by beating it with a wooden bludgeon called 

•boat two feet three inches long. Gmin is gronnd into t1r<iir 

romi two flat circular millstotiei^, aod cnrry powder is pounded 

apcstJoaad tnortar. Cocoanut huski) arc removed by knocking 

sgaiost a pointed poat called tkula about three feet high aad 

hichps broad, Brmly fixed in the ground. 

<^ hole of the di.strict has not been surveyed details of the 
-.■1 different cisaaes of &«il are not available. The area 
?r tillnge is estimated at about ^30,000 acres or 12*0 per cent 
Ttbi* whole acrMge. Most of the unarablo Traste is forest clad. hUl 

' 1 garden crops are watered by mnnels brought from 

rivers. On tho west coast in the dry season, dauis of 
stoDcA, and tree branches ar« thrown across streams aod the 
near are watered, the dam being remored at tbe close of the 
«ea9on or left to be swept away by the floods. Some places are 
Dred by canals from large ponds or kifria and small poods or kattea. 
iro (he liTel of the wntrr is bulnw the fleld, if not very deep, it 
ratvioped up by a l>aHki;t hung on ropos and swung through the 
ter by two wen. If water has to bo raised from a greater depth 
the lcTt»r and bucket lift or yaia is worked t^iiher by one or two 
aud, if the depth is still greater, it is drawn by the leather-bag 
iajxilt worked by a pair of bullocks. When brought to the 
fncu the water is geDOrally carried to tho crop along the hollowed 
troulc of a palm-tree. The 1881 returns showed 7t>-t7 puuds and 
2-l,0*iO welts, &t>3 with and 24,087 without steps. In Houavar 
Eamla and Bbatkal the wells arc fifty to sixty foot and in other 
fiais of the ooast Bftecn to thirty feet deep. Above the tSahyidris 



AnbU ArM, 







the depth variea from tLirty to sixty, feet. In eatidy aoU a m\ 
well ten to twenty feet deep with steps coats about £30 [Ka. 
and without steps about £20 (Rs. 200); in iron-cloy or cni 
trap a w«U tliiriy to sixty foot deep costs about £G5 (Rs. 650) 
gbeps aad ubout £50 {Rs, 500} without stepft ; mid in tho Icatojr 
ftloQg the Sftliyiidrin a well costs about £70 (Bs. 700) with steps 
about £50 (Ha. 500} without steps. 

In the uplands uniil lately one of the most marked forms 
tttliif^ was th© growing of crop« on bnmt nnploughed hill cleari" 
manured with wood ashes. This hill tillage, which wasloi 
known as tntmri, was chiefly carried on by Konkan Ate and 
or Are Konbis luid forest and hill tribes. Up to 1848 then 
little restriction and tho people cleared any portion of the foi 
they chose. In IStS ordera were issued forbidding hill ole 
within nine miles of the sea nnd three miles of large rivrrs, res 
certain trees, and reducing tlie area under hnmri, Tfaeso f< 
clearings were of two kinds var^di'iy And liarhlr kumrL Varcfddr itv. 
Was whoQ tbc holder of the land had it worked by his tunantfi i 
paid a cash assessment of about 2«. {Ke. 1) an acre. Sarkdr kuMri. 
w&a when tho actual hosbandtoan paid for the land be cleared. 
Prom 1848 the Madras Govemroent oontinaed their efforts to rcduoe 
the amount of olenring tillage and in 1800 clearings of all kinds 
were forbidden. After tho transfer of the district to Bombay (1862) 
this rule was relaxed and clearing wsh allowed to a limited extonb 
8inoo 18G2 continaoua efforts have boon made to put a atop to this 
form of tillage, and the area has futlen From 7765 acres in 1B03-&1 
to 84-1 acres in 3378-70.» 

During^ NoTember December and January the ]?atch of hill-side 
to ho nsed for tillage ia cleared of brushwood and the branches of 
tho loi^o trcvs nr« lopped and pollarded. Tlie lopping^ are left till 
March or April, when the Hun and the easterly winds have made 
them as dry as tinder. When lighted the timber nnd brushwood 
bum ficroely. baking the soil three to six inches below the stirface. 
Tito crop sown is generally ragi, sometimes pnlae or goardn, and 
occasionally sesamum. In most places the soil is left untouched 
and the seed is sown in tho wood ashes after the first fall of rain. 
"When the plants begin to spi-oat, a fence of fallen trees or a wattled 
hedge is raised round the clearing. Little skill or capital in wanted, 
bat constant watching and coastant weeding are required. The 
crop is reaped in the south of the district in October and Novembm* 
and in tho north in November and December. The produce is said 
io b<) at least double what can bo raisnd under tho ordinary modes 
of tillage. In the eocond year the clearing y-ielda a small crop and 
in Hupa a still smaller crop ia sometimes reaped in the third year. 
After this tho clearing is deserted until the brushwood haa grown 
high enough to tempt the people again to bum it. 

Garden crops are always manured. Cowdung is nsed when it 
can be had, and leaf manure when cowdong faJla. In rice lands the 

* Miaot« l^Hk Sioliaid Temple, a.c.B.L A o.i.a., G«vcnior of BcMobMy, S&th 
Prom a n^'rt bjr Iilr. W. Fuher. Collortot of Ktaut, 91 of 90Ui Augual 18S8, 




ii bornt. In gar<ieas it ia bespod room] the ttvet, often 

witU earth or Hand, and left to decay. Siilt was formerly 

used for cocoa-palms ; ordinary salt is uovr loo dear, buL t)ic 

aa)t>i^arth aod tlie wild of tidal swninps are still a valaed 

IBro for palui gardens and rice land. 

orery part of Uutga tBo caltla oro kept io the hooee at night, 
hfcTL« a daily supiJy of fresh litter which varies at difforoDt 
iiu of the year. Tbo litlor and dang' are carefully kept, thu 
I and leaf litter bLniig stored in separate heapH. It is calcntatod 
.- . .1., ^. ^.j.^p gj, m,j^ ^f jj(^ J^^^J reqairfia twenty to forty 

of uiauuru ultogetbor wurtu 2«. to 4*. (Re. 1- 

,:, ; ti.r ilio cold wcAthor crc.p of rice or pulse the same Beld 

Id havt* tt.-u U} LwL'Uly bDodrudwt-i^hta coating In. SU. U> 2«. 

(12 iM. - K^. 1^), Id November, Decoinbor, January, and 

kruiirv I III) litter is dry grihss which furms a tnunuru known aa 

•bra. In March, April, and May dry leaves of erery kind, 

r|>b iiiii'idy Ii*avc« and the leaves of the Atucardiuiu occidcntalc, 

lasoaafl litter and ferm a manure called dreyhitui •yobra, Duria({ 

six rumainiog months (ilane to November) mostly of wet 

tfaiT. fre^h tree leaver are used as litter aud make a dung 

' :. This fre^li tr«e-lenf manure is the most ostoonaeaf. 

o__. 1 L stored in a separate pit, aud are used for special 

Ax wood is plentiful cowdnng is seldom used for fuel, and 

care is taken that none uf it is lost, woineaand boys following 

I cattle while at pasture aud picking the droppings, 

Ln averag'e pair of bullocks in soft soil yielding one crop can 
igb three &crcs; in eutt soil jieldiug two cropH two acres ; in 
Boil yielding one crop two and a half acres; and in hard soil 
Idint^ two crops, one and u half acroa. 

lie fore the introductioD of the stirvoy the greater part oE the land 
wan dhrided into estate^ varyiog from & fifth of au acre to 1600 acres 
ODd avenging about 500 acres. Uudor tbu surrey, rates bavu buco 
•0parar«ty lixud on email plots of lands and as iJiese can bo easily 
rred many chaogee nave tAkoo place. It seems that many 
hirgc estates have long been y;Tonps of moderote-suzed 

Llioat. bnU of the plongh cattle are buffaloes and half oxen. 
Tbongh they fatten on the green hill gnuiH daring the reins and bto 
fell with bay nod etraw in the dry season, cattle do not thrive lu 
Kfoara. Ma»y are brought from above the Sahyfidris, chiefly from 
K: r iu Dortn-west Maisnr. But these are small and 

pi' 1 ^tfKrk in Ooremment or llidi^ia villagea, according 

1^ t'^ rctorns, included 40,806 ploaglia, 427t carts, 109,034 

in::. . .., ill, 364 cows, 03,773 bnffalooft, 374 horses, G75l3 shcop 
00 d flvM, and 123 aase^. 

ho rcrenuc tmrvcy is not completed, no returns are available 
•«.■ the area occapiod by the different crops. Arranged in the 
ier of importanoe, the chief crops are rice, bhatta ur neliu, Oryaa 
r»; cocoanute, tenyu, Cocos nucifcra; betelnuts, (k£i&c, Areca 
cmtocha ; blAck peppor, kan menasii, Piper mgraia j cardatuoms. 

ChapW ly. 



F^vld stock. 


tBoabfty Go 


Clupter IV. 



yellaJcki, Alpina cardamomaio ; plantains, bdl«, Mtua flapienmm j 

ElooBiDO corocana ; great millet, kfn jala, Sorgliaxa vulKaro } 
or ghijdmet Puuicum miliare; jingellj'-soed, rolU yflltt. S* 
indicura ; turmeric, arghina. Curcuma longa; aweo! 
ge}ia»u ur ticVu kHmhaUt, PatatAS paaicatntji ; hemp, -j li 

CansaHs i^atira; and cHSlor-jiped, vudlaor haralu, Kiciniscoi 
Tbe cUicf pulses or akJcadi are, black gram, midu, I'liaaeolua i 
groon gram, bcsoru, Phaftoolne mungoj borse gram, 
SolicliOB uDJflorusj Qengnl gram, hxdle, Cicer&netinnm; wbitftl 
alofantli, Dolichos catjaiig ; and poas, hatani, PisutTi sativum. 

Thu staple produce of tbe di^tnel is rice, hhatta or neUit, Or 
aativa, whicb on oome lands h growo ua a lato or ould wuuUier 
well as aa earl^ or rain crop. Kit-e is grown all over Llto diat 
tbo earlioei cropa being near KiU^vilr ; the rest of the luwlnnd ee 
harvest is a little tutor, then cuioe tbe upland crope, and hul ufi 
tbo eaAtom cropa. 'ilie coast rico lands arc dividt'u into <;ci2ni, bai 
kar. uiajalu, betta, and irnMi banna betUt. Oazni lauds are In 
Bait tracts close along tbo coMtj tbej jnold only one crop ia 
year, batlu laudii are the good ^ict^•ptot8 iu tliu lower rallejra wl 
being watered by small streams yield ererv- jear two crop« of 
or one of rico and one of pulse. Tho farst or rain crop is " 
kartika because it is reaped in the month of Kartik (Nove: 
December), and tbe sectmd or dry aotson crop is cultol saygi 
iUnareee aud vaiuijnn m Muratbi or Konkani, botli words meanu 
barvt'st. Kar or Uaiga lico lauds arc the low fields aJoDg tho v'n 
and salt water iulets wlucb are Hooded during tlie beigbt 
ruD8 so tbat tbo rice cannot be planted till the watur fuU«. 
and hetia are on higher ground ; majahi yield* two crops,* 
rjoo watered from rivulots and tbe other of TCgetablca or dry J_ 
bttta land bas »uiall reserroirs wbieb supply water for at 
weeks after tlio rain* are O7or. ifokki h^nna heUa are still h 
lands without riTulcts or rceiervoiri!, entirely dcpeudoat on (bo: 
and apt to lose the crop if the lator rains fail. 

Above the Sahy£dria most rice plots lio in tbe ralleys on . 
eastern ilauk of the Sahy&driit. From this thu ricu lanun atfel 
east u liitlu beyoud tho boundary of tbo low woodlands as far as 
heavy rnin reaches which supplies many small roscrroirs with 
ODoagb to h»t till January or February. 

All rice fields are in the form of terraces, surrounded by se 
banks to pond the water when tbo 6n1d)< an> ilnodcd. These tem^ 
vary from an «cro to a patch of au eightieth of an acre accordti^' 
the stecpoess of the ground. Cocoa^palmH are Momctimpa grown.] 
rice Unas, their thick utatted roots funuiug a valuable support 
tbe embaukmonts, Uice is grown in three ways, dry soed or drilT 
rice kurige hhaUa,9mmiiGA seed or moh hfiatta, aud planted svedlii 
or uala bhaUa. The dry seed system, which requires leaa lab 
and exposnre and yields a aiualler outturn, is commonest' above 
Sabysdris. Tho sprouted seed system is commonest below 
SahyAdriSj except in the best double crop or laitu land and in 
marsb or kar laud where seed cannot be sown. Jn these Id 
tbo planting syaCcm ia followed with a much larger outturn, bat 



mocb more Ubonr and exposare. Iijiipeoialty for tho eprontod 
aod plADLing systems buffaloes are better thka Inilloclca irom 
greater power of ttjuidiDg wet and cold. 

ndor tbo dry sood or knrige hhatin syetem tbe seed is bowd bs 

B tbe grouud has been uloaf^licd aud is damp enough For the 

to sprout. For this tno showers of April and May suffice. 

bcary and cootinued ftditt of the south-west inoaBOon, though 

'Ueat wheD tbe p1aut« ]mvc ^loed size and strength, are unnuited 

lb* aowiog Bcacoo. Alter tliu need has boon aown by tho drill or 

for. tlie rice field is luaoured with cowduDg and smoothed with 

T or karitda. For three or four weeks the min water u 

»(.-< lo run off as it falls. After the first week the field is weeded 

the hoe or kuntf, which kills the weods without harming tho 

- ^eed. At the end of the nccend week when the pluntsare 

. ' high, tbe field is worked by the wocflin^ boo or tn'ru 

4<r. Aboat the end of tbe third week the field is A^iu weeded 

drsp/<iag over it n bmnch of prickly hnmbooe fastened under 

,rtl ou which the driver stands. Wheu the rice is sue tnchee 

jb tbo dam openings are shut aud tlie field is Hooded. At the end 

tlie third mouth the field is drained for some duvs uud the woeda 

n»moved. In the fifth mouth it is agaio -weeded and in tbe 

uoth iQoath tbe crop IS reaped. Tbe ears ioteaded for seed are 

oaoe thrashed and dried fnr seven days in the sun. 'J'ho rest are 

in heaps fOL- ei^ht days and thatched to keep out the rain. 

grain is then either benten out with a stick or trodden by oxen 

for three days ia dried io the fun. It ia stowed in straw bags, 

kept in tbe bouso till it can be boiled and husked. 

'n the sprouted seod or moJa bhatla system ploughing does not 

in till tbo soil is waked. In tho ioterrals between the repeated 

ighings tbo field is kept flooded, and just before each ploughiag 

bot two inches of the water is drained off. Before the last 

ngbtng the field ia manured with oowdung, or failing cowduug 

ith troo or bnsb leaves, which is a very inferior matture. When tho 

{JoughiDg is over the mud is smoothed with a plauk drawn by 

ID. It is afterwards hnrrnwed by a large rake drawn by a pair 

buffaloes or oxen which turus up the weoda which bare been 

ned by the plough, and opens the soil for tho seed. To preparo 

Keed the fitraw eackcloth or matting bag in which it is kept> is 

ped in water for about eighteen hours. The grain is then laid 

A warm close place where within three or four days it sprouts. 

i a forlnignt after the hegiuning of the rains the water ia 

tned off the field and the sproutodseod is sowa broadcast. On 

fifth day when tho seedlings begin to show, they are half-Hooded 

:th water and every day as they grow the quantity of water is 

.ted, and the field is kept flooded antil the crop is ripe. 

About a month after it ia sown and agniu a little later the field is 

weeded by the hand. 

^^In tbe rich double crop or bailu land tho kilrtiJC' or NoTember 
^^BD is mostly, andthesH^^i or cold-weather harvest isentircly, sown 
^^pn tproubeu aoed. To prepare baila or rich double crop rioe land 
^K tbo e«coad crop, daring October aod Novomber, the field which 
^H sSltt-^ 




IBomltAjr Outt 



, Cbapt«i 17. 

itia PluMiifj. 

ftU tbo time is kept flooded, is first drained off by a small wc 
mkc-like tool called shiru}a. It is then m»Tiai-L-d vrith cowdangi 
ploDghod and smoothed with the ox.nke. The t>ood 13 bovh ci 
m Decembor. Ou the ninth day a little wfttor h giv«i, nadj 
tbe planU grow, the quantity' of water is gradually iucrcaecd- 
raia water (S^ucrally taet-s till the end of the Srift tooDth. Then 
the help of tbe lever and hucket*lift oryafa the 6eld U vratered 
a rc«orTc>ir or well or more often from a dammod-up stroam. 

For ihw planting out or naia hhaiia system the sccda are 
thickly Kown in nureeries, from -whieh, after nbont a month, wJi 
the rains haro n-cll sot in and tfao field is flooded, tbe BMdlian 
plantod out. Tbe seedlings are brought in baskets to tbe field, vil 
in handfuU of eight or nine, are set along lines drawn by the Ian 
rake and thrust by tbo lohourers some inches into thu mod. Td 
field is kept Hooded and is weeded twice with the band. 

lliere are twenty-three leading kinds of rice ; fifindia large aR<l 
email, haga, motafgo, belkc, aiga, tanmeJ-tji, dabansali, jir-ji--.- ^I', 
JxttamharBalij p/ibii, aorti, kalo n<Hdge, balari, eJiUyo, pr.l 
chinianianisalt, kharganaki, k«mptt kukutn kestiri, jcdu kuic'un 
Ite^ari, tirutgana, am}^mori, somiai, and chapral. In ordinary years 
the poorer rice ia sold at twenty-three to twenfcy-jwron poundii tlii 
rupee (Rs.3 to Ra.3]^ the man of forty ahert) luid the bulter kindsat 
fifteen to twenty pounds the rupee (R&4 to Ms. h\ tbe man of forty 
Bhtrra). Rice is u^ed by all classes except Knnbis who lire near tbe 
forests and cat ra-ji. The lower cloa&ea use the black or cbeapor 
rice Bud the rich thti (iiie kinds, cbieBy the varieties known u 
matkati^ jormi, and knndtipuri, which come from South Klutara. 
Rico in hu-tk \i sent in small c]uiintilii;.<i to tbe Malab&r districta 
mostly from the port* of KdrwAr, Kurata, Tadri, and HonA^•nr. 
Some lauded proprietors export on their own account, but most of 
tbo exiwrt busine&s is in the hands of Vllni and Konknni tradert. 
Including the a8»CHsincnt it ia roughly estimated that nu acre uE 
good rice co^ts about £2 (Rs.ZO) to grow and leavoK a profit of about 
tl 10s. (It«.7a), and an acre of fair rice coets about i.\ lOn. (Ra, 15) 
and leases a profit of £2 lOa. (Ra. 2&). 

Ili'ujt or Ndchni, Elensine oorocann, i.<t widely grown in tbe 
forest country and is generally eaten by tbe poorer classee. 

Italian millet, vdvant, Panicum itaticnm, U grown to a si 
extent. l)oth in the bill tmcta and in Uie open country. 

Indian corn, mrft/v! jola or musuk» jola, Zea mays, ia not rogali 
grown. Small quantitiee are raised in gardens forprivoto uim. 

The seed of some bamboos is used as a grain, especially ii 
times of drought and scarcity. 

The PtilsoB, flW'rt</i, grown in North Kfinarauro black grara, t<'7:h', 
Phaseolus rudintus, ami green gram, ketarti, Phaseolusmnugo, wlm-iJi 
are mi^od aa a second crop in most porta of the district ; and Bmall 
quiintitiea of pigeon poa. togari or tuvari, Cajanua indicus ; iJengid 
gran', katth, Cicer arietinnm; Syrian lentil, masvr, Ervumleus; 
aod peas, hutAm, Vir^am sativum, which are grown in HaliyAl and 
Mundgod and in villsges bordering on DhArwAr. The ucid dew 



gnthors at nigbt ou Uie l«nvcs of Beogal gr«tn U oat«emod 
lutiful toDu:, und in aomu porto of tbo coontry is gathoreil hj 
Tvading cloths over tlic fidd M niglit and wringiDg out the jaico 
fche morniag. 

Of Jinf^clly-sepd, volh yelltx, Sesiamuin iudicum, tbreo Tnrioiu?8 

gruwu: bzte- or wUite, kure or bind:, and Ituru/tmii ur durk-rvd. 

-«eed U Dot erportctl. Tbo oil of all three kinds is geucrally 

uid is in cotnmoD dso butb for ctxilring and fur uioiDtiog tlia 

Oil-calces asv given to cattle as fodder, especially to uiilch 

and carriagu bullLtcks. Of the castor plantj vudta or hartu, 

,aa ootnoiDuis, two varieties chUi or spotted and (lodfla hartu 

HO (fPOwn to B very smnll extent. From tlio largo or 

apecie^ tnedicinat cMbur-oil is made ; tbe Fiputtcd atwd yietda 

,tef fjniLatitj i^f oil mliicli is cumnionly Dsed as luoip-oiL Tbu 

is extnK'ted either hy boiliog or in amill. 

Of T' "iiir plant*, aafflower, or biwtard saffroo, katube, 

tUot:i> I'ltifijWhoeo flowers arotisod us o red dye, is widely 

owo ID ^rdeu^ aud iu parts of the tablcliiDd. Tcrininalia chobala 

a/if/fM'Tii yields myrobalans which aro lurguly exported; thi^ 

Acacia cunciDnii, baa a bark wbiuh is u&ed for dyuing ; and 

matti w>ir;j, Tonninalin coriacea, has » dyG-yioldinff bark. A very 

m]\ i^uaiititT of m^Tobakus arti used locally. Tbey nnd other 

no*, UMia in dyeing aud taoaing, go to lloinbayj GcUiri, and 


Ilwnp. ;anj« or bhangi. Cannabis sativa, is grown sparingly in 
'- - for the sake of the narcotic called bhdtuf which is extracted 
Icavos, dtolke, and flowers. 

Of ?(>ic<?a oud Condimonls, besides pepper vines, bctcl vines, 
.^ curdainoRis of ivbicb details have boon given, ginger, aita or 
tumli, Ziuisibor oEBeiuate, uud chillioB, -meiianna Icdt, CaiMicum 
nittn"rrtn, ore innch grown both below and above the Sahyduria. 

Bot:ween 1855 and ISGO in several gardens in YelUpur aud Supa 

aa a'.U.-t]ipt vras tnade to grow coffee, hiphi or bundu, Cnffeu nmbica, 

ml itaculli ration was unpraStable^aadbaa been abandoned. A few 

oUDta are still grown in five or six gardens in tbo north of tbo 

aUtnci near Sapo. 

Of Uulbons Roots the sweet potatoe, bella genaati or nela kumbala, 
BMat»4 panicnlata, and the yam, he^gciMeu, Dioscorea eativa, arc 
vldoly grown in gardens; the yam aouiuiiines reaches au enormous 

pQgaroaae, hilfm, Saochamm ofBcinanmi, is largely grown both 

ibove and below the SahySdris. It is of three kinds, runal or 

fpottcd, X»iro or black, and 6i70 or white. Das kahbu grows abont 

Ha inches thick and six to seven feet long, and yiulds more juice 

hill either of the other kinds. Karv kabbu grows about an inch 

lUok and fonr to five feet long, and bile k/rbbu oboaL balF lui inch 

and three and a half to four and s half feet loug. The kart 

whose roolasaes arc reckoned thn best, ia most grown un tbo 

«n river and Btream bonks, near jfonds, and m other plaoea 

water ii available. 










iBcnlajr dust 



ipter IV. 



Id growing fiiigfarcane the groand is well dug', laid opon to 
gati for ftovcrn.1 dars, and coverfid two or three (eet det>p with tMl 
aud brashwood which when dry are s«t oo fire. To the wc 
ashes old cowdong mixed with grasg is added, aud the ground 
again tnmed and laid open to the aun for two or three days. Kr 
oowduQg ashcH and tcarcA are ngaio applied, and the groand is 
tarood and divided lengthwise into beds two or three feet 
Each bed haa a trench a foot and a half wide and about half a (o 
deepfor the watGrturun ihroti-^hout theeutirelenglh. The trenchl 
an} JQine-d at the ends, sa that water let into one of the trend 
gradually finds its way into the rest and waters ihe whole 
Kscept ia aomo part« where it u as early as January or Fcbi 
Ibe seasoD for plantiug ongarcaoe is April or Hay. As rood &» ' 
b«ds are ready, the cuttings which for some dsra, or e^'en for wee 
ha\e beea kept in a tool shady place dipped in cowdting wat«r, 
laid in tho beds nhont five inches apart and watered. After it 
planted the Gfld ia watered every morning by means of a palui'-sU:! 
channel. In alxiut fifteen days the cane bcf^ins to sprout and ttl 
watering ia duiiy re]icatcd. When the plants are about & 
high, oowduDg mnuure is added aud the groand is cleared of « 
and rank vegetation. This procesa is conttnned every month. 
the beds are raised aa the plants grow. When the canes are thrt 
foct high each is tied up with it« own leaves. This process, whit' 
prevents the cautfs fmui breaking, is repeated till they reach lh< 
full height. Sug&rcAQO is ready for catting eleven or twelve mot ' 
after plauiing. 

Almost all husbandmen grow sotno little angaroftno and 
tnola&scs. When the cane is cut, the rooU, leaves, and dirt 
carefully removed, and the jnice ia squeezed in a 9Ug*rcane-t 
The mill consists of three cylinders mo%-cd, by a perpctnal screi 
The force i« applietl to the centre cylinder by two capstan . 
which are worked by hand and reqnirc six to ten men at oil 
ead. The juic« is boiled in iron, brass, copper, or oartbeo veaaeU 
liime is aJdded during the procods to tiardcn aud thickea 
Liquid. The thickened liquid is eicher stored in pota or cast inl 
cubical masses by means of wooden moulds. The total cost 
raising an aero of sugarcane and of oiuking the juice into mol 
is CKiiuiated at about £22 (Rs. 220).' The outturn of forty 
of inolA«8C8 is oftimatcd to be worth about tiO (Bs. 200), and tho 
value of eight thousand bundles of sagarcane leaves about JE3 4*. 
(Rs. 82) more, leaving a net profit of Cl is. (Rs. 12) the ncro. This 
cost of tillage is calculated on hired wnges. If, as in generally 
tbe cnae, tbo landowner himself works, ho reaps ft prodt avet 
£4 to li 10s. (R«.4O-R0. 45) the acre. 

£aat Indian arrowroot, kHvegadde. Curcuma angaxtifiolia, groi 
wild, and is also caltivated in different parts of the district. 

> Tbe dotaiU ftn : CS ( ib. SO) for m«(1 uaea ; i:3 tOn. (R>. U) roTpreMnnggr 
ll>*. |R4.8J£rtf pUjiUngi £4 10^. (R*. «l for wftl*riQg ; Hk(R»,B)for mAaarei 
(Ra, 5) for mcding j 16«. (Ri. 8) («r foiwiM; aad hvJgioK i «! (It* 10) for cutti. 
«3 «(. (Ka. 32} (or pramiij ; Ittt. f Ra. fi| Tor boilaut : £3 (Rs. 30} for fad } M»a 
{R«, 20) for contingraciw, giving: a tclol ol £22 (Ra. S20). 



VegeUbles, the e^g-plant or brmjal^ 1$adant kdi, Solaaum 

igena i the water-meloD, kaiangadi kui, Cucurbita cctruUus ; and 

ipamptnns, goards, and cucumbers arc much gmwo. Boadr, 

~ i*, UihUcos eeculentoa, ooo of the moat popular mad wbolo- 

'id nef^iables, 'm (frowti chiedy ou the (.'oasL the stalk yields 

aiky and pliaat bbre which is locally ascd for cordagv and 

-palni.% lenou, Coccw nucifera, nro widely grown, especinlly 

ig tbti coftat. fbc cocoa-p&lm is the most r^oabio of Indian 

treo«. THf milk nf the young nut is a pleaswnt and nbolesomD 

it The kernel of ihe ripe not is largely nsed innatire coofccty 

xocllent nil. The fibres of the busk fornish tho coir 

-') much valued for conUj^ Frum the yotiag flowering 

a bToarito liquor is drawn. The stem yields the porcapiuo 

erf mtnmeroo, and tho lonvos am plaited into mats and other 

tntains, ^i/e, Mitsa sapicotum, of many kinds arc gmwn in 

lent, tboMi on tbo coast having tho best Hatouf. The plantsio 

BfTTowQ DoL (laly for ita fruit but for its learca, which Hindua, 

— '.Ilr Brithomnfl, use an dinner dishes It» stem yields a flno 

illcy iibre of cunttideroblo length sud atrength, but it is nut 

Tlio jackfmit, halatu, Ailocarpna intpgrifolia, grows so 

itifully that ill the hot »«a80u it is given to cftttlo as fodder. Tho 

ago, tMvu. Maugifera tudica ; the tamarind, huwue, Tmnarindiis 

icon • and fha jambool, ucrali orjambu, Syzyginm iambolanam, 

■re common all over the country, both in gnrdena and groros, 

-r^-w to a large bizo. There are mnny kinds ol mango, bat 

inr aortfi are found only in the ['ortnguese tetritory and its 

Niuoarhood, and in Homc Knrnpnnn gardeija. Tbo commonest 

maagoca are picha ifiat;», a stringy mango; mnge mdcu, a 

mango ; kadu or appe nidtif, n wild mango used only in 

mnbinir pickleii; and jir<je mavH, a small but much prised mango. 

from the choicot^t Goa mangoes, /amandin, atphonae, and 

'1*, are grown by large proprietors. 

i iie Orauge family tho pomelo, chahkala. Citrus dccnmana, 

Snvn-f best on tho coast ; the orange, kittale. Citrus aaraotinm, 
Ifturi-ibea only above tbo SahyAdris; tbe lemon, ehi nimbi, Citriu 
Itnai'tta, prospprs everywhere growing wild in the hUIs and forests, 
09p4>ci»lly in Sops. Pomegranates, ddfi'nid', Punica gmnatum, and 
fig», anjttra, Ficos corica, are grown to a small cxt«nt both below 
and abore the SahyAilris; tliey flouriiih best in the drier parts of 
the tablelaad. The custard •apple, itUaphaJ, Anona Bauamot>at and 
■wpTi-^op or bullook's heart, rampAal, Anona reticulata, together 
wilh the scmr-Bnp tree, Anona maricata, aro grown in a few gardens, 
ehieOy on the coast. Tbe rose-spple, jambu, Gugenia jambosa, is 
couuou in gardens, bat the &uit is insipid. Toe pspay, pappdi. 
Caries papaya, a native of Braxil, is common in gardens. It has 
Um prDperty of making meat hang on its branches tooder. The 

Chspter IV. 




* DeUIi an sirm is VoL XV. Put 1. pt S8. 

IBombaj Ou«ti 



Chapter tV. 

Bkd 3«ftB0[iii. 

cacumber tree, Inmhalit Averrhoa biliiub, is bihaU witb obtong* 
growing on tlio truak nnd branches. The Indinn nlmond, 
Terminalta caUppu, is found botb in gardeos and forests. 
Belgunm wuluut, akrodu, Alentris triloba, gniwii freeljr aboro 
Sahjidris. The casbowout, geru inatni, Auacardium Occident 
B nalire of Brezil, la now common in Goa and on tbe K&nnra 
wbere it is contsiderod a -rnloable article of food. A good gnm 
oblaiued hj outtiug tbe b&rk. 

Though North KAnara has occasionally suffered from a tailorc 
crops tbe only recorded or rom«mbdrod scarcity which amonab 
to {Ainioe was in the year a.d. 1800 or (lie K8hti}/a Samtaltara 
Thia famiiie appears to havo boon vory BCTero. Moo wore forced i 
feed on roots and on rico huKka, and ubout 3000 persons arc said 
bave died of want, llie local scarcity wtis ori^'nally cnnsnl by 
inllax of pcoplu from Ratoii^ri uud thu Duccan. It waa iuor 
by tbe want of road^, by the dopi'od&tions of robbers, and by a nt 
forbidding the export of gmin from Dbarwar. The distress U 
for abont (iftcen months from January 1806 to March 1S0€. 
relieve the distro&s SQ order was issncd forbidding tbe export i 
rice and directing the pnrohase of rice by tbe local ofBcera and H 
re-sale nt modorato pnoee. The land oawssment was reraitted,_r~ 
adviinci^a were made to cultivators for agriRuhnra,! pnrpo8e.<). 
famine and the scarcities witb whicb mncc tlien the district 
occaHioniilly been visited seem to have been dne to short rainfa 
In 1865-60 parts of the Nizfim's country, DhirwAr, Belganm, ae 
K^nara suffered from the extremely bi^b price of gmin which 
due partly to short rainfall, and partly to the transfer of a large 
of land from grain oropa to cotton. In Supa tbe distress was sei 
enough to call for special relief measures. I'he pressure was groat 
relieved by the seeding of the large bamboo over fifteen to tweol 
miles on cither side of the Ilaliyiil-YelMpQr road. Thousands 
Bcarcity-pinched people from the Kani&tak came to gutfaer tl 
bamboo scsd. They lived in large camps nnd were nccumnaniod 
their own Vdui shopkoepera. The ehoplceepers baj^red their wi 
for the bamlioo seed at tbe rate of about Forty pounds the rupee M 
sent tbe seed to thu inland markets wboro grain was dean 
Though there was no gcncriLl failure of crop in K&oarft, the effe 
of tbe great famine of I87lj and 1877 in the Ueocan, Boml 
Kam^takj Maisnr, and Madras were felt for about three years 
K^nra. During this fsjuine Eiinai-a relieved about 10,000 famil 
stricken people and 300O cnttle from the Bombay KanuUalc. Th« 
people found omploymeot in Haliydl,yellApiir, and Simi in deepenii 
ponds, iu repairing roads, and in other public works. The cat* 
were allowed to graze in the reserved forest. Those who we 
nnable to work were fed at relief kitchens in TTaliySI, Mnndf 
YeU&pnr, and Sirsi. In 1S76-77 the rainfall was plentifid in J_ 
and July but fuilod almost entirely in the succeeding months^ 
that, except on the coast whore the rice crop was good, crops failc 

' ColoQcl EtheriilgB'B Report on the FaminM ol tlie Bombay (Vwidcacy, 1M8> 
' Colonel W. ftrtDD, Ctnicrviktoi of Foroita 3.0. 




to Bome extent, %ad macli diiitrec!! irns felt for wunt of wat«r. The 
Lmblic Iteallh was injured by the inBux of fHtnine -stricken people 
tntm thv Bombay Kamdtak to tho unhealtliy climnte of the K^nara 
loraets Kod tn&ny died of choiem and fever. The rupee price of the 
sc«md sort of rico roao from twent^'-eight ponnds in 1875-70 to 
iwuoty-two ia 1870-77. Instead of lar^e exports of cotton and 
gmiti, tboro wera griun iniport« of about 18,000 Iodr (72,000 khandui) 
lo KirwAr and of 18,750 tODB (75,000 khandui) to Kurata. Tho 

SDoerttl oonditioD oE tho people wu fair, for thongb the poorer 
nsbaudmeit suffered to some extent, those on tho coast who were 
tMtter off aad whose crope were good, mode largo protita from the 
coluuicud prices. In 1877-73 rain failed ia July and August and 
ns excoe&ivcly heavy in October. Public health was bad. Tho 
rnpee priro of tbc second sort of rico rtwe from twenty-two poiiDdm 
in 187tj-77 to eighteen in 1877-78. The export trade which had 
aliDoat oeMod in 1876-77, ruvivetl. In 187«-79, the year of tho 
hfiAviest rtxwrdod minfaU (132'89 tnckeH), ibo cropH were good, but 
public bealth suffered so-eroly from excesairo moisture. 'Ilioagh 
iht* wages of labour sliowcd no chaugo, tho effect of the famiue was 
sUU ft^tt in the price of food ^ruins which, except nachni Ktuasinu 
cortK-ana, were even dtarcr than in 1S77-78. Tho rujx>o price of 
rico rose from eighteen puundj* in 1877-78 to aovontoon iu 1S7S-V9. 
In I87d*$0 the price fell to twenty pounds. 

The crops in some villages are occasionally injured by blights, and 
Iff l2ie ravages of rats, ineectH, and wonnn. Butwithiu tho experience 
of the preaent generation those losties have never affvcled thegeueral 
harreet. In some lowlands near rivem heavy minfaU and a stormy 
seA sometimra cau»e 6ood» which greatly damage tbu crops. In 
1831 and again in ISiS, owing to tempestuous wcatber, the Uon&vai 
coast lands were Hooded with nalt water and the crops destroyed. 

Chapter IT. 

Bui S«a*aD«. 

fBonbftT Oai 



Ctiapter 7. The 187S census returns show, besidea well-to-do ktutwuif 

Ch^taL ^^ profossioDol moa, 5218 persoDs iu positions impljiog 

posscssioD of capital. Of tbe»o isix wercbaokcre, ton mODef-ciiiiaf 
or Bbopkeepurs, anil 2109 tnorchauls and iratlers, including 
dnirii^ iDcomca from bouse and shop runis, from fandedproi 
abarcfl, annuities, and tho like. Under capitaliiits and 
tbo 1B79 Licontso Tax papora show 4066 pereous.* h.moiig ' 
Assessed ou juorly iacomea of moro than £10. 1717 hod 
JEIO to £15, 799 from £13 to £25, 592 from £25 to £35, 223 fr 
£85 to £50. 29-tfroui £50 to £75. 141 frxim X75 to £101). 
from £100 to «125, 24 from £125 to £160, 42 from £150 
£200, 51 [rum £200 to £300, 27 from £300 to £400, 9 from , 
£500, 19 from £500 to £750, 3 from £750 to £1000, and 3 

Booy. Till the lieginniufir of the present century the currency of 

dintrict consisted of Chalukja nni:l Ilckori ranEAotf or pag-odas 
SaltAai that ia Tipu's, and BaIi^uh th&t is H&idar'» hunf_ 
pagodas. These wore all gold coins worth about 8<. (Rs. 4).. 
Cbalukja vardka, so called because it was stamped with a 
or wild boar, was struck by tho Chalukya kings (715- 1.135), 
the Ikkeri varSha, bearing: tbo impress of king Krishna, waa st 
Brst at Ikkeri and afterwRrds at Bednur in \Vi;st MaiHur by 
Bednar chiefs who mlod from about 1560 to 1763. The vanil 
changed its name to hun under the Miis&lm^n rulcrit of Moisur a^ 
was called by Uaidar (1767.17S2) the Bahlduri hun, and by Ti] 
(1782-1 799) the Soltdni hun. The vardha is no longer cnn-cut, 
it is still Bomotimofi nsed as a weight by goldsmitha. Bumt ai 
Madras rupeco, which pciRned for a quarter of a pagoda, were < 
aoder the Maisnr government, sh aUg was thoBilver/taHa, the aaij 
OS the Malabar phalam, wnvtli about ono and a quarter anna. 
copper coins, there wwre Tipu'a dnc'dnddu bearing the impress 
•a eleph&ot, ivorth fourteen for a hana, the ghaiti-dufldu or dhf. 
worth two dnr-dudduB, and the kdsu. worth half an dttO'i 

> Prom iMtorUli >uppK*d by 4Jr. R. B. Cud;, Cl% 
* Tha IKT9 daUila m tfiven booaius inooniM under £50 (Ba.GOO} v* nowl 
from the Lioeue Tax. 



revenne was coltectoil ia many varietieB of coins.' Tlie 

pori&l rupeo in iiow tho xtAndard in all ilealinga. 

Thure are no Ijaukti iti Kftnara. T\w liir^M looncylenders Aro 

adrkdrs. As a rate they do not open depOisifc ftooounte. But 

keep ninDing aocoanu with basbonclincD, receiving the 

lue produce and advanoiug sucli sums as may from Umo to time 


Voae (A the tocal merchants or traders carry on itiguraac» 
.eea. In the befpaniag (October] and agiuo towards (ho end 
it) of thu sailing aeason, ctitton cargoes from Komts and£djw^ 
tnsored is Bombay aguinst sea ristcii. 

ITtttuiui or oxch&ngo bills oro of tivo kinds, pavabte at sigfat 
r'h'tnl, and payublL- within a speciliod time mudati. Both kinds 
JO eitlior *AfiA^iM')y that la payable to order, or namejog ii^ai 
. ; i>_-oiily to the drawco, Kxcbungc bills uro not much asod 
_ Supa, YellApiir or SiddApur. Tlujy sregeucTnlly granted at a 
tatx-unt of ODC or two por cent ana are iiomutiiDi-ti issued at par. 
he Ifsdiog traders in Kumta and KSrwAr grant bills payable in 
imbar, Hubli, Gudag and Sirsi. Bot«Inuts, pepper, caroamoms, 
d other merchandise brought from the hill oistrictB [o Kumta, 
■o gODCrally jnid for in cash, vhilo cotton and other mcrchandisa 
ttm Belgauui and Dhllrn^ nro mostly paid for by bills. At 
^QXata a few natirc firms can without dtMculty cosh a bill for 
boat £1500 (Rn.15,000). 

The classes who save are GoTcmment surrants. pleaders, money- 
nders, and traders, chiefly Shenvie, Sdrasvate, S&sashtkdrs, 
Ardeshkflrs, Cbristiaii!^, Desha^tths, OhilpiLTiuin, V&nis, and Banjigg. 
f Ibe agriL'uUural classes, Havigw, Uabbuij, Juishis, Kunkanis, 
aadgalus, and NKdora, are gencmlty in a poBition to Rare. Except 
■vAivata, who are prosperous and welUto-dolraders and landholders, 
MtiFalmdns sdre. Mont Uhristian palm-juico drawers and 
!iri liqnop-farraers on the cnisttt aud huuio above the Sahyddrw 
HioTicy and invest it in garden or rice limd. Cultivators ba a 
■»re iu want of money, and almost nil borrow. In ih« rural 
except moneylenders and ebopkccper?, few nro able to 
The 8»sifaring classes, KhSrvis, Bhois, Uarkaatars, Mogem, 
Aubigs, and DAldi MnsatmAna are fairly off, thoagh 
clad and badly housed. As a cla^ts they arc lesii thriR;y 
8 prudent than cultivators. Even the ino«t prospt^rous seldom 
more than enough to build n d^-ccut bouse or buy n stock nf 
lets, Efihing tackle, and boats. Fifteen years ago, during the 
orraal prcwpority canned by tho American war (ISfiJi-lSBo), 
iine of thu Miigers became cotton dealers aud comiuisaion agents. 
few hold on as petty shopkeopers, but most have faitud and 
n forced to UM back on their original occupatiou of fishing aud 

Rn^ni^s ore rarely invested in Government securities. In tho 
1SS2 thfi ainouDt paid as interest to holders of GoTernmeut 

Chapter V. 





a 816-4 

I}u«tiuuui** Trsvsli, U. 30». 


Chaptar V. 

paper was £58 (Hs. &80). The GoTernment Sariogs 
moBtly used by GuTcrnment servants and pleaders. In IdBS^SS ' 
deposits amounted to £3190 (Ba. 31,S0O). Sbaree b joint 
companies arc almoat onknown. 

Little or so capita] is iDvested in the purchase of boildnig lil 
£xc«pl at Anlcofa, Knmta, SirHi, and IliUi^&l, building sales ara : 
in demand. During the iew jeara of abnormal prosperity wl 
undcd ID ISOo building sites fetched high prices in Knmta, 
Kdrw6r,wben it was made the head-floartew of tbe district iu 1802- 
laud was niuoh in demand. Tbevalne of land at Kirwirngaia 
(I860- 1874), when it was hoped that it would be made tho t«rmil 
of a railway to Hubli, and toany Sinnr&Ui, Shenris, Gujars. Pi 
MuBalm&ns, and Kative Chrititiaiis, and even aome Bombay Eurot 
firifas, bonght building fiten at considerable prices nod spent 
Bums in building shopH, witrnhoiiROS, and dwRllings. Since the 
for a Kamir-Hubli railway has been given up, building 
Kdrwflr have Fiillen to a Bfth or a tenth of their fomier!| 
A plot forty feet square, which id 1867 fetched £111 to £48 (Ra. 1< 
Kb. 480) is not now (1862) worth more than £2 to £b {}U.i 
Be. &0). Od tho other haod, in Haliy&l, Ankola, Komta, and 

f rices liave risen, appsrendy owing to a genenil increajio in w« 
n Ualirdl an acre ot building laud which in 18G7 coat £10 to 
(R8.10<i-lU200) now (1H32) fetches £20 to £41) (nK.200.Ks. 
fl,nd in Auhuls, Kumtn, and Sirsi^ what in 1S67 would have 
£15 to £^0 (Bs. 150 - Hs. 300) now (1882) c«sts £20 to 
(Ilfi.20O-Ks.40Cl), sn incruase in lifteen years of 100 per cent 
Haliytll and of about S3 per cent in ADkofa, Knmta, and Sirai. 

Land iuvcatnicuts are popular with Ouudgalus, Habbuii, JotsI 
LingHyats, Uavigti, Sheovis, V6uis, Konkauis, and ChriijtiauB. Wf 
applications arc made for usKCssed waste aamburSi Ihu rigkfl 
occupancy is soinetiuos sold by public auction; but souieiimi 
consideration of tbu oxpcndituro nooussary to clear it> aroblo wai 
given on easy tenns. The price of such lauds is generally uot leasl 
one year's asaoesmont, but in outlying parts or where the bt 
under tillage is lipecislly costly, land Is given free of chargei. 
possession of the land carries with it tho ownership of all but ' 
reserved trufs.' Tbe acre rate of asaeasment varies from G<L to Ic | 
(4- 10 a*.) for kuski hakkal or dry crop land, from Sc to 
(Rs.ll-Ua.6) for Uirri Jhanmadi or rioc land, and from 12ir. . 
£1 8«.[K8.6-R8. 14] lortiiijiij/al or gurdou land. Tbe cost of bri 
an acre of dry waste under tiUajre is estimated to vary from £3 to ; 
(Rs.iJO-R9.2OO) iu atouy or brushwood covered lands, and 
lOx. to £10 (Rs.25.Ks. 100) in lands without stones or bmshi 
Near largo towns tbn price of an acre of rice laud is estimalo«l to ' 
from £20 to £40 (Ks.200-lts.400], and in tbe outlying psrta 
£10 to £20 (Kb. 100. Rs. 200). The acre value of dry-rrop 
yielding rd^i and other coarse grain varies from £1 iOtf. to 

* A lift ot the rHerveil tnws ia given in Vol XV. Put I. |i^b 54. 



la (bo coiU>t> Rnb<diTiiiioDS of KJjrnAr, Ankoln, {Camta, and 
tondTor, ID odditiou to Qid dry wuto laods, arc many sdt swamps 
gaJnU which canoot be reclaimed withoat a \argo outlay on 
Da and earth banks. Oving to the co»t and risk of roclaimia^ 
hoBO aaJl raarsbfls, GoverDment, siooe 187U, Iiktq ^rante'l them on 
a on specially friTourablo torms.* Undpr thoso leasos the assess- 
•-• ■* 'T paid according to a graduated scale, the full rotes being 
luoo till n period has passed long enoogh for the holder to 
una uie neoessary protective worka and frco the Uud from tuiU. 

At preaoDt, OTOD in the larger tonniSj huuses arc SL-ldom built as 

■peenloCioti. IVadera in good circa nutances. Government serrants, 

en, and targc! landholders, build EnbHtantial hooses for their 

ate. Except in a fev instances at K&rwar, Kumta, and Sirei, 

aro Hcldooi lot to tenants. 

Dal oniamentfl are & favoaritA form of inTestment among nil 
The poorest IIiilTakki Vakkalnr Holayftrwomanhasagold 
!t noae-riag or naih, a lacky necklace or mangaigutra of glass 
gilt beads, a pair of gold or gitt earrings, a hw^ud or ear-stnd, 
nd glaas bracelets, and gold or gilt finger rin^ Men Trear 
__ -■ and sometimea a donble gold or gilt ring in the lobe of 
right ear and lomctime^ in both can. The silver wnistbett 
loxniT of the well-to-do, oa is also the string of false putltt or 
gi!t-br&89 coins worn by women as a nooklnee, the gold 
oraamcnt called }cf.yad worn by womou, and the gold finger rings 
by nu<a. High claes Hindu wom(<n, KnsbnKthatis or Hiinsv&Xs, 
Tia, tiarigs, Sdaashlkdrit, Binleahkiirs, and GujarAt Vfinis, are 
ely fund of jewels and wear a large variety of ornnmeuta. 
lower clsHa UiDda Tromcn, as the Hiilvakki or Gnui Kare 
lO Atte Vakkalu, the Xidom, and the Mukris, wear necklaces 
coral and thrco or faor pounds weight of lacquered and gtaaa 
The wealth and resfiectability of » family of any of these 
may be known by the nonil)cr of n&cklaoe« the women wear, 
omamcnts worn by the well-to-do of the lower orders are of 
^Id and silver. Br&hmans, Uojars, Vinin, Sonars, Knlttvants 
dimoiag-girU, aa well as Chriatians and Miisahnfinfi, ndd penria 
d nrorioQfl atones. Mogt yonng cbitdren lu-e diKmraied nith 
bracxslcls, and waittt.girdlen, oithorof gold, Bitrer, or brass 
Li.ciiiti^' til the means of the parents, and are allowed to play 
Ennt the boose generally oakvd. The Licenie Ttuc returns for 
S79 give a total of 361 licenaed goldsmiths, and the total number 
' galiismitfas according to the censas of 1872 was 2220. 

Al Kirwir, Kamta, and Ilonivar, a few Vilni merchants and 
oiro locally bnilt2>Aoie»i(irM,macii'd*,aDd^ifdM. Besides 

I Vtt nilM an 6x«d tor th» mnt af rMsUawtion ImMCM. E«clt mppllMtioo b dispoacd 
Ml Ita n>*ril<L In 1880-81. in th* rillage of Ani<tftlli in Ankula, lurvey 
—m\mn IW «f 4)|Mcn*U)d 193 of 121i5««"« "«"> Ki^"" *« *"" ^^ SUnbh*« 
thftdpv SUabKog oa DMiilitioii nf toritiS <Mi«-«t{;lkth of tna tnll taiiMn»(it f«t 
( am thiM y««n. ODB-fourth of iJw fuU iMw-mwit for tk« MMad UmosrHn, 
• tJtirJ ikrM %*m. three-fourth* f«r the foarth thre* yean, nra 

k*U tift Ik* tlcirJ lkr«« j<— , .".— . ■— — , — - . 

full BHDMrant from lS(a>M. Tli« payineott for toual fundi aie tbrovj^ttt 
on tb« (nU amtmtmvii. 

Chapter V. 




IBoDibay Gutit 



Chftpt«r V. 


these tndiug boats, oumlwrs uf auiall craft are ownetl by the 
faring olassos, Khdrvia, Uarknntan, Mogers, and Gilbitit, by 
>Intta1mAn», ftod by BhamlAris or palra-juioe drawers. Than '^ 
are gencmlly uwd in fisliinjf and in carryinif grain uptliu riven i 
creeks. Aliuut twelvo per cent U oonsidered a fuir rate of iutur 
on capital invested iu shippiug. The average cwst of a new 
is about tS (Rs.&O) the ton. 

In Klloara no cIsbs bas a monojmly of monevlondiug. All wl 
havo money lend it at interest Shcnvis, SAraBval?, Harigs, Habha 
Joisbis, Gnjftrs, Vanis, Bbillias, Banjigs, MusaliuAns, Nabr 
ChrtHtianB, well-to-do buabandmen, even BbandariK and Kalam 
or dancing-girls advance inone/ on bottdn and somotinieB on porvoil 
ftccurity. In rural parts laro© landholders caliod zaminddTt 
khdteddn, chiefly Havigs, Hhenvis, llabbiis, Joishis, N< 
S^isaohtkflrsj H&lTakki Vakkata, and Konkauis, nro tlio chief 
leudors and grain -d^prs, and they sometimes take payment in; 
No class of moneylenders deal» solely with townspeople and' 
to*do buabandmen. The distnct has no banking eatabliohment 
there aro no moneylenders of the MArwitr Vdni caste. Tho ta^ 
important moneylenders aro Br&hmans, Oiijarft, Bhiitiitj), Qai 
V^is, and LingAyars. All KGody husbandmen and Tillai 

to their laudlorus for loans. Theso loans am moetly 

meet spoclal charges such m wedrling exponf^cH and aomcvtlmos 
buy aoed and field stock. Aa a rale a hutsbaudman cannot ratMsj 
loan without mortgaging land, and in some canes raovablo properly 
also mortgiMJ^ed. The yearly interest Qsaally charged is frum sis' 
tnelve per cent without positession, and from throe to six per ct 
with poiiseasiAn. It in uanal for cdacatod creditor!) to kuL'p tT 
accoiintH in books called kftiitt'm. Thosewho are unahln tu read i 
write keep no written act'nimts of transactions and have to 
their bonds. Aa a last resonrce, resort is always had to 
oourts for the recovery of debts. Imprisonment for debt 
uncommon. _ Oomplaints are made that bonds have been forged j 
pasned withont consideration, or that part payments have not bei 
credited, but these complaint? are seldom proved. Moneylendt 
do not nstmlly employ a writer or accountanL Wlien thev do 
writoror guntiifta bns tbo duties of an accountant His pay'dof 
on his maAttfr'n circumatancc.s and ranges from £7 10a to 
(Es. 75- Ks. 1 DO) a year. Sometimes at ^ivdti (October -Novcmbj 
or OQ the ocCBsion of a marriage ho gets a gift in addition 
his pay. As his employer's agent, a clerk enjoys oompa: 
independence and is jmid X30 to £-10 (Ra.3O0-Il.s.4(>0) a year, 
only district traders who have agents are the GnjarAt and Cnt 
traders at Ktimta and K&rw&r. 

The yearly rate of interest on good Becnrity varie* from six 
twelve per cent ; without ."jficurity it rises to twenty- four per ceL 
In small dealings, when an article is given in pawn, the ralol 
twelve percent ; in middling transactions nine per ooot is nea 
ohargod, htit in cases of extreme nood it rises to eighteen , 
cent J in the few large dealings, witli a mortgage on land, or on hoi 
or movable property twelve percent is uaualTy charged. Loans ' 




turn oa croi>s lu-o aot coumou, uuloss in cauos of ra^lar 

Bortf^ge when the usnal rntu is clmrged. In regular niortga^«K, 

mortgaged property i* modo over tv tbo mortgnguc, ho nsoally 

tho [troduco iu»teaa of interest. If the prop«>rty remiuos with 

lortgsgor, twclro per cent is tho dsooI oUarga, though ftt times 

: about iiiue ami sometimes it is as low oa six. Petty ailvancBti 

iout intorest aro occasioDnlly mndoby n Innilholdcr to his teoant. 

(.tLi>r canes, aocopdiug to tlicir »bitily to [;«t, poor husbandmen 

Iburruwing on porsonal scciiriry nro chnr^d twolvo to twenty per 

it or ovon fatgbcr. In KAnvdr vrbeu tlie landlord pmridBH his 

it with seedf it is rctnmed soon after harvest with fifty per 

over ibo qiuoUtT l«at. On money invested in buying hoiinea 

Ll^ lands a not gnin of six to twelve por coot is doomed a E&ir 

I urn. Liquor and othLTcontructorSf wooae iosialmoata are over- 

[dae, and titcrebiuits in timcti ui presaing need, when a bill or a 

teboqoo hau to ha wet, borrow munoy for ahori periods At monthly 

[nt«8 avera^Dg ouo Lu three per cent. 

Except UAIrnkki Vakkala, N^ora, and a few othor w«ll-to-do 

, most husbandmen, G^m Vakkal», Tlaleptiilcs, Knnbi 

lis, Kouu&rpiiika, Gaundin, Gh&diB, and others, are forced to 

3w gmin, Theee grain ndmoces are repaid in Xorember- 

PDe>cembor when the nrops are run pL<d. Except io tOU-wAr many land' 

I holdont od ranee grata bo their poorer tcnantB for eeed or for food 

I without charging interest. When the landlord demands interest, if 

the adTancQ Cos been made on condition of its being repaid in kmd, 

(an extra fourth, or sometimes an extra half, is required. IE the 

tnoDpy vaJuu of the grain has to be repaid it is regnUted by the prico 

[of tite grain when admnccd. The conditiona of an «d\-ance made 

'by a grain-dealer are the same as those made by a landlord when 

he demaoda tnt«resl. When a tenant is too poor to bny live stock, 

hia wants are snpplicd by the landlord on condition of being paid 

' ftnir to fire hundredweights of rice for a buffalo and two to three 

bondtedn-oights for a bnlloek. If the advance is looked on as a loan 

I to bo n'p*iiil with interest, twelve per cent is charged. When cash 

to bo Iwrrowcd for wedding or other expenses^ the leudeni, if 

nro traders j^sncrally charge six to twelve per cent inlereat if 

' property is pledged, or twelve to eighteen per cent on personal or 

' other fomily Mouriiy. Such traoBactioDs are entered in the lenders' 

day-bouk ur khdta if they are of considerable amount, or if they are 

.for sums of less than £o (Rs. 60) they are noted on loose slips 

of pap^r called patiiM or yiidt. Tho personal crudit of moat poor 

btubondmoD extends to £10 (Rs.lOO). 

Few of tho poorer husbandmen reap a harvest suffioiout to meet 
their want^i and pay their creditors, and few own carts and pack 
bollocks wherewith to earn carriage wage or have other means of 
livelihood. Still the poorest husbandmen, though often in debt, 
in»oa«e to anpport thomseives without leaving the district in scarcb 
of work. Military service is seldom sought except among 
Unsaliudns and Nntivo Chrifltiaus and a few coast Manithiis, 
Bhandfiris, and KomdrpHiks. When the fanrveat season is over a 
Dunber of the poorer class of husbaudmvn tiud employment in 

Chapter V. 



(BomliAj Oaali 





pablio, local fund, Forest, mnnicipol, and otbor workti, ia 
and repairing roods and bridges, brcttking metul, and gi 
myrobaUns. Kom&rp&iks, Halypiiiks, mid Sidis uleu work in the 
bete] and »pice gardens of Sirsi, Bidd&pur, YelliLpur, Sapa« 
Komta, the supply of field Ubonr Laving been latol; iucreaaadM 
tbo reidtrictiona placed on wood-asb or kumri cultiratioa. Till Uf 
tho cotton nre«se.<) at Kiirwar and KiunCa gave omploymenl to 
a poor famdy* I^ut the dcmAod for labour at tlieso presses htt] 
Iftto greatly fellen. The KArw6r prow works for only a short 
in thi! year. 

Tho district yields grain enougb for its popnlation. But the bot, 
kinda of rice, sucti as tldbriHMUi tnashtti ana kagya, wbich are ai 
by tho higher classes of Brihtnans, weU<Co-do MuBalmdni, 
Native Clirifltians, come from Sontli KAnara and Maisiir. The i 
food of tho lower olasses is course rice and ragi. Common 
alflo brought from South Klinara to a email extent. Daring 
rainy eeason the importn by sea cense and the price of grain ri 
At too same time some millet or jcari comes from Dharwivr into l 
parts of the district above the Hahyiidri hills. The facilitiea 
utlaud troffic are good. Excellent roada join the chief toTnui 
villages, and the nvers, with which the country is inter»ect«d, 
narigftble by boatu of h&lf a ton to ten tons bnrdeu. Kxcept At 
and after the 1 87(^77 famine, of late years there has seldom ' 
any oonsidemblo rise in the price of grain, and as local failara of : 
ta ftlmoefc unknown, the poorest, though burdened ivith debtj 
saflcr serious privation. 

Though as a rale a husbandman has current dealings with only* 
creditor, cases iu which a borrower ia indebted to aerond creditors i 
not rare. In euch coses the creditor;* do not arrange to share 
debtor's property; each tries to bo before the other in their oSc 
to get what they can oat of him. Instances are rare in which uiodi 
lenders, gaining nothing by imprisoning a debtor, ceoso to 
their claims and write off the sum as a bad debt. Creditors set 
imprison a debtor except with tho object of forcing him to pay. 
bad caeoB, when the amount of the debt is small and the debtor] 
unable to pay, creditors sometimes remit the interest wholly or in _ 
Soraetiniea when a landholder is onuhle to meet his engugumc 
the creditor buys his l&nd for a small snm. Complaints that ' 
debtor has'heeD charged a larger amount than be has received j 
said to bo raro. In all civil courts measures are said to be taken 
ensiiro tho service of nimmonses on the correct party, and debt 
eeldom assort thut they are ignorant tliat a suit has been brougj 
against them. So long as the moneylender is certain that tt 
debtor ia in good circumstances, he rests satisfied with what he o 
gain from him under fear that the decree will be put in excoatk 
But when the debtor ia badly off the creditor always insists 
receiving some property in mortgage. Creditors are said seldc 
to buy the property oE the jadgment'debtor at court anotian eoli 
It Is difficult to say whether property aold in execution of a doer 
does or does not fetch ita proper value. The properly itaelE 
not eold, only the judgment-debtor's right and interest in t 
property. If it is ^crwarda found that tho debtor has uo rigl 




I the property the bayer bna bonght Dothing. If, as a member of a 
family, tD« dolitorig entitled only to» share of tlio property, 
buyer has to sue fur u dinHiou antl in tlioenil ttitty Snd the share 
buL little. Or again the jiidgmeat-oreditor m»y find that 
properW is mortgaged nenriy or quite to it« full ralao. For 
[tbcee roasoas the price paid for property sold in executioD of 
' tleereea is- of t«ii nominal, but triclccry iu these sates is almost dotot 
1 outnplaioed of. On the whole, thooffh moneylenders are BomotimoB 
I exacting, the borrowers are generalty satisfied with their terms. 
AgmriuQ crime is uokiiowii. 

La.nd is transferred in one of four ways : Uiad given op by its 

boldor or pold by Qovenimpnt on account of ibe homer's failare to 

pBf- hia rent is taken or bought by others; land is sold under the 

onJtTs of the civil court; land is transferred by voluntary gale or 

CBurtgagc ; laud OQ thu ooaat is somotimos given in pennanenb 

I laaae called mii/(;pnt and nlso on natlgi or aufgi. Within the last 

\f&w years, especially in Kirvrkr and Ankola, m«re laud h»s b«ea 

, sold than formerly on account of holders faJling to pay the 

enhnnoedasaeiomouts recently introduced, Aconeidetoble quantity 

of land is yearly sold under tho ordt-ra of the civil courts. After the 

lintrodnriion of tho survey, nambors of occnpaocies were sold in 

lesooution of decrees and the sale price of the land was mad« over to 

Modginont-creditors. But where thu liuids were held ou a mulg^ti or 

I permnneut lease the tenants' rights were not affected by these sales. 

'Tmnsfers by volontary sale are uueommon. Moneylenders and 

I Urge landholders, Shcnriu, Havigo, iiabbus, Vdnis, Sftsaehtkdrs, 

BArdeskArs, N'av.^iyat Miisalmfius, and Christians, advance money 

1 00 laud mortgages, lu some cases tho mortgaged land is made 

over to the mortgagee ; in others it is kept by the mortgager. The 

former aystem is cslled bhogyddi and tho latter toradav. In either 

case all tillage arrangemeots, the payment of the Govemmeat 

Maes&moQt, and tho duposing of the crops, fall on the party in 

[posaesnon of the \as\a. Ot the two varieties of mortgage 

ninfrDCtory or iiho'jijddi mortgages are tho commoner. In suoh 

cases the mortgagee is vested with tlio so!e possession of the land 

I for a definite period. At tho close of tho specitiod time on paymeat 

of the mortg^^, ho should make over the land to the mortgager, 

\ In some cases it is agreed thbt a portion of the profits should go to 

meei the iuteroat and Iho rest bo duductod from the capital. liVhen 

thiH Ktipulation is mndo tho mortgagee is bonad to ndeatie the land 

at the close of tho period epcoifitxl in the agreement without receiving 

[any further payment. 

Land is never mortgaged witbont a regular writing in which 
Ithe sum for whtob the estate is mortgaged, the period tor 
which it is mnrlgaged, the rate of interest, and other oonditione, aro 
entered in detail. Id the ceae of mortgages with posseseiou tho 
Irate of inttirost variesj but it is seldom more than ton or twelve per 
l«etit a year, lithe mortgagee has planted trees Le is paid at a 
r certain fixed rate cqnal to the expense bo has incurred. Both 
l^roprietors and mortgagees let part of their lands to tenants mostly 
chnltfeni or yearly leases. The teoaat gives a writing obliging 

Chapter V. 




Chapter V. 


lilmsvlf tci pny a certain rent for the fear, and inHtnie cases reoat^ 
a oonuterpart leaae called yedurnnuJi or lavani rAi't At the > 
of fbc season n yenrly tenant is liable to 1)e ejected. Lon^f atAiii 
dolits are sometimea recovered by inntnlmonts, land in-iti^ lie 
in mortgage aa secnrity for tlie payment of tlie iustalinenl 
lu such (»Kea no regard ih paid to rotes of interest A. c«r 
arbitrary amount is fixed as interest on tlie capital for a 
time and the sum formed by the addition of the capit&l and ^ 
rntere^t is divided into equal or progressive ytnarly install 
payable witbio a eertain number of years. Failure to pay eat 
inucb burdsbip on the debtor, as the mortgagee whiob ia auch 
are generally simple are very atrict. 

The mortgage of land is no new practice in Kioara. In 1( 
Mr. Btane wrote to the Madras Board of RuTonno that a 
nnmbcr of eBtates vrere hold on mortgage, tbo yearly 
being taken aa iateroet on the debt and for the gradual diecht 
of the principal. Id some cases the mort>gago was for a Mrmi 
years, and the lauds wcro made over to the mortgsg«« for a til 
which wascalculatedtobe sufBcieut to pay off the amount borrowc 
In some the mortgager continued in posseseien of his own laaj 
bnt with power to the creditor to foreclose tho mortgage at a dtatg 
time if tne debt was not paid. In others tlie owner held 
own land as tenant under thu mortgagee, or, by a still 
compli^atiou, as eub^rentor under ihi? murtgagee's tenant, 
1648 thu rise in tho pnco of grain and gardua produce, tho opcoifl 
of communications, and other local improvements hare tended 
lessen the nnmbcr of salos, mortgagee, and other transfers of land^j 

Workmen and hasbandmen nometimes raise money by niortj 
their labour for a term of vears,' The rate at n-hioh 

' The follo«riiiz mta tniuUtinna of Tour bonda txocutcd in Sirai : 
{1} Uncha uia ('fajkvdji, loni nf IjltivTiAik, living in Ambdli Ujunlrt tp 8hl. 
vQli^ nf Kknir MAsni in Kinj, in hvnnr at NinupnA Hcigd« WW of Vtrtji^ 
Ragaa, nwi<lr.)it of DeviRiir, inclii'li^>l in thn ittiuvr villaga. Thia Any ve ksij 
tiorroirod fmiii ro<* tho mm of Ci'2 (Its. t2<t) which wc nqnirn to iii«ait the ex] 
«f OistJa's mArriasc. The rote of iDtercit *8rMMi for is Itn. )2 wr cent which . _ 
to Ra. IS * year. Aa wc are nnaUe to p^y off the i>rm<:ipal «Dd Hi inCvroat, Cbv 
YrillanrrcnDilcirfoii Malabnurer until tho debt i* pAJd. You wiU fupply liiis wil 
food and rument, and in otlditioii hia moDthlf pajr will be Ri.2. Yon will Aoiu 
the intotvat trom hia (■&; soil Uie batanuo wiU gn to pty nff tlio jiHna|ial. T. 
aocooaC will be mkda nu at tlia end of otory yotr. Wh«i Um whnlc unooot 
dtArod you will giva bncK this douiimcnt duly cndorecd and uloo di*<]uiigc Ciiav 
fivui your Mtrivu. Executed the 12th nf May ]sS'2. 

Witnn»«<M, Signed ..... 


(!) In, Timmii, and Baaitpjia, moa of Do<mAilt, living in Nirnihalli in Sini, 
tavour of Slitrnkv Hegde, aim of Vonlt^ipa Hogda. who liToa in the aaittc villi 
Wu hnvo this day borrowed from you lU.SeO for the mMriage of pb* of 
Tiuuiu). rarclvo [ler cent intcroU han boisn aottltd for thU amount and 
havo agreed to aU<l« by tli« cunditioiM ucutioQed b«a«uiidu for the paynieat of 
debt Ttinma will a«rvi.> at tout j>U», ami tha anm of Ua. 36 wbteb yon 1 
jiromiaod to pay hiiu aa liu liiru tur 360 daya evofy year will go to my off 
lutercat aa well aa llio jiriiivijial. Till the wbula debt it ekwrod Titaa 
aerve at yottr pUcu aiid iti noae uf liii aliavncc the net of ua will aoTTe and tJii 
we will pay off ibv wLule ainoiint due to you. If ary of ua dccliuo to act op to 
ootid] ti on* agreed, we buldvurwilve* luUy rcapo-ciBiblc toBiakoKocd every aott oi 
you may iiuor by OBT (sJlare. iu »ldittoU to tbc paymcul ol iut*r«»t, Acwr "" 

r** service is Tstacd depBiids on bia need, his orcdit, sod his 
or of wark. To pay a bond of tlO (Ra. IW) by labour, tlio 
oiautiily nervicc of a nmn of fair working povar would be valned 
■t iw. ( Ke. 2) with or 8v. ( Hs. 4} without food and clotbiog. He 
woaM tbtu take four yi-ars and two montlw with food and two 
jrcors and one moutli witbout food to ropny aloan of £10 (K«. 100}. 
Tbu monlUy serrico of an expurt workroan would be valued at 8*. 
ffla.4) a mooth with and 12«. (Kil6) without food and clothing. 
«fcMo hnxbaadmen and workmen gonorallj mortgage their labour 
to tJMi landlurdi) on whoso laiidathfy live, but they not uncouinionly 
rttJgc tboir MiTicM to moiiiod mon of tbcir own or of other villsgee. 
When the debtor takes his diokU at the cmditor's honso be m 
BxiwcUid to icrivo his whole timo to his raoHtor'B work. When he 
takes his food at bia owii honse he is allowed thruo hoorA in the 
dajr whoo ho niay work for any ono bo ploasos. Tbe moneylender 
haauo right to the services of the boudsmaD^a wife and childron, nor 
doefl he nndertalco t<o fcod him, housobim, or pay any chargu for him, 
■Diess au expraas stipulation is made in the bond. In exceptional 

Chapter V. 

LaUmr UortMH- 

hrwlul«T«rUm«th« prinotpal rvmuaa anpaid, w« u« liouiul to pay tho iattiFMt. 
At Um «n<l «f wmty yew the arrouot iriU be made op and noeipt Ukan from jron 

the amon&t pawi and wc will coDtknao ta aot up to the conditioiti detailed above. 

WW«D tbo wboU aiDDaiit If pwd tliJa ili>««iiiit(it will bo lakon hack from jaa dnijr 
■■■}«■«■■ t. 
lUwetoa l)w 24tli «f Ha; 1881. 

WitsMaaa, Stawa 


(3) Bir^ ttyara. ani) Qorappa. aosa of Hahlor Bira, liviiu tn Iilur in Slni. in 
'anmi gf Snfcaya Ftcgdv, aoa of Knaima Hegdc, living in (lilit^j^ in 6inL We 
wo tbuiUy horTv%ciinMByoaiU.W rcquuvd f or th« ■Bnniagv of ono of u* Dyira. 
are aM in a {jcaitioo to pay back Uiii amount to you, Init in it* place 
— la tiid (aUuwinfi oonilittiraa ; Obit uf n» three will pniiioriy ■em at year tj«»a 
nun of Ka. I& tbe Mlaiy agmxl, will go towarda tbe payment of tbe 
aaonataiid tbia aervice will ciMitinDc till the wbole amoimt la paid. Then 
noDt will be taken back from fon itnty endoraed. If without any 
ca«M Um aurvioo ia dcnivii aoy lUy cvatrary to tb« oonditioni of tJun 
wl- in^nt to pay yon id oho tnmp aum tbe amount that may remaiii 
till that day, togetlicr with interett at 33 par ociit whi«h i^-ill bo oaJcnlated 
unount UiuB due. Thb bond will th«ii Uo takeu back duly duiLonud. Am 
mpmmlaed to pay uirttH debt by tttvicv. Xhv rutpoanbilily of aiuwertnff you 
.«iUi aD thive of lu, akoold we W acliiig couuaiy to tJie ooodillotia «t tkia 
t break oar tnitk with you. Tbia buud is exeonted witb our full coiuMit 
Um Srd of JuDe 1881. 

'itaeaaea, Slawd 


to Khauoa Un Malla Halayar. living in Happim in Ibo Kataui Tillage at Karnr In 

liral, iu JsTuur uf Nariial>haita imi i>f ShnukarbLAtta, also liriD({ >ii Jlimiii^. On 

•lay I bavD Lorrowoil fium you Ila, 100 for my marriago. 1 aui uuultlc tu pay 

amuanl in »lutiipiDm oe 1 liave uu othor aaaJataiwa I have tbanfonMmad 

■1m*o mTvooslojM/ nfl tliU luniMint Ity *rrvie«. My monthly pay itM be 

a&ilyoa will alin give me orery year a hlnnkct. ■ vniitub'th nvM yardi lonf, 

lacarf three yards lon^', and fur the am vf my wifi? n rnlxiitmi iwn liodioea. 

'na will work at four plaoo. My pay will ga towarde tbo ckwrinz of tbo 

II beSore tho ddit la cUaied wo keep a^iiy from yonr eervloe and attvnd 

i>- c!mi wo will uiKkigtt the poiuaLmcnt awardod to oa by tho Kiikar for 

lo aUiJe by Iko cnnditioiM of thie eontiwot, and after the paniahment ia 

w^.will labour at yoer placeaadthuaelmr off the debt. Alao wo will net 

lit.... .'...t cnutiaiy Ut thn condition* mentioned abnve. Tlua aorvice bond ii 

'! "I'.ii :iy plcnmr* and cooMmt, this day the 1 lib nfOutobor 1381. 

Bf SijpMil 


iBombar Qtat 



Cluipter V. 

klxw Mortgage. 

cascH wliere the bondaman is very iMedy. the creditor supplies 
ordionry wants. Tfaomnster has no powerto tranaforhiH right 
the boudsmoDj except with the boadenan's conaeDt. If the lnh< 
refasea to serre his master during the Urriu of his ODgsgtitueiit, 
master has no legal redre&s. The civil coorts do not help 
master in onforciag his labouror's tKrviccs even in cases of tm 
bonda. Labour is seldom pledged except by men of the lower cl: 
Holayars, Mharfl, Mukris, Uhivan*, Parvare, GhchaWddis, 
Dhedsj Huliiv&rtij Keiigura, Kuenls, Kordrs, RuttAls, Bellers, 
Hntgdrs, vrhu arc forced to borrow bo meet marriage expenses. A' 
twentj labour bonds were brought for regi&tratioa in the Sirsi 
Siddiipur fiub-dirisions in tho year IStiO. 

Labour ia pledged chiefly for hoaaehold work and for work 
rioe fieldii. In spiw> gardens poor Havig women, in return 
food and clothing, ecr^'o in the nouHeholds of Ilavigs, doing h' 
work and helping to vraler the garden, lien of the degraded ca^ 
who pledge their laboor gononUly lire in the garaoos of ch. 
protectors or on the outiskirts of towns or viUagca m small ' '^ 
nsd pobliD-lcaf hots. 

In 1800, the yearly wago9 of hired male servants who wi 
generally engaged by the year were £2 8*. (Rs. 24), be»i< 
three meals a day and once a year a blanket and a bondkcrchii 
The womun, who wcm hired by the dny, were paid about Ihl 
pounds (1 { ahern) of rough rice and about 1 JJ. (1 anna) aday in cnth? 
fho monuy nrngu of both Bkiiled and onBkilled labour ht& r:»c-a 
oonsiderftbiy during the fifty-eight yt-ars ending ISSl. From It 
to 18^9 tho monthly wages of a pslanquin-buarer or hamdl 
lis. Sd. (Its. 5^], and uf an ordinary Dn»killed lalmnrer 
6». Zd. to 7>. dd. (Ks.3t-lla.ilj]. Tbo monthly wages of] 
carpenter or skilled labourer varied during the same thirty-six ye 
from Mg.^d. to lof. (R».5| -Rs,?^). During the next four 
(I8(!0-18ti3} the monthly wages of a ^omtu or palanquin-li 
rotuHiued at M>». (Rs.7^), and of an ordinary un^Witlod labourer' 
Us.SJ. (Its, BJ); but carpenter's wages nearly doubled rarying;' 
£1 2*. G,i to £1 ]0g. (Rs. 11) -TU. 15). Daring the last ail 
years (1864-1890), both skilled and nuskilled labourers have 
paid by lbs day, the tikiUed labourer getting one shilling to 
ahiUings and the hamdi or palanquin -bearer Od. Tbo orr*" 
nnskilled labourer's wages have raried considerably dunug 
sixteen years. For tho first two years he was paid Gd. (4 ana.) ai 
during tbo next seven years bis wages rose to 6\d. (4i oju.), t 
1873 to 1875 they werebetweeniid. and9(i.(3nRs.and6oiw.),dai 
the next two years they variwd from 4^d. to 12<Z. (3-8 ant.)^ 
from 1878 to 1880 they were botwoen 3^- >"'*1 9''- {^-^ ang.). 

At present (1882), tho ordinary day wages of nnskilltHl worli 
ore, for men IJd. to 'Jd. (S - G aite.], for women Sd. to Hd. (2 -3 ar 

' Bnchanau's Myaur. III. 22<I. Kfttun ivoi|i;1itB aod meamna diftr lo wil*lj 
•«ch lub-divuiou, (jrun in miiay of the pcLl.y itirlalouB. tiiHt BogUsfa wjiuvahMf 
*Acr>, n»aH4, uid (A'^uVm mh iiScnJ vitL luucli kMiutiiW. A tt£« liCKt tbsj I 



id for diildren 1 )dL to 3S. (I -2 oiis.). Tweoty years ago tlio mte« 
Srf. (Smw.) forn nian,2Jd. (l^arw.) for a woman, and IJd. 
I.) for a boy or girl. Tlie workniea employed io tjie KArH-l!r 
; prf>fiM8 arc paid, 7A(J. to63<f. (5-4| a;i«.) f(>raman, 4i<J. to Sfd. 
t\ cms.) for a troTaaa.Sd. (2an«.)for aboy,an(l 2{d. (]|an«.} for 
I girC Tlu^ mr'nlhly wages of a mason Tarj (loax Ei Sn. 9d. { Rs. 24|) to Jtl 10«. (Bs. 15} in Komta and Sirai ; those o{ 
rarpenter from £2 8«. 9tt. (It8.24.|) in Ktinvflr to £1 I7». Rrf. 
; in Sirei and £1 I0«. (Ha. Id) in Komta; and those 
:.::u!k8mith from £2 8>. 9d. (Rs. 24i) iu KAntAr to £2 5a. 
,SS^) in Sirsi and £1 IOj. (Ka. 15] in Kiimta. AU day-wurken 
FvotnetimcB and field luboiironi arc geucrelly paid iu graiu. Wages 
paid daily, weekly, fortnightly, or monthly according to 

Of late years the pofiition of day •labourers has been improred by 
datoand for labour in the pablic works and forest departments 
id by the spread of tillage. No special clnascB of day-laboarera 
[esve nioney. Savings are generally Hpent in bnyiug cIotbeA or in 
ing omaToeuts for wonicD and childrun. A lurgu aember of 
cmea «pend part of their incoruo on liquor, MLArs, Dhedd, and 
[ChAmbhArs bciDgexcossiveiy fond of drink. The acrvioe of women 
nd children is specially rctiuirod ia the fields during foar Boanona 
In tho year, for weeding and transplanting in Jane and Jaly, for 
nstiiig in Octobt-r and November, for watching in November 
tJJeceraberj and forrice-hoaking between January and March. 
"olbur times tliey are employed on the roails and other public 
rcrks. in the supply which haii followed 
'ridions on wood-ash or kumri tillage, tho local demand for 
__ L'l labour is in excess of tho supply. It i» met by ootaidera 
Ooa, Rotnligiri, Sentk K&nara, and Malabrtr. 

Yearly price details, with the exception of the rates for 1S28 and 

1832, are available for the fifty-nine years ending 1&S2, During 

lUuMe Sfty-QiDO roars the rupee price of rice of the second sort, 

I which is the staple grain of the district, varied from fourteen pounds 

iu \6<M to eisty-foar pounds in 18-12 and averaged forty pounds. 

Tbo whole Gfty-niDe yeare may be divided iuto ecvon puriode. In 

W» firet period of eighteen years (I824>1841}, io which figures for 

^~3 and 1832 are not available, the prices uTOraged fifty pounds, 

^lowest being fifty-eight pounds in 1829 and 1830 and tho 

aat forty-two in 182t>. The second period of three years (1842- 

|4J with an average price of sixty-two pounds the rupee, was a 

to of Tery cheap grain, sixty-four pounds in 1842 being the 

IVmest and fifty -nine pounds in 1843 tho highest. The third period 

tof Iwelre years (1845-1656), with an average of fifty-one pounds 

Iwaa ono of moderate prices, the highest being forty pounds iu 18^3 

land tho loweet sixty pounds io 1851 and 1852. Prices rose high 

{{iL the fourth period of seven years (1857-1803) with thirty-throe 

BOBudi th<3 lowest in 18.^7 and 18S8 and twenty-five the highest Id 

'if--. average of thirty pounds. In tho fifth period of six 

, t^;-1869) with an average of seventeen pounds, there was 

cr rise with twoaty-two peunda the lowest in 1868 and 

Chapter V. 


I Bomba; 

Cha9t«r V. 



foiirtciu thohiffhost in 1801-. In »lio Bixtli period of eight 
(1870- 1S77) with ail average of twenty-six ponmlB, jiricM 
lower tlwn in the fillli period, hot tlioy wore still higb with tliir 
pounds tlie lowest in 1875 ond twouty-two pounds Ibo lii|;hi.«l_ 
3877. During the aeventli period of five yeani (1876-18»2) prio 
remaiuod high, the average bi-ing twenty pounds; in the first t 
yottrs llusy rose fmm t'ighteen poniids in 1878 to Beveuteeo 
187St ; they thoo ffll to tweuty peunds in 1880 and to fwenty-fonrj 
J88I nnd IHS2. Tbu dytfiils are : 

Kdnara Oram Prktt, tBS^-lSSI. 





















S3 H 
















■toh ast Sort... 


«3 «I 

■i 'in 













ai . ^. . -. li 1 J 






J«, 17 




U, » 





at t6 ,» «]; 



roovnPiuan j 







1 1 





i 1 § sH 

Mot.tiMl Bart 












































a a 

M m 



Kna pMiiasu 



Bs Wfll KMI^^I 


















nin, lit ion, 



















Me*, tod Svrl 



























10 ! a 







n «■ 


















» « 








la ' i( 











ThoDgh convictions for using falsu weights and nicnsurea 
unknown, weights nnd moasures are pcrLapit Icssaaiforn) in Kdi 
than in any part of the Bomhay Presidency. Each Bub-divtsion 
many petty uiriaiouH have their own weight's and measures. 

Pi-ecioua stones and pearls are not sold by weight jn Kdni 
Small pearls are aold by the Inddi or string of twenty-five 
150. Large pearls and other precious stonca are sold siof 
Oold and silver are sold by nmall weights ivhich vary in dtf 
places. Two suts of weights arecomuion. Ono table ib, six grains 
rice one ifunji or abruH seed, ax gunjis one nnna, and sixteen at 
Oixe (o/<i. The other table ia, sixgi-uin.soFrioooDesrniiji orabrua 
twenty-eight tjunjU uae rarivk, and 3J roWtijtur one tola, la 
plnecs a slight vnriatioti occurs lu the Gr&t eot of weights 



}^uli, which in c<\iuU in weight to Iwoj^nnjii*, is flomctimcii addod 

tablo. Ooa ^l(lBU)ith» use wdght& of their own nhich are 

to ifaono in a»o >d the KoukaD. Tb«)c ore, six pruitis of rico 

: fp^^h* ^1'* ganjie ouo nuiga, and twelve mfim* oue t-ola.' Tho 

|M p.tit-r»)ljr rcprcseatcd hy tbo standitrd rupou whicli woighii 

!/uHJiji leM than tho real tola of ninety-six i/unjig. Twenty 

to/4«in KArwir andtwpnty-foorin other plticcs mako ono sher, 

W(ii}*hl« in tiB4) for ooppor, hra^, tin, lead, iron, nnd Htool 

|Bn^ in K4nrAr Komta and Ualiyil, twenty IoMji one thtr, tvrit 

or forty t*il<is oaa ratial or English pound, twenty-eight 

one nmii, and l'W«nt'yniaji:tono ^'Aantli. in Honilviir Yelhipar 

lAnlcobi, tha tablo is twenfy-foar 'o/(i« ono 9/11^, six ahfrs ono 

l-oAcr, two jtAiirh-siKera onu dhada, four dhaddg ono mim, nod 

r Mnfut one khandi. In Siddlipur & oiinilar tiihie i» current, 

je jmnch-sher is omitted and the dhnda is only twplvo«fter». 

iii tho convspouding weights are, twenty-four talat ono 

•ft»rrs Olio ndi'tiahcr, Ivro aifaurA«r/t ono j>anctsArr, two 

r« one dhada, {our «W(i'I(f« one in<iii, aiid twenty mann ono 

in the petty divimon of Bhutknl Iho woijy-hta arc twenty- 

' ono gJurr, 11} thtrt iiud fuiir tolas one dluuta, four dhadiit 

'man, and t«-onty nmtw ono khatidi ; in Mundgod twenty hide 

i/urr, 121 -'<''cr« oao dhada, four dlKuiui ouo mail, eight moti* 

lone AdTH, sod 2| A«ru« ono iA/iTu{i; and in Snpn twenty totdt 

rjW, 6{ therx ODO 7HitHr/M«A«r nnd ^^wK-shert ono dhada. Coffee 

I C«?ttOQ> spicca and condiments, batter nod riarificd butter, eognr 

. aaodalwood nnd ebooy, hidee aad horns, dutes and 

J beef and mutton, and hetelnnts are alHo in cnch sub-divi&iun 

[potty diviKion sold according to the weights useil in the sale oE 

' less prvoii>u;8 nietalfl. Gunpowder and shot nn> Rold by the pODnd 

'irty fo/a#. At tho snb'dmsional head-qoartera charcool and 

jd are weighed and sold by En^ish poond.% qnartors or mans, 

IredwcightA, and tons. In other places firewood is sold by tho 

or cart load. 

. Idodfl of capacity me&anres are in ose in Kibiara, one for 
J, th* other for liqnid*. The grain meaaares are, for KdrwAr 
Ankoln, thirty-two Uilds ooe tmn, six dtvds one Jev/dav, twenty 
irf one khandi, and twenty kftandis one kumh; for Koiotn 
Ir&r, nine toldg one »otge, tno soiree oDoarra2, two arvo^ 
tf two tiddes one 9h«r, threo alters one kudav, fonrteea 
mtdi, twenty kudavs ono khandi, and forty-two mtulia 
for Haliyil ninety-six tolas one sher, two shers ono padij 
padts one chute, sixteen chiUes one vdckal, two vakkals ono 
and ten henii one /chandi ; for Yellipur ninoty-six toMs one 
\sfmr, two «Aw# oao yi(iu, two priwono chitie, two chittae one fto^a, 
•nd twenty kolgi'is one khandi; for Binti ninoty-Hix fo/ifvi one .fAM*, 
<A«r#oQe kotya, twenty kotgds one khamli, and twenty AA^incEu 

Chaflftr V. 


liUu* TGogbta Kt ceoBnlly (mull roaiul, xjnare. or elglitoomered piaiDi 
_ . jurof bnMOT twil-tnctal. 
. Huairar auii Kumta 100 naJia of unhuskvl rice an cvuM>l«rvd equal Ut turiy- 

nSombfty OaMttMff] 


!hapter V. 

one Aire or big khandi; for Sidddpor thirty-eix toldg ono itiddei 
two tiiides one kolgn, and twenty kclgiU one ckUni-ilMmdi ; 
tbs petty divudou uf Blialkal tweoty-eigbt Mas 009 aidde, foo 
mddet ODo Aann, two &aN«M one koUja, Gvc kolgaa one ipcU«A't, (md to 
haUhU one miuft or biaml^u; atid fur llie pt^tty division of Mont 
140 tolas onu faVf two {Mlcf odd chittc, thirty-two chitie-» 
andge, two aml^rcx oao heru, and four AerM one kkandi. hit[mi 
moefiuroa aro the snmo for milk, oil, pidm-jaico and sugarcaDe-JQioo 
The table currout iu KArwi&r is four tol<'u one navU'ittg, eight navt>ing$ 
ono sher, tonvhers onerf/toiio, and Four dlmdds ono man ; that in Ankoli 
is thirty-three fo^ one rwWfl, four siddee ono chcmlm. and si] 
seren «ui(it>« ono Aiin« ; thnt in Kumtn is twonty-four tolAt ono « 
fiix aAertr one /)ancA-8^M)r, and tvro p^tich-skers one cJAatia; in HonAv 
tlurty-six ioCis one aJwi-, four«W«one|>dn«i-*Aer,eight oiiwWAt 
one man, and two m<in« one hddu; iu Ualiy&l, twooty touie one eA< 
throe flhrnr one chembu, and sixteen cAemAiw ono man; iu Tt'llApnr] 
forty toldt ono rat^^lt, three roftoif one chemhu, and aiztcon c/tonf 
one man ; in Sirs! twenty<four tolas onu aher, twelve «A«r« one '// 
four (IAu(£(i« one man, and twenty man* one kkandi; in Bidt 
there is but one miatsuro of twenty -foar htdt called a shirr; in ] 
twenty-eight tolds one »iddo, four siddea ono hdne, and ton Adn4| 
one man; and in Mnndgod twenty tolas ono ^A^, 12) *hcT» ot 
dhade, four dfuulea ono mnn, eight man« one /wru or nagOf and 8j 
AenM or iwjaa ono A-/iariiIi'. Ii) tjupa tbo (umo grain and liqoic 
moasurea are current as in HaliyiL. 

CoUou and wooUon cloth, ailks and brocadoa, and tape aro soldi 
the yard. Waistcloths, womon's robot), and women's bodico cloths a 
sold singly or in pairs. Bambooa, oowduug cakes, betel leavos, matt 
cocoa loavoa or iap«, hown stones, sa^rcanos, fruit, and fish, 1 
bricka and tiles are sold by uomber. Gnk^s and hay are sold by 
littBdred bnndlps or pulis. Firewood, oxm^pt ut sub-divisional be 
qunrttTs, is sold by the head or cart load. Bamboo matting 
uioasurod by tbo sur&ico and sold by the oabit Rougb hewn stone 
granite rubble and saud gravel and earth are sold by the kmss of 1( 
cubic feet. Coir rope is sold by the bundle of lUO cubit lengtlift.^ 
Timber is uieaaumii accordiug to tho following table, I J incl 
one visva, twenty visvd* one vAs, Hto vdsa* ono quartor, and 
qoarters ono i^andi. Limo is sold by capacity mcusuros of tweutj 
kudav9 one Uumdi, and twenty khandia one kv-mb. 





Its aiiaboan! of nevenfcy-six miles, its large efltuarics arnJ navigable 
[rivers amJ backwuU^rs, ami tho RasiiifSHof some of itsliUi-passosliavc 
in all tiuufi of isettle*! govpmment attracte<i a consitleraMe traile to 
the K/iiuira co&ift. The diii-f rivers of thn tlistrict, tht" K^iniuli 
whicb id naviffablo For twenty milc^ an far as Kaclia, tho Oane^rali 
for Qftevn luiH^ na far a.s GufultutUa, tlie Tadri for llfteeti mw!» aa 
br »a Uppinpotua, and thu Shiiilvati for seventeen miles as far t» 
GnnutppA, wliicti have all lar^ge t^stuari^^s and poita near their 
mouttui. give mticli facility for inland traliic ty nmall IxHits of one 
to nine tons. Beaiiiew alouj; the rivers, from very early times, the 
ilh and iron of tlie iulantf districts, and the local ijcppcr bctelnut 
sugar and ^landalwooJ probably came in bead-loa<l'4 and on bullock 
knd ajis back down the Anshi, thn Kaiga, the Arboil, the Devimani, 
) tbti QdT8i^>pa, and other Sahyddri passes. No trace or tra<Ution 
remainM of early Hindu Tom» or hdl-pamcft. Baring the necoud 
half of t)ie ei^ht^^nth century, ilaitUr paved some of the hill-passes 
with laterite and granite ami nlrsrwl some fitot-patbs tlinmpi the 
forests, Traeea of these foot-path«, which are known as HaiJar'* 
Paths, remain ucar the Biugi and Ka4lrtt lulLs. aii<l at Kadva<^l, Sad4- 
shivgajj, and ilirjitn. When, after tlie fall of Sering&ptam (1799) 
the district came into the posectiiiou of the English, thei* were no 
ituite rooili* except foot-paths connecting the chief towna The hill- 
Ma&eB were rugged and im practicable tnoae chiefly used Wiutf the 
Tittai, the Anshi, tho Kugs, tho Arboil, the Deviniani, and tlie 

Since the Euiglish conquest commonicatioDB have been greatly 
improved. New high roads have been built and hill-irnKses oix;ned 

I joining' the district with the Bomt«y Kamiitak, the Is'izdm'a 
domiinouA, BclliSri, and Maisar. There are sevcnt«'en chief passca, 
two in KiVrw^r, the Ciopahitta and Kaigs ; two in UouAvar, Hogeva<U 
and Oundil-katla; six in Snpa, Tinu, KuvcHhi, Diggi. Kundal, 

[Obt^urpa, and Anshi ; two in Tell&pur, Qaneabgudi and Arbail ; 



' During the Britiak opantiona ia anppnrt of tho Ponhw* in IB02. aii: IS-poandgn 

' wfth militarv tUmi and {inxrisiimi wora moved (igm Oon. tc> Huliyikl hctuu tho Tinu 

n^ when tli«^waiwuoMaed and repiirvd. Dakeof WdHoKtoii* DvaiiuU^hcs Tndia, 

IIL Sir^, 391, dW. Salt«d proviiions, siiirit krsa, atid rice wctc often tuken from 

[OMtiy UwTuudpMifortliGtnopsthcaui North Kiinara. Uittv. 531-3S. Tro»iM fi-MU 

"«VMur irai« a9ir«d tviUliyil by Uic AiVmI^am in Juuiitry ltiU3> Pitto, D<9. 




Chapter 71. 

fmir in Sii'si. Va<li, Di-vtmiuu. NilkunJ, aiicl Botlutuini ; ami ooo 
SidtlAjiur, Ot;r«tti)|ia. Of thwo st-ventcrn jpa»u«a4 Uie tlirw i 
iinpoi-tout are tnu ArboU in Yi-llApar, the DcWmoni in Sirsi, 
tliL- Gtfrsappa in SiJildpur.^ 

Of tlic two K&rwdr paitsea the OoptdiiLta IteN twelve 
north •«&(>t of KirwAr and joins Kadi-a with Sa<l4ijhiv(f»(L 
Knign ])a-<M. nlmut twentv inileK vaat of XirH-iir, is cntnxed 
the KArwdr-YellApur roatf fttitl ifi not yet wholly pft«aaMe by OM. 
Of the two Hoii^vai- hill-posstKi, the Hogcvmli, twfuty-two ttcni 
ea»t of Hoiuivar, and tuu Guitdil-katta, fifteen niilc8 8outh-e 
of Honitvar. atv the Houthmfwt Sahyidri paaacs with Iwillc 
tracks lomliiii; into Maisur; thoy arp »eldoiii osed. Of Uio 
Supa pftaaca the Tiuai, thirty niiluM uorth-we&t of Sup« and twcn^ 
one miles loiic; the Kuve^thi, fifteen miles north-west of Su| 
and thirteen nulos loD^ : the Di^gi. seventeen milee* west of 
mnd eighteen miles long; the Kumlal, iwenty-twn milei* k 
weat of Snpa and neven mileH long ; and the Dhokarpa, tw^inty-f 
miles 1101*10 of Karw4r and six mik^s long, nro in the we^ 
SupA, and all meut the Kiuira-Beljjaum road by tlie An^ilii 
These are bnllock-tntckH, all Ironing into PoHugueat' 
Bjul aro chii'ily used for the import of cheap salt and -■■- 
from (Ion into Supa and other adjoining BrilUli dbftrlctrt bIx)v« II 
SahyjSdrlf, The AjiJtlu. rIkjuI tWL'nty-iive wilosMOuth-wi-' -r '^•••■ 
is eroeaed by the K(Uira-Bclg««io rowl. Of the two Yd 
powM the Qsjieshgudi hitl-paaa which lies nine milc« wcai ui ii 
pnr is eroswd by tnc Yellitpur-Kodra rond. The Arliai) lien twel^ 
miiefl south of YelHptir, and dvi't it runs the metalted and brid^ 
KirwiSr-DhAi*wiir roa<! from eighteen to twirtity-four f^-et br 
Of the four Sii'si passes, the Vadi pa^s, aliout twenty-four uiile^ \rt 
of Simi, has a road thirW-two mileH long from SirHi to Hillura 
practicable for carts. The Deviiuaui lies twenty-one miles nam 
ninu and .•levcntecii eaat of Kumta, and ik crwuud by thu mot 
and bridgod Kumta- Dhdrw^T road which ia eighteen to twentv-fo 
feet broad. The Nilkund hill-piuct, nliout Mst^'n milofi wi-'.stof Sii 
ha»in cart-roa^l up to the fout of the pa^M from Iviinita to Ami 
on the Dlnirwilr-Ktimiu r<uttL TIiu Dodamaiii )iill-patf9,aJ>out Uiii 
mik'H west of Sk-si, has a buUuck-trock tiight«vn mites long fv 
Bilgi to MonkilMil, where it joUw thu Nilkmid road. The (lersaf 
hilKposH in 8idddpur Hesahout fifteon miles south-wextof SiddA{ 
and is crossed by a motalled rood from the port of Qei-aappA 
Talgupi«i in Muiniir. 

There are four miun linen of roads, beginzung from the north, 
Eidra-Belgaaui road by Snpa and the Anah} pass, fifty-two mile 
long ; the R£rwt&r-l)tiiii'w^ rctojl by Ycllilpiir and tlic ArLibil poa _ 
74t inile« long ; thu Kuiuta-Dli&rwjlr i-oad by Sini and Uie Dcvimani 
paa»,785 miles long: and thi: Ankoln-lVlkicfMwt rond.alMiiit 
tliree milu!i long. Thi^ Kadru-B«-lgiLum nuid by Supa, Hi. 
the AmJii pas«, tifty-two miles long, IcoiIh into Bt^'Ignum atSru-toni 
It UI mwrumed or trap-gravelled, partially biidgc-d, and ducmg 

* DflUUi of Uiw biU-puM* arc givau noilw Flacv ol InUnat. 



■ wftson in piMaab]«> hv carte. During tin; rains wbcn the numertnw 
'TiLlinadi orerdow tliL-ir banks, commuuicatioa is kept 

ll , bamboo and irood foot-lndjreji. Tlic road {«sac8 

i1 forv^t and hill scenery. Besides a district bung»< 

^ l....,.„. ,4rid a travellers' bungalow at Supa, it lias a uambcr 

l'hii]x>*'^ VT if Kitrnu/mUs fit couvenient distances The KArwar* 

;id by Y.'llapuT And the ArWil pii-ss, 74j miles him 

II to iwontT-Toiir f*?et broad, meets thi' Dharwilr frontier 

ik(i[). Ttiu rood Ls lind<;i>d aod motollcd tliroughout with 

lite and gneiss^ About £327.830 (Ra. 12.78^300)' were spent 

log thtt fimt ei}^bt£ea mitus frum KAr\r^r and in widening 

net Its yearly repairs cost about S^iSQO CKa. 33.(KXI). It haa 

trsvullurs buni:atowK, beginning from KarwiU- one each at 

riir, SaTiksal, AilWl, YtUipur, and Kitv-atti. The KumU- 

rar r<i>id by Hirs'i and tlm Dovtmaiii pass, nitli a length of 

mi- breadth of twentr to twenty-four feet, meets the 

Ki>- I r at Vrrrgntti or Krgati. Esci-jit for thi; linst four 

and a half fruin Kiinita, the road in metallc-d throughout 

?ranit« and »clitst It Is also bridged except at Devgi Ihrue 
rom Knnita. wbt>re the Tadri is crossed by ferry bouts. It 
ibight Lravillrrs' bungalnwa, beginning from Kumta one each 
tmnca. I\at;^I, Dovinmni. Simipk.aiid, Sirsi, Ekambi. Falla, and 
l^wL TliL- outlay ill milking tiia road i» not rocoxdLvi ; ita jX'arly 
tr» amouut to ai^/ut l^UOv (lis. 34,000). TL» Ankola-Uelki road 
tcoAAt (yirt-road seventy-three miles long. It has Hve travellers' 
gftlowa. hegitiiiin<; from the north one t-ach at Ankola, Gokaro, 
jAn, Honiirnr, and Munlcshvar In addition to tlicae tninlc-ronda 
ky branch line? imvi* Ijeen made of vvdiich the following may be 
3. Tlie Ktiiiitji-DhilrwAr road has lioen joined by eight brunch 
from the Dli^irwar fn'idit^^r, at Mundgod, by the 
1 iir rond twenty-five iitib'-- long; at Palla, by the 
tuctalM Palla-baakapur roa<1 of two mUcs nxade at a 
: ,. J (Rt 750) ; at Ekjunbi. by the bridged and metalled 
ibi-Samat^gi roud of &ix miles ; at Sirsi by three roads, the 
unuiftjjled Sirflt-Banav^i road of fourtwn milen witJi a 
Ihirs' buugnlow at BnnnvAsi, the Sirai-Yclliipur local fund fair 
ft road ticitber briilgiti nor metalled of thirty miles, and tho 
-Kodkani local fund rdaii i^-mitorttrlly bridged and uiim>j-Lalled 
Uriy-threvmi)(>A with a travellei-s' 1>tingalow at Siddopur and at 
*taui ; atSaiiipkand, by the Samnkarid-Kumta road through tha 
^tiud pasH. utimctalie<l. partially bridged and purtiully piuisablQ 

■ oitU, of tliirty-une milt- jt with a travellers' bungalow at Hautgal ; 
[and at Kali'id by the schist- metalled Katgal-Vppinpattnn road, a 

■uuccting the main line with Uppinpattan. the 

i - point on the Tadri river. 

i\ nrwar-Obirwdr rond Is joined by seven branch lines : Begin- 

-m Uie DIiArwfir frontier, it is joined at YellApur bv four 

roads, thi; uninetalled and temporarily bridged YelUpur- 

- -irt-road of about twentv-iiiiie miles with an iron bridge 

:idi built at a cost of'alwut £7&l>0 (Ra. 75,000); the 

Ipui-ivaiga bridgcl cart-nJad ot about fifty -four miles, which, 
at a oo9t of about X34^00 (Ra. 3.4S,000), iros abandoned m a 
■ n»-4 

IBombft7 Ou*» 



(3i&pter TI. 




Provincial road and bas lieen completed (1 8S2) at a cost of a' 
£li}O0(Rx. 16,000) and wmamtaiiibd from local fuDd8;tho Ycl~ 
BarhAlli fair weather road by Canesbgudi of figbteen 
and the YelUpur-HaliyAl temporarily bridged fair froatber road 
thirty mibw with throe tna&onry bridges built at a coat of*a[ 
£6000 (Rs. liU.OOO) ; at HebbQl, two nnles south of Sunka^, 
U«bbul-Sdnikatta utunetalled and bridged road of aboat 
milea lt?adiiig to the motith of the Tadri ; at Agsxir, at)o\it ciglit tin 
WMt of Hfibbul, by the Agsiir-Sirsi temporarily bridged and 
gravelled or murumed road, about forty-three miles loug 
passable forcart^ thirty-three inilen from Sirsi to the steep top 
the Vadi pass; and at llaltigali, about six milesweetof A^ur, by 
UDnictalUtd Agstir-Ankota roa*!, of two milea Tlie Kedra-llel: 
road is met by four branch roadH and four passes : Beginning 
the DhSrwdr fn»iitiHr, at Haliyal by three rondn. the Kalgh: 
Haliydl fair weather road of fourteen miles ; the Halij-Al-Dh 
bridged and nnmctalled road of four niileH; and tht> Hali 
Belffaam bridged and unmctallcd road of nine mllee to Lingam 
bnitt at ac'ntof about £5140 (R^ 51.400} ; and at Supa by 
partially bridgyd fair wcathtT fort-st road of about t\> 
miles. The four bill-pasMi!» ounut-ctud with the Kailr:. 
road atv, the Kuveshi of thirte^-n mii^. the Di(^ of ui^riiit'^'u, 
Kuudal of Kcveu, aud the Dhokarpa of nix. AJI of them arc t 
tracks joining the Kadra-Belgaimi road with Goa territory. 

Besides these branch roads, there are five lines auconnccted 
any of the trunk roads. The Gci-sappa-Talgappa road of a 
tw'enty-iivp miles leiwis by the well-known Kodkaiii falls to Talgaj 
on the Maisur frontier, llie road is uniuctulk-d but bridgt!d lui. 
witJi tenipomry wooden bridge.'*. It ba-* a travollers' bt " " 
Kodkani. The road was built in 1854 at a co«t of about] 
(Ra. 78,500). Both the .Sidd^pur-Maiaur road of Uve milag 
but not metalled, and the Banav^i-MaLiur fur weatlier road i 
niilex, lead into MaiHur. Tlie Konay-Kodibilg bridged and metall 
rood of two miles, is an extenMon of the K&rw&r-Dli^rw&r roai 
and tlie UKiMla-Tinai fair-weather road by Jagaltiet. of four mil 
joins the Supa-HaliyAl i-oad with the Tinai hill-poas. 

Of thirtLH-n t<)ll-i»rs eight are on Provincial and Sveareon 
Fund loaiJa. Of the eight Fro^nnclal toll-bars three are on 

Kirwir-DhArw^ road by tho Arbail imisr. one each at Ai 

SonksAl, and Telldpur ; tiu-eo on the Kumta-DhitrwAr road b^ 
Devimani pafls, one each at Ekambi, Nitikcni. aud Kamanguh ; < 
on the Oersappa-Talgappa road by theGt-rsappa pass at Malfj 
and one on the DharwAr-TiuaighAt road by Stipa and llaliyal 
Tiitni. Of the five local fund totl-baiK two am on the Snnkfl 
Kunita road, one eacli at Gundballa and Bargi ; one on the Si| 
Kumta road by the Nilkuud pa«.t at Santgal ; aud two on the 
ddpur- Kodkani road, one each at >SiddApar and Killer. The 
revenue amounted to about £5180 (K«, 61,800) in 1882 
£5250 (R». 52,.50O) in 1»81, that is a fall of about £70, J 
Provincial receipts in 1882 being £ ls50 (Its. 4>8,&00) againt 
(Ra 48.150) in 18S1. and the local fund receipts to £830 (T 
agaioat £435 (Rs. 4350). 


01 ten bridges built over crcekji uad rivorn, the IlantluDadi wood 

bridge on tlit' Karwir-BliArwAr roaJ by tin* Arbujl pasH.has laterite 

ners HLnd ncvt.'n spann uf thirty feet cacti. It woa built in ) 874 from 

Provincial iuadu at a CMt of £3040 {Rs. ■t0,40<>). Tbo Ancgondi 

irood bridge on the Kuntta-Dh&rw&r road has granite piora and 

hreeRpaus of about tlurty-tbr«« feet each. It waa built in 1879 

from Provincial ftmds at a cost of about £^600 (Rs. 36,O00> The 

Benihalln wood bridge on tbi- KuiiiUi-Dbiirwir rood bas masonry 

piars and tivc Rpans of thirt7-thre« fo<>t each, It woa built in 1883 

rom Provincial funds at a cost of £282o (Rs. 28.2SO). llic Konay 

Eron gir<ler bridge over the Konay stream on the wharf-road in 

kArwir has iron piers and two spans of forty f«:fit each, It waa 

milt Id IMi4 from Provincial funds at a cost of £6703 (fU SJfi'SO). 

Tiiv llattik&ri iron bridge over the Belikeri cieek iu jKjikola has 

ffnuiitv pit-rs and four ftpaiis, two of fortv-two and two of tifty-four 

Mt. It was built in lH7Ifrom Provincial funds at a coat of X-HSQ 

Ba. 34.390). The Taltihalla brick -arched bridge on the HaliyAl- 

lelgttQSi rood haa pimite abutment6 and three spans, one of sixty and 

wo of twenty-five feet each- It was built in iH75 from forest and 

Provincial funds at a cort of £2^39 (Ra. 2S;}90). llie Birchi wood 

}-'■'- . .:) the Haliyftl-Supa road ban ma.'^onrj' piciTi and four ripans 

thirtv-jwven feet each. It was built in 1882 from Provincial 

nasatacoHtof«23-l7{R«.23,470). Thf.»vondT«ttihjiIlB 

[raij 1-d brid^ on tlie Haliydl-Yt-llApur road liaa thrue spans 

[rf fortv t'cct eacK It wan built from forest and Provincial funda 

bt a coat of £3563 (Rs. 35.630). The Sidlvgundi iron latice-girder 

ndgo on the Volhipur-BankApnr road has granite piers and three 

pana, one of *ighty-fiv8 feet and two of twenty feel eacli. It was 

milt in 1872 from Provincial funda at a cost of £7536 (lU. 75.350). 

The Bedti wood bridge on the YcU4pur-Sirai road has gnuiifce piers 

ind ten spans of thirtv-flve {set each. It was ):>uilt in 187U from 

orest and Provincial funds al a coat of £2007 (Ra. 23.070). 

K^nara h comparatively well mipplied with nccommodnlion for 
nivellpr8,liavin^twent3'-fourtravL'lIeni'andlbreGdiHtrict bungalows 
md furty-eight rcst-bousea or dharmehdlds. Of the twenty-fonr 
ravfllcrs' bungalows sixteen are Provincial and eight local fund, 

ind elcvi-n arc rnthn coast and thirteen iu the upland sub-divisions. 
►no travctier*' bungalow at Kirwiir in Provincial ; of the three in 

Lnkola, the one at Stinksdl is Provincial and those at Ankola 

ud Oundbala are local fund ; of tlie 6ve iu Kumta. those at Kumta. 
nd Katgal arc Proviuciol and those at Santgal, Gokarn, and 
jirj^n are local fund ; of the two iu HonAvar. at Hondvar and 
iurde.'ihvnr, both arc local fund ; the one at Konoili in Snpn is Pro- 

ifincinl ; of the five in YellApur, at YellApur, Arbail, Kirvatti. Palla. 
nd Mniidgod. all are Pi-ovineial ; of the five in Sinii, at Sirsi, 
)eTiinani, Sampkood. Ekambi, and Banav&si, all are Provincial ; 
md of tha two in SiddApur, at SiddApur and Kodkani, both arc 
MaJ Comi Of these twc-utv-four bungalows seven are of the first 
lam. at Kjirwdr, Kumta, Jwntgal, HonAvar, Yelhipur. Sirsi, and 
lodkaui. The first class bungalows or© well supplied with tablefl, 
chairs, anil crockery, and charge a daily fee of 2». {Re. 1). 
ffltnftining scvcutoeu are second class bungalows. They ai-o 

Uhapter TI. 



[Bombftf Ouiti 


Chapter VI. 


supplied though less completely with the name Brtidw aa the 
clusa bungalows and charge a daily fee of 1«. (ti ans.). Tho Ka 
Provincial first class bungalow, at the vilhige of Baitkul on 
Kiirwfii--DI]^rwiii-i-oad, waabuiltiQ IS65atsoOBt of JtW5 (Ka. 
It is a laterite-built bungalow with a tiled roof and hua ihr»c-' 
rooms, two dresainji-rooiiis, and thre^ batli-rooms. with v 
Of llie three Ankola bungalows the Fnnksil I'rovinciid ■ 
on the KdrwAr-D'harwAr moA tvoh. built from local fuudsin IHtia 
coetof Xl)3(ll0.!f3O). It iAmud-walled, tilc-rooFi-d. aiKlhaatwo i-o 
veran<Ius, and out-lioUHos. 'llie Aukola local fund buM^nlowoii 
Aakola-KumtAroad was built in 1:433 at a cofitof jCI^ (Kfi. ISO). 
in mud-wallfd, tbattli-nwfed, and h&ti two rooms and out-ho: 
The GunJbala local fund bungalow ou the Hircgutti-H'-'hu 
was built ill 182a at a cost of i.18 (R«. 180). U is uuwl-waikd 
til^roofcd and has two room» with ont-howios. Of the tivo Ku 
baomJowA thv Kuuitu tlrsl cIuks Pruviudal bungalow, at the 
of Hati-Hcrvatti on tho Kumta-DhArw^ road, woa built in H 
Bt a cost of £10+ (Rs. 1940) and was rt-paircd iu 1^71 from 
fands at a cost of £19 (R& 190). It is latoi-ite-built and 
roofed, and bus two rooms with out-houst-R. The Kat[<al Troxn 
bungalow on tho Kumla-DhArwArroiid was built in IhoU at a 
o££t)l (Ra. 910). Itidiuud-wolled&ndtbatvh-roofcd.anH has t 
rooms and out^house-s. The Santgal fii-st class local fund himgal' 
on the Kumta-Sirsi roa<l tlirough the Kilknml pftss was bultt in 
18+2 at a cost of £51 (Rs. 510) and repaired in l87;i fnjm I 
funds at a cost of £50 (Rs. &00). It in mnd-wallcd and tilc-roor 
and liQJH four ruonut nnci out-houses. The Ookam locol fund b 
low on tlie coiwt bridle road wa.s built in 1825 at a cost of 
(Rs. 4^)0). It in niud-WfUlcd and thatch-roofed, and has tbrcc- 
witli out-liouseH. 'Hie Mirj^ hx^aJ fund bungalow on the 
Bolki cooat TOad w&s built in 1634 at a cost of £10 (Ra. 
and repaiii-d In 1873 from local funds, at a cost of £60 (Bs. 
It is aiud-waUcd and tilc-roofcd, aud has thi'ce rooms with 
houses. Of the Uuiitlvar bmigiUuw-i the UunAvar tirst class 
fund bungalow ou the Ankola-Bolki coa«t road wa» built in t 
from local funds at a cast of £208 (Ra. 2080), It ia Ial4!ritc- 
and tile-roofed, and has ^ rooms and out-hou^es. At Murdesh 
a small mud-walled building Ui usod oa a tcuvellera' bungalow 
which no fees arr charged. It is maintained by local funda. ' 
Supa I^ovincial bungalow, at the villugo of Konadi near Supa 
the Kadra-BclgBum road by the Anslii pass, was built in 1!^7£ frai 
local Funda at a eoatof £100 (Its. lOtiO). It is brick-built a: 
tik'-roofuil. and lia-s one large room and out-houses. Of the fi 
Yellfipur bungalows the YelMpur first clft.s8 Provincial buugaloi 
on thfi Kiirwtir-Dharwar road by the Arbail pass wtt» built in 
1868 from Imperial and local funds at a cost of £913 (IU 9130). 
It is brick-built and tilc-roofed, and has four rooms aiidout-ho 
The Arbail Provincial bungalow on the KArwsr.DhitrwAr 
was built in 1868 from local funds at a cost of £ 1 02 (Rs. 1 0: 
It is muH-walled and thatch -rowfed, and ha-s one room, vcrani 
and out-hoiLses. The Kir\'atti I'rovjncial bungalow ontli« KAi 
Dh&rwAr rood was built in 1868 at a cost of £99 (Ra. 990). 



f^ured in 1870 at a cost of £57 (Rs. 570), both fi-om local fondfi. 

u lateritv-butltaud tUc-rooft:<l aud has two rooms and out-hous^s. 

Fnlia Provincial bungalow on thu Ktimta-Dliiu-war road was 

in 1824 at & coat of £22 (Rs. 220). It is brick-walled and 

h-roofeil, mid has two rooms and oat-hou-ses. The iluridgod 

tDcial huiipilow oil the Kuiuta-DhArwnr mad waa built in lo56 

Tcostof £70(R4 7011). It is brick- walk-d and thateh-roofed.and 

tvm rooiun utid out-hmuca. Of thu five Birsi Iningaton-A tlie Sirsi 

cUi^ Proviucial buDgalow on the K Uinta- Dbarwar road waa 

It in lo43 at a co»t of £2<il (Rs. S6I0). It itt Utarite-buUi aad 

}fed. and ha:^ two rooms and oub-bouM&. Th« Duvimani 

bungalow od the Kumta-Dhiirwir ro»d was built in 1S5S 

cost of lib;; (Ra. lS2(.i) and repaired ia 1870 from local fund* 

a cost of iso (lis. Hint). It is 8tone-built and tile-roofed, aad 

. two rooms and ouL-honaes. The Sampkand Provincial buumlow 

m th« Kumta'Dhiirwar road was bailt in 1855 at a cost ^ £68 

(^0>aud icpaired in 1871 from local funds at a coHt of £30 

9. 300). It is Diiid-wiillvd, and bamboo and tile roofud, and has 

to room^ and out-houscs. The Ekanibi Provincial buugaluw on the 

tomta-Dhitrw-jir road was bnilt in 1 8cr> at a cast of £70 (Rs. 700). 

■ uinud-Wttlted aiid thatch- roof etl, an<l h&it two rooms and out* 

The Banavjisi Provincial bungalow on the Sirsi-BonaviKi 

A w»» built in 16^3 at a cost of £16 (Rs. 160). It ia mud- 

Ued and thatcli -roofed, and has one 'room and oat-houses. Of 

[|he thn.-e Stddapur bungalows, the SiddiLpur local fund buugalow, 

Lt the \'illage of Koiidii on the SirKi-Kntlkani road, was built in 

ie$8 at a cost of £6-^ (Hh. 650) and ri^paired in 1871 and 1874 at a 

of £W7 (Ra £ffO). both times from local funds. Iti-s mud-walied 

tilo-TOofed ondhoa four roointi and out-liuUHCit. The Kodkoni 

ciasa local fund bunj^tow on blie Gcnuippa-Talguppa road waa 

, lilt in 1872 from Iinnerial funda at a cost of £1465 (Rs. 14,650), 

It is sUme-built and tilr-roofcKl, and has seven roomH and niit-houaes. 

ides the twenty-four travelluiV bunjialoWM. there are tliree district 

Jow5, on(i each at Sailanbivgad in K^m'dr, at ilaliyal in 

. and at Sirm. The SadiUhivgad bungalow is attht vilfage of 

[Cbitakul on a hill-top near thuhi^'u-roadlcadiDg from Sadit-shivgod 

I into Uoa It is Uterite- built aiid tile-roofwl, and has four rooms and 

lODUhouscs. It was bought for £120 (Rs. 1200) in the year 1872. 

je Haliyiil bungalow van built in 1827 at a cost of £18 (Ra. 180). 

jjt ia briek-built and tile-roofod and has a large room and out-hoosca 

|Tho Sirsi bungalow on the Kumta-DhilrwAr i-oad was built jn 1866 

I from Inipcrial funds at a cost of £'iGl (Rs. 41 CO). It is latcrite- 

[built ajxu tile-roofed and has six rooms and out-houses. 

Of n;*t -liousos, which arc culled <lharmahdla« or charity-houses 
|b«»us« truvelk'i-s have free quarturs, thero are fiftj\ seven in 
iKirwilr. six in Ankola, six in Kumta, ux in Uonavor, nino in Supa, 
jloar In Vell^ur, seven in Sirsi. aud five iu Stddilpur. Except some 
[which are brick-built in a qoadrangular shape with a courtyard 
tin tilt centre, the rest-houses as a rule are bmlt of laterite with six 
ItO ten unconnected rooms and surronndod by a three feet hijgh 
[maaonry parapet wall. Except five or six which are roofed with 
Ibatch or p«lra Icnves, the rest-houses si-e tilo-roofcd. Though 

Chapter VL 









without f(irnitun>, the accommodatjoti is good and is suit 
hoiri spv«ml families. Eacll rest-house is HUppUwi with a wd 
from local funds. Except two built hy private iailivirJuaU 
Uiree or fuur from Imperial and maaicipfll fuuds, most of th^ 
hoiUHM have been built from locaJ funds. The aveiBge cost < 
rest-houM is about £1LM) (lU 1000). 

Except on the smaller rivers and creeks which, during the 
season, are fordabic at low water, public rerriu* are kept on i 
chi«f rivers and creeks for the transport of goods ftiid ps^oge 
Of thirty ferries maintained from local funds, two work only ilni 
the rainy season and the remaining twc^nty -eight throughont' 
year. Of tlicse nine work over the Kfilinadi. seven in Ksu 
and two in Supa ; thirteen in Kumta, six over the Tadri, futir ■ 
the (Jaiif^iivali, and three over amall creeks ; four iu HcmAvur. 
each' over the ShirAvati, the HaWipur, the Venktapur, and 
Tuddlli ; nod two in Sirsi both acros.*^ the VardhA. The two 
vork onlv during the rainy seawn have been lately opened fr 
local funds ae public ferries, one cm the Mavinhalla creek and 
other at Manki in Honfivor. The ferry revenue amounted to »l 
£I«5A (Rs. I6,M0) in 1880, £1525 (Ra. 15,SoO) in LSHl. and tlSl 
(Ra. 15.750) in l.MHg, that ia a fait of l\2& (Rs. 1290} in 11 
compared to 1880, and a riae of £50 (Ra. 500) in 18SS compared { 

K&uara form» part of the Dh£rwlLr postal division. Besides 
chief receiving and diubunnng office at K&m&r, it contains w\ 
teen sub ami eleven village post offices. The chief disbui 
office at KiLrwitx is in charge of a paituiasU'r who dmw.s a yea 
salary of £108 (Rs.IOSO) with ou tatablishment whicli oo8ta_ 
(Bfl. 1800) a year. The seveuteen <iub-offici>:.<t at Ankola. Bi~ 
Banki-kol, IJanav&^i, Bliatkal, Gokam, UaliyfU, Hon&var, 
Manki, Mundgod, Murdesh%'ar. SadiwhivgaJ, SiddApur. Sir«i. 
and YelUpur, are in charge of sub-postuiaHterH, drawing £IS 
£60 (R«. 120.Rs. 000) a year. Tliu eU-vcn village post offic«8>| 
Avaraa, Haldipur, Islur, Karki. Kasorkoda, Majali. Malgi, Mud| 
Fulls, Sambraui, and Shiralli arc in charge of village .schootmai 
who receive, in addition to th'cir pay as Kchoolnio-Hteni, ye 
allowances varying from £2 &«. to if 4«. {Ka 24- Ra. 72). Ld 
are delivered at Kiirwir by three postmen, at Kuiuta by two, _, 
at each of the renmining snib-omcca by one postman, all drawii 
yearly sotarics of £9 Ok. (Ks. 96), except out poHtiniLn at KArwJ 
who drawH £12 (Rs. 120) a year. At the village post office lettl 
are delivered by poHtal runners who receive yearly from £1 4t, 
££ 8». (Rs. 12-Ra24) for this additional work. Of the 101 _ 
runners ninety-five are paid yearly from £7 -fa. to £9 12«. {iCi.' 
Ba. 96) from Imperial fundH, and the remaiiiingsix who run on 
YeU^ur-Uund^od postal line are paid £8 8a. (Rs. 84) a year fntl 
Provincial funds. The post ofBcen are supervised by the trnpei 
tendent of poet offices. Dhi^rwflr Dinsion. who hiu a yt-aily aoI 
of £408 (Rk4080). Tht- superintendent is assisted in Kituaral)) 
inspector drawing £iHj (Rs, 960) a year. The threeduef postal '. 
arc the Ktirwdr-Hubli line by tlic Arlml pass, 104 miles long 


iVtlv^Ut-BAititlar coast line froiii nortli to south, seventy-two milea 
ilooa ; aii'i i\w Kuiuta-Sin*i line, thirty-ninp milts long. Mails from 
to Boniimy are carried once a week by steamera for [C^rvrdr 
nmgliout thf year. 

The two telegraph offices at Kirvrfir and Knnita are of the tliird 
clans, working for sevoo honm a day from t4;n in Uie uiormiig to 
ill the evenii^ during wwk days. Kitrwjtr is joined to DhArwdr 
lelegrapb Hoe on the K&rw&r-Dbi&rwdr road by the Arb&il 
tnd Kumta to Kirw^r by a hrauch line. Both the- ofticea 
'liich aro auppUed with the Simoo's Relay and Soander instra- 
mentfi, arc in charge of telegraph masters, the one at Kfixw^ 
drawing a yearly mlary of £21ti fit. (Ba. 216^), and the one at 
Komta £102 {Hh. 1020). each having an estahlishinRnt which costs 
£t4 (Ha, 240) a year. The meftRagoB sent from K^rwar were 5555 
in lSt^2 against 5155 in 1S8I. For seven ye«rs hotwcn^n 1865 and 
1K71 ttie Kirwtlr telegraph ofBce wan of tho first clutu* with one 
lel(vniph numt^M and foor signallera. As, owing to the decrease ol 
Im^ at RirwAr, there xfoa a. fall in the nunitKT of uiesjugea the 
^Affice was rvdaccd in 1872 to the third claw. 

Of tho three light-houses, two are at Kixwir and one at Knmta. 

Tlie Oy«ter-rock, iinrth lat lt°-t9'25* east long. 74° 2' 50", is a 

fixed white dioptric light of the first order, on a white granite 

Buuionry tt^wer whteh riHe;; leventy-two feet above the top of the 

Oyeter-rock or Devgod i*le in KArwAr ba.y sod i» about 210 feet 

above high water. It can \je tuHin in clear weather from the 

Jock of B ship twenty-five mile^ off and light<.-n9 an area of ahoat 

iiirt: miles, ft was built ill 1B6+. Konay, north lat. 14° 48' 

I long. 76' 6' 40", has a red ftxed ship's port-side light, dia- 

playeii from the KlLrwitr port oflBce on a white tlug^taST aixty fe«l 

irom the ground and sixly-five above high water. It can be w»n 

Uma a ahip'n deck live milv-.s off and ligh^as an arc of 3^** Beawatd, 

It was built in 1864. With the light bearing east-south -cost, a vessel 

, eau anclior in three to five fathoin-t. Kumta, north lat. 14" 25' 10" 

long. 74° 22' 55", is a lixtxl whiti' light, a common lantern with 

buruera, on a wliiU; lateritf column sixty feet above the top of 

i conical hill I2(i feet high, at the month of the Kumta crt-ek and 

ibout a mile and a half from the town. It can be seen in the fwr 

jWcstber from a ship's deck nine miles off and Hglitens an arc of 

[ISO* «eftwaid, or an area of fifty-four H(|nare milea It was boilt 

Fin ISfiS. 


products for which K^nara is famoas, it« pepper, whit« 
Iwood, betelnut and l>et«] leave-H, npicea, and rice, the iron 
Fo? Maisur, and the fine muslin* and painted cloths of Dhilrwir 
and lit^lgaura. are among the chief articles in the earliest records 
of Indian trade. Theite records go back with certainty to B.c. 1000, 
the time of Solomon and the great Phoenician traders, probably 
to B.C. 1500, possibly to a very much higher antiquity.* The 


I Compure Th« Rev T. Foulkcai in Indliin Anliqiikry, Vin, la 


[BambB]r < 



CbftpUr TL 



ncAriieHs to HonSvar and Bbatkal of tho sucieut eapi( 
Bauavasi, of which rcconl rcinttiu.i an early ob B.C. 260, 
mention in Lhe Jaiu vuruiou of the lUtu&yau make it prol 
that trade haa centred at Uouivar from vcnr vatiy timea. 
first mention of HoiiAv&r is uuder the Form Naoura in the Oi 
Periplus of tho Erythrnean «ca whose probablo date is a d. 2*7^, 
the dost MimUarity of the names, several of the earlier 
writors on India idontihod Mirj^n alKiut t«n miles □( 
UontLvur. with Muziris, which was one of the leading: cent 
Greek trado with India during the first, Hceond, and thinl cent 
of the Ohmliau era.' The details given in the Periplus that Nt 
Is tho tirst port in Liinurike. that is Damurike or the Ta 
country, and uiat after Naouracotno Tundie, Nelkuada, and Uot 
if Naoma i«t identitiBd with Uonavar, would place Mouzinfl mi 
fxirthcr south than Jlirj&n, And the diecovory hy Bishop 
and Br, Kurncll that the once famoas (fourtwnth oeutury) 
Krangaiior in Malahir, about fUteon miiea uurtb of Kochiu. waal 
early times known as Muyiri or ilii^-irikotta is now oecepU^j 
proving the identity' of Uuziris aud Kraugauor. None of the On' 
or Rontan writers give details of tho trndo at Naonra or HonAt 
But m most of the leading artidt» wcr^ prahahly the saiue at 
two porta the followitig details arc taken from the Pcriplua 
of the trade of Nflkanda. The exports were, pepper in 
quanUtics, superior pearls, ivory, tine silks, spikenard, midaf 
ron that is tamdlapatra or tejpai from the eastern countrios, tr 
parent stones, diamonds, ruhies, and tortoise-shell.' The imi 
were, great quantities of specie, topazes, plain cloth, fine cl 
Btihium, coral, white glass, hr&ss, tin, lead, a little wine, einiut 
orpimenti and corn for the ship,* 

* DoUil* aro given under Mirjln, 

■Tiucout'aComtiurcaof llie AQoicnte, TI.4S7-4e«. Vinoent t4fiS) tli« 
tntbrDn was th« botal leaf. Bat Vule |C«tfaftj, icur.) iikotilie* it witb ' 
ptUra Lnitrua eaa«ia, a }tai with oulmaiuit ulovo-like vniell. 

■ Viaceut, IL 4A'--lfi9, Altor 'vamnin'bhaaa, nliich ii AppwutUf to Jtt 
ia jiutttil'ly a Greek reuiieniiif ut lU)apur, tlio uutlinr of thi! Pcriplut (f 
Oaogr»E>liiw Hcriptaret : Vincents Coamiefte of tlin AneiBnU, H.JST-'H'fl; Mci'Y 
129* 1301 »va: 'Yon caruiriiuil Utttie iHlaixli c^lkil Suickntinai ui<! tbc inlami all 
Aigidiai anil tliat vf iLe Kaitit^iUi.Dcar wlisliitcaUvtl tiic KliureoacBUF, place* id »*I 
UW piraUis, "ml »fl"i Uiw tli.i ioWiil u( Lvulio vr tlio Whit?. Tlivu (cllvw Nfti 
and Tundit, tho lirot innrtaof Limurikc, aiiilaft^rlbcse Moimria ami Nvltcunila,* 
olgOTin'iinii-iit.' or tbpRo plaoea thu t^M^kMioai idantta are probably Uie I'en)) 
roua, wliich. thoagli too far to tlie auutli, piiasibiy ajiii-ar is Piulcvi): ll* 
Edition, US) tinilrr tho name a( Ojanipilinur Vautfalio. I'lie ialaiid (j< tbe , 
whieh appcan in l1«l«By tBartiua' Kjituni, '^1.1) as AiKiiliiin, lo the neijtk 
»[ Vuifpalia, and like it mucli tOd fur in tlie aouth, is placed by ViiuMiiil 
BDMeo of the Anoienta, H. 4S.t) at Uon, b<it apparently >• Anjidiv, Th^ 
of the Kaineitai u doubtfni. It appftrvntlv la Ptoirtny'a Canatbra (Urftina'T*^ 
213) wbicb ho pUcca dmt tha island o! the Ai(-iiLui, mudi fnrUirr auutli ti 
Ktoan coaat. NciUi. Iho srcoiid jiart of Kaiitnilai. aujuiMta NuttAiii at 
lalaad, f«ny-l]vc mila aoutb of Aujiiliv aud alioiit twnntytivc mitcn >cnith-wr 
HoUvar. Ttio cloae rwce-'ibUnoe of thu iinitie iH!i.>in« to identify .^tctrani 
PUnjr'a (A.ti. 77 j Nfttnral Ili«tnry, VI, 23) Nitriaa, ■ place where piratM and I, 
gatJiared anil tmu Mel wunlx nntbeirway toUnziria, •wh'vk iinliiKnt certainly Ml 
or KranjpuioTBbnnt fiftoen miles uorth of Kochin (Ciildvdl'a UravidiaBUnuflnuv ■ 
Aaaiaat iha idcntiiiiatjiFH of riiny'a Kitriaa irith Ibn ialand Ketrtni thai«J 
Ptokony'a (Bcrtiui' Editii'n, 11:18) trade centre or empomim of NitndoM to tfaei 
«f Ttmdia. Nitnt Ium IMcCnadle'a Periploa, ISO) Imm anppMod to be a 


It nui.y tie KUiypaseKl wJtliout miicli danger of eirof thnt KitrwAr, 
Ohitillcul. or liotne othtjr place at tlie tuoutb of the K^liniuli ui tliit 
WKtb of t}i« ilutrict, aD<] 3[ii'J.-in, Hoiidviir, and Bhatknl hi tbe 
wath sharetl in the pcppor ti-a/ie for vrhicb from the sixtli cuatury 
Uj the foart<!i«!tith century the Malalxir coast, continued faoious.' 
Hie only references which havo been trace^l to KAnara port« aft 
pUc«s of trade durins the loiij; jMsriod bftwix-n th« Peripltw (247) 
aoid the arrival of tho Portu>;UL'!«3 <1498) art* the in«ntion of 
Honivarhy thf gr-o^ajihrr Ahvil-Hda (1273- 1331),* of Bhatkal hy 
JordaiiUH ill 1321,'of Siiidahurthjit isChilakul am! of HonAvar by 
n>ri Hututjk ill 1342.' and of Hundvar hy thf Persian Hinhas.sador 
AUl-er-RazzaU hi 14'-l4.' Fi-oni tht? lime of tlio eoiit]u»<st of Upper 
India l>y the MusalmAns tnthuLlcvi-nthaiid twelfth cfMituriet, a supply 
of horK^*! from Arahia and Persia hecuiue the uiOHt pressing want 
of Southern India. 'Hha import of boraes was probahly a very old 
tiaile. It is certainly as old as the sixth century, as Koamas Indiko- 
j.Icifif..', (53-1) mentions that horses were brou";ht item Perftia to 
''- Bui in tho luttor part of tliu thirU'entn century, the feflr 
.if>n by tho horlo!^ of iiorlht-rri horsc-incii, .ttu'iny to have caused 
a great, increase in cJie import of ho»cs into Southern India.'' 
Early tii the fourteenth century (1336) the cstahliKhmcotofupower- 
hit rfvuBstv at Vijayaiiagor, with control over the coast, must havo 
•iMeil much to tho trade in the Kiinarft ports. Kintj DovrjiJ (1420- 
1415) i» ftiLid to Imve been warned in a dream that his only cliancu 
of hoMing his own with the Bahmani kin^s wm hy addhig to hia 
k uf horoee. aod during the rest of the ^beentb century a great 

Chapt«T VI. 

. of th«?nriplaf NAourm.wliich. pmbttbl^ mrrrctly, ta tslien tabe aootrnption of 

1 — T1i«a«ii)«NitT«i:M) luknllyboaiaiBtBkofor llie nameNaoars, uxl, an licfora 

tliojiljut Vint wivirll knovru (utila [ •«i>bu pn>bal>]i: tlmt Piulsnij Si-.lrAni witli tho tmJoo«ntr>: of Himi^varnin Ikti nuijjMivtiriui' comI. 

I K.I' i~.,^-~ni or[>eaiiuiilaM<ar vrhi'^ tlic iRlaiid KsuiuiUi tif««eani8 to bo tueaame 

iT^aleniT'BKherauaMua(H(rnius' Kilitian, lUlS). ViocSBt (Commeroo of thu AuuknUt, 

\483) I'leoti&ai th« KhenoneauB vith doit, tho only pcnlaifuU oo th« couit. Tiiia 

Liwt agrao well with tbitauittactioutliittlhaialand of tliv Kniuoibti uNetrAuJ, buluo 

' idtinKficftlion tma bg oflSicJ. The uUnd of L«uk« vt tho \Vitt« appqurs uodtr 

a* ttBBM til [Ho1m»« iB«rtiui' ICditloit, 306). Ur. U. K. Camly. tbc i:.Jlc«U>r 

nggorts thkt Lauko in thu jiToap of nine iKlruuln wull knowu u tba 

jin, nlvtut Itl0mil«i Hfntli-woRt of NetrAni. four .>f wlibli »« <I<itcribcd by 

Inme f^tray Fmtbori, IV. 4-28. 431 , 436, 444. *ii] m [•avo'l with titi« uiow whit* 

iii<l. Tbo g\ir« t'i tbia whita coral would bcln th« dum^e of name fmni 

tlta to l^nkc or Utc ^VliiM. Naoon la nmctraUy. anJ probably curroctly, idoutj- 

' t'liBj'* trxle-ci'iitrv Nitni Ati(i may b« Pluiy'« pirat«-hftunt Nilmor 
rJioBeniH Nitrx Mid Nitrias seam to balnng to Nntntni ar 1'ig«ua 
. ^ .,,..;, ^»4 about twMity-llvo tuiltM auatb-weat of Houavar. TunilU, Nnlfcuoda, 
Ijsiiha bam beoD idHncitiud liy BUbop C«lilweU and Dr. Bamal) (Caldw^l'a 
dian Orainmar. 97 : Mu)) in DuriieU'a Souib Im^laa PaWigraphy) Tnndit with 
lanih ill Malabir about tea uuIm touth of KoJibat ; Uouurii vritli Moviri tbo 
B«o{ Knu^Mor abust iirvaty luile* uurtb »f Koubiu, auil Nolkuada with 
k about fift««D mttea nwth of Quilon. 
'la tb« nith etMirry C^inMta Indikoplemtea in Vincent. II. 491 -506 ; Yuls'a 
Utiay. exxsrii. ; Mtsaa^ Patrulogio; Curaai. 8L: in the fonrtwatb centtuy (L3tl) 
fwdauita' MirabiUa. 27, and Od«nc ia Yola'a Calbay, I. 71. 
• Yulr'a Cathay, 4)6 nolo 3 vul i5l. ■ .rordauut' Mirabilia, 10. 

.*aIli>Batuta. 164.166,174, 175. •U»jor'aIudiaittXVihC«[itMy,«,». 

r«U'« Catbay. c«xxT. 

'^ llt« gnat tnd« in barwa abont ISM dctalla aro given in Yshi'sMarca Polo, LI. 
f,,m : oooipare {ta«lii<l-u-din in EUiet and Dowvon, L fiW. 

B 816-7 





OiM, pUt VL trade in horaos centred in Goa, and after the explore of Ooa hjj 
Srada. Bijdpur Mu.saliu4ii» in 1469 in Hoiiivar and BnatkaL' 

HliUirjr, In the beginuing of Iht sjxtwnth century the chief cent 

IfiOO-lCOa trade wi're ChiUkul or Sadi^sliivgsd, Hoii;trar. and BhatI 
In 1505 Vartlwnia mcnfciotm many Moorish mercliAiits at 
kul and at Bhatkat,' and in 19l4i Barbosa mentioDS verr 
mcrciol Hoor and Gentile tradon at BhatkaL* Of exports in 11 
iron wax si^iit from Bhatkal to all parts of India^ ana in 1&t4 
Uurgo quantities to tho Malab<ir c'>'wtt nnd OnDUz." In 15CA 
was aeni in great quantities from Bhatkal to all parts of 
In l&OS much rioo was sent froip Honilvar and ^Teat qi 
from Bhalkal.' In 1&I4 cheap nee was sent from Mil 
HonAvar to the Malabir ports and good white rice from Bl 
to the Ualsb&i- coaab and to Ormuz? In 1 503 engar was sent 
Bhatkal to all parb^ of India;* in 1505 abundance of 
especially of candied sugar was exported from Bhatkal;'* 
in 1514- much waa sent from Bhatkal to the Malaltdr coBjii 
to Ormoz." There was a small export of drags and spioes. 
1508 two Portuguese ships went to Bhatkal to take ckJ^-t•s,'' 
in 1514 there was an export of spices and drugs of which 
balau8 were the chief.'* Of imports in IflH copper was 
in large qiiaatitieit at Bhatkal anu sent inland when; it was 
into caldrons and coins, and there was also a nale for inunh 

silver, vermilUon. cnml, aluiu, and ivon'.'* From the Malah: 

oocoaimtrt, oil, and pnlm-angar were brought to Mirilln, Honfr 
and Bhatkal, and palm-wine and some imigM to Bnatkal.'^ 
chiof branch of trade was the import of hwws from Arabia 
PcnuB. With the Deccan and Vijayanagar kings the soppl 
horses was the chief object of trade. At Vijaynnagor, says 
thcuia in 1605, Iiors«-*s arc not reared ; them are few mart's and 
kiniM who hold the portu do not allow marosto be imjxirtfd.'* 
Ifiw Dalboquerqui; found that a siipplyof horses wuHwImliheJDi 
prLoces most valued- A promiac to st'cui-e thorn a monopoly of 
import of horH(.-s forni-s bhu chief indacoment held out by tjiu Po_ 
guese in then- treaties witli Vijavunogar in 1505, 1509, and IS 
with Bijipur in 1510;" withOiJarat m 1538; and with VijayaiMi 
in 1547. Barbosa in 1614 notices that all the Vijayanagar h 
were imported from Omini! and from Camtuty and that tliaj 
not live long. In 1505. according to Varthema..the Vijayan 
king had 4*),()00 horsemen whose norses were worth £100 to it 
{Pardaos 800- 500)," and uome of the a» much as £26t! (Pi 

> Mr. Muck- UK. Account of MaImUt. > Bfed^t EilitliMi, ISO. 

* Stonlrj- ■ Borbuiw, 78. * Threu Vpysgn of Vaaeo iIk Guha, 309. ' 

* Stan)i>]-> Barbuu, 78. * Thrrc Voya^-uM of Vauco <lft GuBtt, SUf. I 
' E*d«cr'» Virthcma, 120. 122: ■ Stanlcyn IUrl)«»». 78. 

* Thras Voykgca of Vwcv da QftiBA, 309. " CmI^ct'* VutbeBU, IQOl 

a Staalvy't &rbo«, 7S. " Coinmemtoriw of Dalboqnwtqn^ n. 63, 

■* SUiJay'a Barbou, 78. ■* J^tenli^'t Bvbowi, 78, 

<« Stftnlsy't Birfaou, 78. i' BaJ^jiir'i Xarthema. 

" Coupon BiitoiT C3iapUT aiul Com. IHlb. III. 21, 38 ; II. Ixv.; aabaidSaihi 

>* Appanntty tho fold ParJao, which aci-onling to Comu- Prederkk (tSCTi 

Inyt. 11. 346) waa wortii At. 9d. Tbe cilvcr fardw -mm wortb U- &>■ ('(m. 

II. 9S. Tbo Paniaa waa called Pajfoda by Kurotiean bacauee it bore tk« itoag* 

t«inpl«. It U tbe ume as the Mai»iu- i/im. BadgeT'i VartiMOWt ISO. 




S00)>* In 1514 Buboea estimated the nambcr of tho Vijayanagar 
nvdlry nt 20.000 aiirl their value at £100 to £200 (Duoo^ 300-ltOo) 
dir tlie -commoner honw8ftn<J to £300 to t:j:« (f>uca/« 900- 1000) for 
the best.* Besides in war, horsee were much u-s<mI i'nr corr^'in^; the 
wives of coptaiiLt luid ptinctral lonlK.* Barbosn notioeu that thcso 
boCBoa canie from Jazan, llah, and Alhor in Wesi Arabia, and from 
JCeber on the xonlh ona^t nf Araltin which bad vury large and good 
ImMmb wroeth in India IIGG to £200 {Ducats 500-600).* Very good 
m were alao to he hiwi in thf* Pen*ian Oulf which wore bought by 
UooTi^ of Ormm: who every yeAT Aeiit to India 500 to 000 and 
^mes as many as 1000.'' When the Portuguese caiue a great 
in liorses centered in BbntkaJ. In 1600 Dalbotiuenjuc ofKred 
Vijaymoagar king a monopoly nf the horses which were brought 
Ormnz to BhatkaL" In 1512, when he was tirmly est&b- 
»t Goa, it was one of Dalhoquerque's first cares to centra 
hone trade at Goa. and with thia objoct he built stables and 
300 men to look afkir the grass and fod<ler.' The supply 
oootinuftd the chief Rubject of n(>gotiation I>etwc«>n the 
itigueee and the Indian princes. In Da Castro's truaty with 
yaynnagar in 1547 the first provision is tlmt the Portuguoae shall 
id Arab and Persian horses to Vijayanagar and shall prevent tiiem 
to llijilpur.* In December 1567 C»«ar Frederick went from 
to Vijayanagar vnih mnie horni-mtrchauts whohadacomviuiof 
,b horses. He foum! the hor>ieKot' tht; country small and that 
^ prices were paid for Arab horsea Uigh prices were requirod to 
^co the horse-trade pay. It was veryoastly bringing horses from 
noa to Ormoz and trum Ormuz to Goa, iii ypite m the help which 
.ngnese Government gave by remitting the usual eight per 
daty on any ship which brought moi-e than twenty horaea. 
iving Goa each horse had to pay £14 (I*a'jo<Uui 42 of 6«. 8d, 
At Vijaynnogar Arab hordes fetclied from £70 to £22& 
300- lOOO).** Besides proving that the horse tra<le was still 
most important branch of traffic, Oiv 1547 treaty twtneen Doui 
r<MO da Castro and Vijayanagar shows that the Portuguese hod 
at Ankola and Hon&var; that grain. Bsltpetre, iron, and 
wore exported from the inland ports to tho coast ; and that 
tin, coral, vennillioii, mercury, silk, and other articles were 
from Portugal, Ormuz, and Uhiua." About 1554, Sindabur 
is Chitakul and ILmiivnT are mentioned in tho Mohil, or 
'kiflh Sc&mAn'a Guide, as starting points in the regular voyages 
Ad(>a." In the latter part of the tn^ntury thepeppur tra<le seems 
faavo risen in importajioa. In tho Portuguese treaty with the 


Chapter TL 



> BalgBr*a TmIIkidm, 126.. 
I* llMBHy'B KditMD, 90. Tlie dncnt ia sepamUT tha pardao. Compare BadeerV 
^ - 116. ' CoirMK in. ^. 

I BvbOM. S£, 31. Juan i' Jinn or GhMaa, Hall is Ali tbo limit between 
a, Alor is appwaitly Loliei, Xefaer iaSoahar or Shehir iu Hailmmaut, 
iJd Vutowt. II.T-faoiI UiiWm. I.Sl. • SUnley'i Bubou. 33. 42. 

DalK II. IXT. ' Com- 1Mb. HI. SO. 40. ' Sulwidioa, IL 256.S67. 

|» Omu Pnderick, ldi»-196l. Ilnkluyt's Voyages, [I. 3ifi. 
' ** fluIwiliiM Para a llitloria da India Portuguwca : Luboo, JSCft, P. IL 26i, 297. 
, " Jov. &*. »«c B«ig. V2, tfl. 



rBomlnjr Oatat 


dupter TI. 


■I5<H) 16UI. 

rjen of G^rsapps in 1540 xho is maJe to proniisB Uiat slie will ' 
p pepper.' Towards tliu close of the sixteL-nbli centarr J« 
Hughes OQ Linschot itieiitious that tJiere was a y^^arl^ tradi- of ?C 
to 8000 Pwiuvucae oumUux of pcppt-r whicli >vaa cousi ' 
Lest in India* Early in tlie scvenU-t'Oth centurj', iu ca 
of the sprcivl of Bijrtpnr power aionjr ll'*? KAnftrn. coodC, Kii 
to impoi-tuuce hs a plact- of trade aiid ItecaiQo the cliiel' [»orl ia 
BiJApur dominioTU.' Honilvar mamtaincd it? name ns a pepper ml 
the c|Uc«n of Ot.'rsappa from wlioav laodit the pepper came Ifcmg a " 
by tnc Porttigtiosc Kainhn de Piincnta tht' Pepp«r QutK-n * It 
chiefly the fiimc- of the pupper of Sonda antl Ct-r^Appa which indi 
Coarten's Compaiiv of Kiijflish merchantt^ to own fiictorifs in KAr 
and Bhatkal in USS and 1039.'^ Betwei^n IC&O and }6m u un 
export of tlie Hiiest nmslins was developed at KitrwAr. The dc 
was not woven iu Kiinara but above ttic Sahr^ris iu DL. 
where Ilnbli was a great weaving centre. Wh«i tl»e Viti 
dLitrictft were laid wa^e by Shivitji id 1672 the Knrwiir factonr _ 
their agents are said to have been employing o-s mnny as 50,C 
weavers.* Besides the great export of muslins KArwiir provi ' 
pepper, cardamoms, cassia, and coarse cloth or du/ngari. 
was a demand for lend and broadcloth.* It waft uminl for tlie Ii 
men or ships from Europe, after landing part of their cargo at St 
to drop down the coast to KMrw/ir, land mich impoi-ts as were^ 
demand, and take in local lading.' In IGCO Italda^us d«6cri| 
Kinara as rich in rice and other produce." In 16tJ5 the Kt 
factory had to pay Shiviji XU2 (Rs. 1120)." In 1670 the 
at the KjtrwAr fartorj- was prosperous." In lfi7il the Dutch 
Portugne.'iL* tUvided the trade of Honavar," In Hi7H Fr5'er nc 
that the Sonda or Kiirwar pepper was the best in the world, 
wan also the dearcHt as most of it wcut inland and little to EUin ~ 
The pppper«connti-y was supposed to yield the Sonda chi 
yearly revenue of £1,000,000 {Payothut 30 idkhi). Fryer also nc 
in the 8onth nome pepper and stores of betelnut and yd\d n^ 
meg-'* Tlip Houthorn pepper wm much valuwl and waa know 
trade as 13utliole from Bhatkal pepper." Minin sent pepper, j 
petre, and betelnut to Sui-at.'* The chief protiucta of ti>« diii 
were rice, -ndchni, millet, hemp, titrmeric, ginger, and potai 
The destructive raid.s of Shiv^ji were ruinuig trade,'* So 
was the dcpreiwioD that in 1678 and 1670 oniers weie tsst 
elos* the KdrwAr factory.'" In 1678 the Portuguono opened 
tories at Mirj;iii. CliaiidAvar, HonAvar, and BliatkaL** Iu 16SI 
Itjyi when th« Htnnigth of the factory at Ktirw^r was ir 
the object in said to have been to keep open the meous of get 

> Snbtidio*. [I. 357 ■ SfiS. ■ Nav)gfttian, SI. • Frrer'i Eatt India ud P« 

• D«l» ValJc ( l<J'.'St. III. Ifll. • Brow"." .AuimU, I. 4\n. 

■ nuniltou'n New Account, I. 367. ^ Dnicr's AuiikU, II. U3, IU. 

■ Bnrn'a Aan«l>, IT. US, 144. Siirat to Uio Court, 2&th Juaaf]; 16SS. 

• MkUbArud C*roniAnrtel CoMt AtuuU, I«72,fi8. 

» Aadvnen'B Weatsni IiidU. 7fi. >< Bruce'* AbmI*, II. 7M. 

» Fryer, 67. " Rul lu-liAiuxl Pomi*, tax " J'^w, IM. 

w CJontta Keriw. XXI. 864. « Ft>..r. fi8. " Frvw. I7B.177. 

w Fiycr, 163. " Bruce'o AnnJ.. IT. 3», 442; 473- ' » IimriJCCKi. ■ 




ppiwr, canUmoiu^ boQJaiuiti, cloth, aiid Cassia ligniitn.' In 168^ 
th.; Kdrwdr investmtQta w cm 200 tons of pepper. 5 1 .(100 piooes of 
duiv/ari. 8000 pieces of pnthif, 10,600 pieces otpflrtolin. 50 halas of 
cnrdanioma, 20,000 pieces of baftae, 2000 ttewgitji^, aoil 50 k/uirulia Hirtory. 

of Cttssia ti^nin' In J6&0, jwrliaps iti consequence of tlio great IWO-UOO. 

ili-'preMioa in Bombay and Sutat, Kirw4,r seeiiia to liave Iteen 
J>^o.^p(;n>us and fortljn first. lim« to have tnwlwlciirwt witli England.' 
Towards tlieclosfl of the century, inspiteof tbe rivairy of the Dutch, 
whose giTjit oliject was to get pttvM--sflion of the pepper tndv. the 
only hrjuich of thf spice Imdy of wliicTi they had not secured the 
niouttpoly, the Kiirwiir IruJi! in wliite pepper was promerous and 
impr.rtant.* Milbiirn gives tho (ollowiiijr siniiinan' of (lie KngUsh 
tra/iy al K^milr : From Persia came almnntia, datcH, rosewat'cr, and 
isiiiH : from Arabia horses and tlmas ;* and from Europe iron, lead, 
rord-hlades, knJTcs, branch cora^ wid wearing i4)p»rel for the 
PortugiKise, The exports wen?, pt-pjwr, coarse brawn clotli, coanie 
brown muslin, Ooft spirit.-!. Shiran wine, cardanioins. cartsia, nux 
vomica, l«;zoBr. aiid a few othi;r trilling artielisi. Ilie KArwir 
pwpper was Uie Xmst on the coast." 

In the early part of the eiphtwnth ecntm^- the Portuffucso i;oo.17Ml 
coDlinued to have factories at ilirjiln. HonAvar, Chnnddvar, and 
BhntkaU In the south of the district the export of rice and the 

import of horses were atiU auioiig tin.- niOMt important branches of 
irailp. In I7i;i ihe Port« complain that the Bednur chief was 

ring year (1714) 

that the Portuguese shotdd allow two Etinara boats to go to Ormux 
to f*^tch horses." Till 1720 the En^liah kept ojKrn their factorj- at 
Kdliwir whrre the Sonda pepper v.a» .•still ackuowle<l^ed to he the 
best in Infiia.'" English 8hii>s also oftco vi^ted Bhatka! to get 
mtgtKs of pfp]}er." In 1720, in consetiuencK of a dispute with the 
Sombt ehipf the English wer* forced to leave Kili-witi".'* Perhaps 
to mipply its place they soon after opened at HonAv4r a branch 
factorj- from TellicherrL Tho chief objiicts were to (wcure a Hharc 
in tho tmde in piippL-r and sandalwood." In 1726 and 1727 trade 
wa« at n M-ana on uecoont of the ravages cau.scd by Bajirao 
PfisltwQ. in his invasiun of Mnisur and Bcdiiur." Aftt-r thw Engii^ 
wen- fon-t'd to leavi- Kdrwnr in 1720 the value of thi* pepper trade 
at K&rwte continued Mufficii-utly great to tempt tbcm to niaka 
effort to persuade the chief Co allow them to return. Leave 

> Rnictt ABB*la, n. 460, 487. 

* Oniu'a HiitoriaU TngmaiM, 909. Tho pUea at oloth h mM ta h« airlilaeii f«el 
hf ooe. * Sm Bonbur Omttoer, XIII. 48a * Bruo., « AiiuaU. III. 427. 

» Tr'-r 170) nocioes tOAl Ar»h bonm am tlio lite of Uiu lutliaii cavalrr, slid 
C ~ I Ihnt Arab uid Penua hones cost the Mogli*]* lU. 1000 to JEU. 2000. 

1* ' I ' . 231. 

' Oi.BouU C<niun«rM, I. 312. ^ Ii«tracc»o, 8. ' 0*. Portug««»c», VII, 148. 

■ Dm. Poftugufzos, vn, lo7-lCl. ■" llunUt«n'« New Aeoouat, I. 962. 

^» O*. PoTtaguozaf, V|I Z7& u iUmilUiu't Mew Accoant, 1. 368, 36». 

*■ Onor fMtory 10 Telticberri. IKh .ruiuuy 1727. 
Onor factory to Tctlichnri, 0th Jatmar; 1727. 




Ohftptar VI. 


wBfl given Uiom in 17R0 and th^-y rcmainod til! ITfiS, whon, » 
Poi'tugtiese who cluimed thv moDopoly of t,lie tradi- tiad aeb 
Pir Hill «t thp mouth of the rivor, they were forcpH to withdrai 
In 1751 the En^i^lish eucceedeil in estaljlishins & factory in HooiiT^ 
chiefly for J^pper, nnti after his conquest of Rednnr in ]76;l Uttic' 
gave the faictorrt Ivave to remain.* Iii 1772, Forbes meutioua • i 
eidf-rahle manufacture of catechu at K4rwAr.' At 9iirJ^ Uie En^l 
h&'l for seventy years a Ut)^ wareh&udo to atore pepper and 
wood brought from Maifiur.* Uonivar was ths ombf of a 
ahip tratic. The Enplish had a factory to buy pepper and sjunlah 
for the English and Chinese markets, 'fhere whh also a 
private ti-aJe with Bombay and the north in betelnut^ and- 
articles.* The lowlands near HnnAvar were well tille<l and 
plantf^d with cocoa and bet«l pnlmn, pepiwr, rice, and cheap 
or the export of whit'C sandalwood, whictt was the most imp 
la-anch of trailo, Mr. Forbes given the following detaiU.*' 
SftQdal tree is indigenous to the rocky hills of Uonavor, and 
allowed, would grow to a tolerable sixc ; but the wood is so voliut 
that the tree ia cut before it grows at tbe most to a foot broi 
The wood Is either red, yellow, or a whitish brown ; and from ii 
colour and size is colled the tirst, necond, and third uort of aaoda' 
wood, each varying in price. The best saiidnlwcKxl costj< £10 
£S0 (1U.I00-R^.2o0) the khandi of iMJO poun<U. Tlie wimhI of I colour and strongest went in most esteemed, having 
fine grain and an aromatic smell which it comrouiiicoUui to eve 
thing near it. It is mnch used in small cabinets, writing-dosks, < 
ftimilju* articlas, as within itA influence no insect con live and 
iron can nut. From the dust and shavings an aromatic oil 
extrnct^Ml. The oil and wood are uiwd by Hiixius and Finds 
their religious oeremonies, bat the greatest port of the wood is * 
for the China markets where it nells to grc«t advanta^. 
English traveller Par»omi, who viHitod KAnara in 1776, three 
a^r Forbes, notices that the Portagnese felona in the 
settlement of Anjidiv spun ilirea^l and yam and raaide the 
stockings which were to be had in Western Jndi& ThcEngtieli] 
stilt a fiictoiy nt Hon^var and the place )iad unnn in impor 
Haidar Ali Itad ma<1c it a naval M^nx; and dockyanL Poraoos, ' 
was a .Hailor, wa.^ much intereeted by two half-iiiiisbed 
excellently modellod and built frigatee then on the stocks, ODO 
which was to carry thirt)'-two and the other twenty-four gona.^ 
The river was very convenient for the export of pepper in whii" 
tlio place ubouiided and of sandalwood of whicti Hatd&r had 
monopoly and from which he drew great profit as it was tn constani 
demand in Cliina.* He refused to let Europeans have Uic sandal*^ 
wood unless they pmd for it in fire-aa-ius. Sandal oil was also ii^ 

Sruat Dstcem and worth its weight in silver.* Until HaiJoc'j 
eatli in 1782 the trade at HonAvar continued importaot. On 

■ Bom. Qau. lUriov, TI. SOO-S10. * Bam. Qav. Merkw, VL SU. 
•OriBBUl Maaain, I. 3(l». «Oriaat»l Menioara. rv 108, 109. 

■ OrioBUl Hamoin, I. SM. * OritaUl ilaaoin, I. M7. 

^ Detaiii «n ^ron uml«r tlUtorv. * Pktwiii' Tnvcla, 220-225. 

• Fftnona* TnY«k, £M - 236. 



ftverage the English factors procureJ every yoar 900 l-futndia 
o£ pepper, L-ach khandi contaimiiiL' uJO poiiiuU oiul tictDg n-orih 
£11 to £12 (lU. UO-R^. 120), fht-y aW secured the whole of 
the n&ndalwood wliicli varied from 20U to 300 khandu of 600 
pounds eadi. There were uo cardaiuomi, but every year 1000 
kharuiis of 560 pounds of bctetDOte worth about £4000 were 
uxporUil. Tlie trade iu cocoanuta aud kunieb called coprtu was 
jrtto about £1200 (Rs. 1-2,000) a year and was in the haodfl of 
ivnlci tnuti-'n.. ThtTc wviv uu uianufactorc^ and litttc export of 
rfeo a^ tliu whole was consumed in the loeal and inland markets.* 
Baring the rdgn of Tiuu Saltan (1782-1799) Urn bnuie of the 
Ki.uara ports was ruined by Ttpu because it gave strangeni &u f«r prying into the Htfaini of his kingduui and because in 
his opiuion trade impoverished a country. In 1799, when the 
(liftrici passed to the British, Uondvai- hatl not u singln bouse 
and Hir)fUi was niinoit.' In ISOl Buchanan found the coa.<<ting 
traile much hampered by pirates as people were afraid to build 
There were no manufactures. Tipu had destroyed trade, 
inercbauta were only beginning to come back. The chief 
jrt was rice and after rice cocoanuts, bekhmts. p«pi>or. and 
idalwood,' aud salt and a little catechu wont inland from Aiikota 
•nd KdrwiSr.' In the upland parts there were few murehaiita. 
Some trodeni from below the Sonyddria bought a little pvpper, but 
Ibo cbiff buyers were Banjis» from Hubli, Dhilnir&r, and the 
Maritha country. These inland tradere bought cloth and f^rain and 
look penpcr, butclnut, and cnrdamonu. &ome of the trading was 
done by iMtrter, but mo«t by ca.^h pajiuent^ to the local shopkuBjM^rs. 
Th.Ti' was an import of iron from Mai-sup for local use and an import 
K' ' ihrou;jh trafSc iu salt from the coast to the Karn^lak.* 

]■■ . , )ie trii'ie wliioh 1ib<I Iiesn destroyed Iwgan to i-evive. The 

mprtlmtiw returned fi-ora the countries where they had taken 
tibeltor. Kiee, pepper, betelnuUi, and cocoanuts wore taken to Ooa, 
KAjKpur. and Buiubay. Till 1812 pirates, whose head-quarter* 
were at M^vaii in Ratnilgiri, continued to prevent the recovery of 
tnule BA the people were afraid to build or to own boabt. Tlie fear 
of nir»t«« ceaeerl at the close of 1812. wht-n Colrmi-! Uonpl Smith, 
with a Alight military' force and a squadron of imiall craft, helped 
by the fourteen-gun cruiser Priiiw of Wales, went to MAlvan and 
completely destroyed the |K)wer of the pirates." 

Under Brititth rule, in the nineteenth century, the opening of tho 
two III.V11 rua^l-* joining the porta of Kumt* and KitnvSr with 
Bwlganiu and Uhitrwdr, the change from small fair-weathtr coaating 
enn to large ateain*iihij>^ plying all the rear round, and tha 
introdaction of the tele-grnph at Kumta and KiirwiSr, have grttatly 
develape<l the trade of Kiln&ra. Between 1850 and 1870 at Kumta 
and KftrwAr tho (brough cotton trade nith Belgaum and Dhtlrwir 
gn^lly incrt'jutud, but eince 1870 it has ag^n fallea 



) Mnbam'* Oncntnl Cnnimefc*. 

» PmIuumh'* Myur, 111. 1.17, ISO, 1S2; Miran, aoth H^y 1600. 

I BDdhuuo'a MyiKir. III. IA2. • BDchuuui'ii Myaor, III. 77, ISO. 

■ BacliaiiMi'i MysOT. LIL S38. * Lova ladina K&vy. L 277- 



Chapter TI. 


' Ti»de Cculwi. 



Tile laaJing traflers are SAwislitkArs, GaUr ViiiiU, and Bh_^ 
on the con--jt. ami btng^jaU in Lliu uplandit. bxccpt u lar^c uoml 
nf GuJAT Vdui*( at Kiiinta who are cotton agents to Boml 
merclisTitH .-ioiiiu of these tra-ivnt arti men of capital oad otbunn 
ImsitjftM iin "UirrowtjH capital. 

Th« ctiief plnc«« of trtvlp- on th{> const ari> Kilrw&r, SodrfLsbE 
ClKJiiliya, nii'J Binshi in Kirwjir; Rvlikeri, Ankola, and Oi 
in Aiikoitt , Ookiirri, Taiiri, and KuintJi in Kumta ; aiii] OonAi 
Maiikj, Mur<l<jshvar, Shii'dli, and Bliatkal lu Uou^var. In 
uplands tlie cliief tra-lp ct^ntnw arp Haliyal.Supa, and I'lvi in Suj 
Muntl^'od. YvlUpuT, Mallei, and Palla in Yelliipui-; Sir-si, Banav 
and Sonda In Sti-ai ; and Gtirsappa, Siddipiir, and Bilgi in Slddif 

Of lucal fairs or Jalrat the throe most important are at Ool 
Sirni. irnd Ulvi in Supa. Tht* wtidcs »oId at tbe«o fairs an.- coj 
Lrasjt. iron, and betl-iuetal vtjssels, European and coiintry-t 
cotton nud woollen piece-goods ; and of sundry articles, toys, jjl 
baiigleH, coral bcads.&nd poarls. Besides tht' tiokaru, buifa' 
cow». sheop, and other cattle arc brought for sala At 
two faim arc held every year, the greater being in honour 
MaiiAdfV on the Shivamtm Day in Magk (Februarv-March) 
the smaller iu Kdrtik (Novenibfr). The greater or M'iijh fair 
fiftoL-n <l«ys and is attendwl hy 2l>,0«)0 to 3.^000 people, alwut 
lialf coming fi-uni Bel<;auui and Dh&rwi!u-. The valuu of the 
M>1d at tliu fair U e.stiii)ated at about £2.^00 (IU. '25,000). At 
smallor or Kdrlik fair 100.000 lamps are lighted at Sfiiv'n _ 
and the attendance of pilgrims h about 5000, moxt of them 
from the ilistrict A.i Ookam is ono of the chief plaow of 
pilj^'riiuage in India, j^raatl parties of pilgrims an; Hlway.t 
thorii Daring the year the niinilmr of such pil^riiuiv dotn 
exceed 10,000. The Hirsi fair is held in honour of the gotUIe 
Mtri every .second year in Pamh, M>igh, or i'u/yim (Ja 
Fubruikry. or March), sod ta.^tR for about a fortnight. It Is i 
by about 12,000 people, some eoming from Bi^lgaum, Dl 
and Muiaur. The value of the articles sold is e>itiiuated at at 
£1000 (Rt 10.000). The Utvi fair is held every vear in ifd 
(February - Muix-h) and lasts four days. It is atteQ<)[od by 
COOO people, not l<?s<i than thn;e-foarth!i oF whom are Ilan|. 
the value of the artick-^ sold Li ecitLmated at about £300 (Rs. 

Almost every large rUlage has a shopkeeper, bat in 
forcu tmcts the people have to go to the nearest tnnle-centrc f^ 
suppliu!!, BpIow the .SaliVildrU the shopkeepers are generally 1< 
Sasaihtkiii-s, V4ni.s, Mm^alniaii^^, and sometimas Ohristian.s, Al 
the SaliyA^lri.') they are geuerally Lingflyabi. They deal in 
apices, salt, oil, sugar, molasses, cocoanuU, tobacco, betel leaves . 
nutf*. clarified butter, dates, iron and brass %Tare, and \-ariou« oth| 
article.*. The buyers are the people of the neishbourhood 
travellers The shopkeeper buyH his .stock from wholettalo dealt 
at the chief ton-n of hut sub-division, where importa from Boml 
Hubli. and other places arc kept in store. If in good circunistant 
he often gels hia supplies direct from Bombay. Uubli, or Dh&rn 
The village q)oth -dealer's Htock meeti the ordinary demands of til 



»fll«t(ers, bnt *Io«9 not aRbnl room for anch choice us ia reqairod on Chapter VT 
wvdiJiiig niitl iittii-r spcrliU Dcciutionii Som» B(ttiord.s an<l Mt^inatw, Trada 

who iu the fair ae&son come from Bombay to KflrH-dr, Kumta, and 
Hfiadviir. go from )iousi>. to hot»o in villoguti lying along Ibe oiAin 
linc« of traffic. NelUng I'loUi, diiutz, blankets, and olber giwda 

N\'jtt (o village shonkc-ciHTs come the petldh-rs who jirc known as 
•logis, Tlit-y genei-ally sell Iwmis, cor«J. Ihiniblefl, neeiJIea. bells, 
gUw»«*ii, top, and other articliw, trHvellinff from villnge to village. 
ilicy comt.- in larj^ numljers to the fairi ht-id at Gokaro, ITlvi, and 
Sini. wbonj their wares find a ruatly wUe. 

Of E^^port* tlio chi»?f articlca iiro. n{ fibros. cotton ; of dyes, 
inyrol«laiLs : of grain*, rice both husked and unbuskwl ; of spices, 
betetnuta, rardamomn, black pepper, and long peppur or cliiliiea ; of 
thnbrr, rhouy, tvak. IJuck uaudal, and ilrfwoud, and luiniboos; and 
of mi^collujiwiui flj-ticles, salt, boms and hides, hotiey and wax, and 

Cotton mostly comes to the coast from DhArwir for export to Coito*. . 

Bomhar. It ia grown in DhArwitr by Lingriyats, Mar(iUi<i8, and 
olhvr closflea ni husbandmen. Cotton w mtmetiintvt taken by tho 

rer» In KuiiiUi and Kitrvr^, but i» luustly suld to \ocai dealers 
' the crowtTs of Uu receive in atlvance al>oui one-fourlh 
of . J' of the cotton aj^reeil to be given «t han-e-st The local 

diwJeL'^ sell Die cotton litlier in the cbi«f Dhdrwiir markets or 
ttcnd it to the cwmt On the cotton is either sold to Boiiiliay 
uttn^lutfits or i>eiit to BombaT for sale through comtniBsioQ ageiiLs 
who pay in a^lvanoe part of the value of the cotton consigned to them 
«it)u>r by bilU or in cash. The tradei-H are European merchants, 
0' ' " ' is Kulch Uhr'nijLs and C'nijarrtt Vani.s, and DhAi-ivAr and 
B- :i.lerH. Soiiii- are a^eiit.-: rnul otiiers ai*e in Jependent traders. 

T'-' >- of cotton from DhArwAr to KArwdr costs Ifis. to £1 

{il 1. , ID) a cart or-lj.(IU.2) a doK-ra of 150 pounds; from 
KiU^riLr Ui Bombay it costs aliout i». (Ka S) a hkandi of 5(10 pounds 
if •KQb in country craft and ti«. (R-t. 4) If saiil In Hteani'hoatx, 

Mvrohialan.'*, which arc much valued in tanning and in dyeing, grow 
VfBd ill tin- Su{ta and HmiiSvar foreatrf. They ai-e gaihei-ed by forest 
p«»[iti! who are paid by tlie forijst otiieurs at a 6xed mt^; for alt they 
are alilu to bring. Tlio}- are auhl at auction to European and >iative 
merehnntA who, as a rale, Kend them to Boml»ay ny stoamer at a 
cost of al<«ut I'jff. {Rs. 8) the toit 

Hiiskrd rice of two hinds fdnd't and patni. Is gntwn in K^iara j;;«. 

■mil e^jHirted from tlie K&nara port«i; and unhusked. also of two 
kiwU. turis^a and ukra which w partly grown in K4nara and partly 
lirwuglit from Dliiinvar, in dtippeil fmni the Kflimra ports. Un tho 
KAiui,ni coast rice i» grown in Karwik by Konkanis. Bbanddris, 
K \ and Padtis ; in Kumta by Kunbis mid NAdgis ; and in 

I*' I y Lingiiyftt>*. Banjig;, and other clasdcs of huabandmen. 

Mo-^i ui tile rice-growers, being either periuanent or yearly lesAK- 
l.,.l,!.-r.: pay r«uts both in iinun and in ca^h. Tlie rice trade is 
lly in the handa of well-to-<lo landlords of whom the growers 
•*'■•■ I'liiuits. By these landlords, chiefly S(irasvat« and Shenvis, rico 
ia uilbcr .•mjM to Uoa traders or aent direct for -^alc to Ooa and thu 

• AIS- & 


( Bombay Oi 



llalnMr ron^t in comitrr craft which charge *». to 6* (Bs. 2 -Bk,j 

It khaiuii of .'itiO ]xiuiiii.4 for a tiip to Kovhiii. 

Of spifr-s bot^lnutft catviamoms and black pt»nper an* [jfrtii 
chiefly by Havigs in the Sirsi, YelMpnt, and Sidflipnr apUno 
Chillic-s which arv grown tiy Linj^fiyata and others are lirorijjbt f«i 
export fnim IthinA'Ar. IJctelmits, canln-niomH, and hlack 
arc hmujght to Um cooift on pa«k ImlloctcR and chillier in 
The cost of conveyaoce is about Gi. ( tla. 3) a klumtli of 5G0 j-.<njii? 
The traders are GHJare, VjUits, Gaud Sarasvnts, and oth^r h 
(iL'olut-a They generally sell these articles to the coaat mercl 
wIki send thera to Bombay in coiintrj' craft 

Tlmhtr. Of tinjber, tt-ak, blackwood, eibony, and firewood go from Kadt 

Salgari, and other Kilnoru fon^^ta, the t*«k in ln^ of Mfvi;uty-E« 
to 1 50 cubic fe«t oach. Soiulalu'iiod mostly conies for export 
Hon^var from S&;^:ur iukI Sliinioga in Mai»ur. The foriiit tiut 
which in Giovermuent pi-ojierty, i« sold by GovemioMit to uicrchi 
and contractors either in the forest or at the wood-stores. It 
mostly exporttd to Bombay, Goa, Ratuiigirl. aiid Gujardt. From Ul^ 
forests thp bamlMOS are taken to the nearest port either l>y head 
InatU or in curti ; from Uic they go chic6y to Botnbay 

Sail. Most of tho local salt is sold at Katf^al and Xhngi in Kumta 

the SdriLSvat and Ndilgt proprietors of the Si^ikatt^ Kiilb>ni 
The buyers aro Belgaum and DIi(U-w4r tradei-a who bring for salo 
Kiiinta cotton, rice, auJ chillie.s, and takv l>ack salt. Kxrt'pt 
»kias of wild auiuiaU which are nent tu Eurupe by Eurt>i)«4 
rceidunts of the coBKt towns, hides and horns mostly go to Roniba] 
Tliese articleK ai-e generally bouj^ht by Rittn^iri KhojiU 
ChiUitbhAr?i, Mlii^s, Kolt-kiiivi, and Madipirs, and are Mnt to .~ 
in country craft at a cent of abuut 4*. (Rs. 2) the hundretlwt'iglil 

Jtotwy. Honey and Wax, the right to collect which is sold evcrj' year 

the hit^hetit bidder, are mostly aeut to Bouiboy, Kaluiij^iri. and 

rati. Malahilr cimst. Saltcl ft'sh are sent bv Musalmrtn shopkoep 

either to Bomhay in country craft, or to Belgauiu luid Dhanvitr 
head-loads or in caj'b«. 

Importa. Of Impoit-s the chief articles are, of cotton, ooloured and wl 

twin and piece-jcw>ds. Tlie twist oomcs from Bombay and is almc 
all Rent to Dhiirwar, Hubli, and Gada;; where it in s<»ld to the k 
weavers, llie piece-goods coiuc from Btimhay, llongalor. Kitlikl 
and Miuli-as. 'Ihey are partly u«ed locally and partly sent 
Bel;iaum and UhftrwAr. Of drugs and medicines, 'UrimstOE 
camphor, quinine, nml a^Nni'u:-tida are hnm^^lit from HimilAj 
They are either used loc-ally or sent to Belgaum and IJhitrwi 
Of dyein;; antl colouring matcrial.s, cochineal and indigo 
lirotight from IJombay by the coai^t traders who either »eU Un 
to the local artisans for dyeing clt>th and colouring tTUildin^ 
or send them to Belganin, Dlntrwiir, and oUier upland piirli 
grain, unhuskcd rice ix brouj^dit by coa^t trailers from BiiniI*4J 
M)(lv»ii, Knndapnr, MniiLfator, Bniiidiir, mid Harkur, and sold Ic 
to the pe ople and ivtuil dealei-s. Wheat of tho ttakti, potf. and dmil 
va"«tie« w brought for local use from Kar^hi, Gujarat, Bonil 



itiil Ven^Hfi. MiliL*t, jmri anJ hAjri of tlio ^hdlt Jiiii) 
gvj'triHi varic-tics irt lirou^lit fur local umr. I'mui llomt<ft\, Mi^lvnu. 
uid Ven^rla. Of |iiib«9, pigt-oii pua t«r Chjiuium iiulkiiit, 
QD gratu chana CiccT itricimuii), )ict<i pua Vti^iitt l'i»utn 
small Cruitod kiduey mug PhoKL'ulus inungt*, and 
' ^r l!J-%*iu]a lens, ava brought for local uso from 
^ ijardt, Bombay. Mdlvaii, uiul Vtuyurln. Of lianlwiiru 

Anil cuUcQ", knivfs, scisaora. saws, and plated wiirc nre brought 
fomi BomuAy cither for local use or for ux{H>rt to Belgnuin 
and Dh4rw^. Haekx, both machine and hand woven, coiuu from 
Bomlmy and <!tali:ut(a. Thv cotton iiiLTcliunta arud bhcni to 
Belgaiun and Dlidrw&r and thuy aru locally used for packiiig 
myrrilAlans. Of rot^tuK coiumt and rdiri^tK for making rt>(>king 
nrifjs. iron and st^c-l foriuaking tiL'Id-toots and forbuddiii<; |)ur|M)Ki>«, 
ar ! licksilvcr, Un,aDd zinc For uiii»cellaii<.'OU.< ]mrp<Mc?i. anj 

br- ' til Bombay. Most of these Imported articlu^ Hiv sunt to 

Belijaaiu and I>IiArwAr. Of oils, kerosinc, castor, cocoanut.jingclly, 
awl groundnut oihi aro broujjht from BomLay. Voeimirla, Kochiii. 
Kananar, and Malvan. Tbcy aro »old wbotcanJo to the local shop- 
kw]n-r.t who Hell tliem retail to tlic jH-ople. Cocoanuls. both with 
and without tliu hu^k, arc iin[Kirted from the Malnlmr coattt, 
Oo«, and Anjidiv- They an* used either as foo*l or for making 
C^ fM" pro\-isiona wet and dry datt* are brought by the Aralis 
fron* .Ariihia, Turkey in Asia, Wiiaruli, Quetta, and Bomlwy. llio 
Arab iiifrcliaots generally sell tlicJM! articles to the Kuiuta and 
KtfrwAr tradonik They arc boih locally ased and sent to 
Belgaum and Dhilrwflr. Salt is bi-oiight from Ooa and to a Iukh 
cxt«itt from Siiid. It is Ixnth usoa locally and sent inland. 
Of .lilk, raw sUk and silk picce-goodtt arc brouiflit from Bondiay 
arvl Madras. The iiilk goo<k iirojmrtly^^ in Kilnara and jwrtly 
»Mit- to Belgauni. Dh4rw&r, and HuUi ; the whole of the raw silk i.i 
•eni to Belgaum, DhAru'itr, and Uubli. Of spice^ cinnamon, clovea, 

E'ngrr, and Duimega como from Bombay. Mulvon, Vengurla, and 
odiin. Part is used locAlIy and the rest is »cnt to Belgauni and 
DhilrwiLr. Of .-iiiirits and liimor.ale, beer, brandy, rum. gin, whisky, 
diainpa^e, claret, jxirt, and Rherry are brought in small qnanlilies 
frttin Bombay and Colombo by European rewdcntsand lict-uavd oliop- 
kei'perH. L'X-ally foreijin wines and spirits are chietly used by 
Europeans and huiasians, the rest is sent to Belgaum and Dhdrwar. 
Of joigmr. candied sugar and molasses are Virought from Bomlwj-. 
MAIvan. and Vcngurta. It is partly nnvA locally and pai-tly aont to 
B<-ltn*uni and DhfLrwilr. Of tobncoo,ru/'tj>ur( or mnniifactuTed tidrat^M 
at; I re brought from Millvnn, Veiigurln, Ki4likat,and Mailras. 

It I . . uaed in .smoking, eating, and snuffing. Of wool, raw 

wool and shawls and other woollen piece-goods are brought fnini 
Botnbiiy. Fart is used locally and thu i-vst Is scot to Belgauui and 


"P.ii' trjiffic by sea is carni-<l »n partly by st«ftraera and partly by 

ao: Is. Coasting steaniei-M of 1U5U to 2600 tons belmiging 

U> ill- i.iiiish India Steam Navigation CV)mpany call weekly nt 

E&rv&r Uironghout the year, and at Knmta during the fair »oason 



[Bombsj Guutt 



fChaptiir VI. 

Dg V«wkI>- 

(October* Xfay) wTicn specially ri^fjuirwl lij-mcrrfmHts for t)ie shii 
of cotton to Boniliay. llity Uylivvraiid receive the wcokly mftfl 
all kiudfl of gowifi, ami tlio rt^tuin flteaniera receive larjrt" car 
chicHy of cotton, ftir Bombay. A steamer generally niaki-.s tJitr 
between Kilrwar and Bombay In forty-eight houra. Tliea*; Bteaa 
somotJnies bring niece-guoUs and !itt)res to K&xwAr fmm Boni) 
for tliu local marlcet or to ba ««nt to the Bombay Karniitak 
cartrt by the Art mil pass. During ibe ls7ti and i)S77 fanit| 
the Boiul-ay Kanuitak large quantitieH of rice and othtu- food ; 
wore lande<l at KirwAr and .S4'ni in cartw to Dh;ir\vAr. Habll^ 
BelUriJ The passenger iratfic K-tween KarwiLr and Bomt 
tiuiall except during the rainy season when the weekly si 
bring in a targe umnbur of passengers from Bombay to (}on . 
liuiU thciu at Karwilr instead of at (3oa. Krom August or Septeml 
188.'! it » expected that smaller Hteiuiicrs Wlonging to Mowr 
ShL-pht-nl and Company will proLwbly ply daii^- between Karwi 
and Bombay. 

Of sailing veKaels there are two classes, foreign and local 
foreign sliipa are Arab dhau8, vessels of «cventy-tive to 150 
burden, witli two majsts and two or three sailoj and a crew of 
captain earang or ttiuUtl, a Haftodn or mate, a carpenter, 
twenty seamen. Be-iidi-s their meals, the seamen recei%'e 16*. ' 
£1 (R-s-a-Ba. 10). and the officers XI to XI iVs. (Ila.lO-Ra^lS)< 
mcmtli. Of late yenrs few Arab vessels have visited t1ii> 
ports. The owiier» of these vessels, as well as their coinmandcli 
are eitJier Arabs or litillAn Musahn&ns. Tlu-y generally come fr 
Arabia to KirwiLr and Kunitii botween the months of October " 
May, bringing dates. poiiie^"aimte«, almonds, rai.siiu. awcetw 
httiiHt in plftt»'s w small mat p<iuchos, nnd pistachio nuts, 
atay in the ports for a week or two, load their vessels with ri< 
then sail cither to Bomliay or bock to Aratna. 

Of local sailing craft * tht» chief varieties arc, Iweides c»nc 
fishing l>oats. the jjhotrmdri of tilVf-n to fifty tons and tlie mai^i 
jj(i{/(itj locally better knownaaga/fcoia luid jn/nijii^/m.botli varyingE 
five to iliirty toils. They nru u-stially built at Kodiluig.' Belike^ 
Aokola, Gangivali, Tadri, Kumta, Kaaaargo<li, Shirili, and Bbatfaj 
Comparutively few jihaiemiin's arc built, as the maehranor paJa 
being small and of lighter draught, arc more easily worked in " 
out i)f narrow -mouthed inlets, such as the Bt-liktri. Aidiola, Ti 
and Bhntkal creeks. The builders are HimUih, lliisalm&ns. 
Christianfl. The timber mostly used is nana LagerKtnj-mia mic 
carpa. and matli Termiitalia touientosa, for the outer planking, kc 
atom, and stem posts, and Calophyllum inophylluui for 
limbers. The local system of boat-hiuldirg is somewhat oppi 
to the Knglltli practice. After laying down the kcd, stem. 
Btcni posts, the Iwat ia Mhaned by the otiter plarikuig some tlbt 
beyond the water-line. The timbera are then shaped to the 

> In 1877. 160,000 tooi of grmlii were luHod at Kinrir uul oth<r porta and 
to Um BombftX KunutUk. 
» Contributed by Mr. R. G. C. WcrtWook, I'«rt OiBc«», Kirvtr. 


lonncd b y the planking; fs^t^ne-l to tho fimlwrfl. The IkmUa and 
M»sls, a-s a ntle, lire very evenly l>uilt uiiJ ain good ^lurs ; and if 
mil CBXiid for J»st alw'ut forty vea«. The tinio they lumnlly 
ran U bum CVicoanut Pay in i^hraran or AiigUKi to the Bret 
appcftnuicn of tbi' tiKuiBOon, which is fj^DL-raily ftarty in •ItuiP. 
Ir- ' r the cajiLaiu the crpw of a ;»/ia/'?mi(ri varirs fi-oiii oijtht to 

Iv. . tin* eri'W of a wai-Aufl or patfiiv froiu fivt- Ui cig)it- Tlifi 

en"** w K'^nerally paid hy thn trip, thr captain rL-cciving twice as 
mn.-h fiT u '^r-aiimn. On the voyagw the captain m-vfr, if he can help 
a ' j'lt of land. 'IVy pi'uk their vessoU by Innd-miirks 

du-ii._i; ii.^tlay andhrthftKiarsatniirht, Only incase oF fog.clmidy 
ifft!»il»er, or when th'ey lost sijrht of land, is the compaas, which is 
alwB^'K carried by the larf^rer ve^Wils, brmight Into list. Tlie siaaller 
▼e^l« an- always careful to hog tht land aft^r dusk, and if the wind 
i» unfnvuumblc they u.sually anchor for the nig'ht^ 

Caz,.- ^ or hodit M. and doitis K., are built at nearly all the coaflt 
y] ■•■ tonnsp* varying from a quarter of a ton to five tons. 

Til-' i\<^'iii'ug itn<r Saddshivgad cAnoe^, who«i« lower part is the 
tnuiTtof o tree, are the most substantially bnilt of all KAnara cannea. 
Tlie planking uned in makinj; canot^ ix uHually one and a qtmrtur 
ineb'-'s tliirk. A fnware fa^tenixi with naiK but coir yarn is mostly 
n ■ [im t«»ing mad*> into pads fi-om ten to fifteen feet long, 

Ai. . ..!. J lints of tlio planking arc closely fitted, a layer of cocoaJinl 
filTt! is laid over tliem. the padding U laid on the fibre, and the 
wWJe ifl sewed to the plankinj;. If the pajddinjj ifl occasioiuiily coateti 
vith oil, tliU mode of fa-Htenin^ luftts alxtiit ten veam. A.s a rule 
omvca arc oiled once a year and sometimes oftener, the poorer 
el»w>o.<t u-niiig for cheapness lish nil and thow in better circnmstancca 
cahstoT OT Bweot oil. 'fhese canoes arc all fitted with a balancin^out- 
Tigifer called uLmdi, and are always sti-ered by a rudder. The aftor- 
|wirt 19 tisually dwkod for tht> capt^n to stand on while iiteerin^, 
Utr MKKti below the deck being UHetl for keitTpin;; cooking ve».scla 
,uvi food. They carry a lateen-sail on a uiaHt with a gr^t~ forward 
rake. They seldom leave the rivei-M. Iwin;; almost entirely 
■mplcn'Hl in bringing to Kodih^ wood and other forest produce 
lh»tt iUUiipQr, Kadra, and the neighbouring villages. Durioff tho 
fall ae«»on they occasionally carry cargoes to Goa. KdrwAr, 
Kmnta, and other potit farther south. The crew genoraJI}' includes 
tb<icnpt«iu who is also owner and two seamen. Cauoi;.s vary in slac 
Croin ono and a lialf to live tons and co^t £15 to £27 10«. (Ra. 1£0- 

I'l'^bins cauoeA very from aqnafter of atonto four tons. The larger 
r hing canoe which varies from two tofonr tons is of tho 

bii.-..- ■■—M as the 8adii^)ivgad canoe, except that it stands hiffher 
out of tlic water. They ca-^t from £8 to £12 <R'(.ao.Ils.l20). The 
larjjer canoes have a register oertiScate wliich allows them to trade 
Off well Ba to finh. They always lie up from June till alx)Ut the 
lit of AuRUHt The smaller canoes varying from one-quarter to 
Uu>K-quar^?r8 of a ton are ent,'aged in nothing but fiahing. They 
kc<.'p to the creeka in rough weather, Init in the fair season some- 
••!M'H venture one or two miles from land. Thcj* are workeil and 
<'J by paddlet oiul have seldom cither baluncing outriggers 



SailiUg V 

[Boiatnjr Oi 





or sails. ShouM thoy either on their way out or on tin 
rt'tuni fiiiil this wind fuvuurablc thoy secure oue or two of the 
by ladling to make a mast aud knot their head-scarvi-s into a 
During tltv tstonuy fitason thoy fish in the riv«is. In the 81uriii 
Aome of the canoes which seldom engage in tltihiTig, 
b«twcon Hoiutvor and Oci-sappa taking pAssou^rs on th« doi 
trip and returning with (I'uit, dried palm leaTua, and 
These canoes have no balancing outrider as they ai-o roundly 
the lower part being a hollowed tree-tmnk. In place of a lat 
sful they use an ohnost square red Rail which 18 mmln iiv>i, to| 
horizontal yard of liglit bamboo with small lines tied at each 
for working the sail They vary from one to two tons and 
£3 to £6 (R^ 30 - lU. tiO) exclusive of saiU. Uort are manucd 
two men who are generally the ownera 

Tiiure are two elaases uf m/iehi^aa, one which trades along 
ooa»t, anil the other wliidi truduH in tlie Tadri and Shiravati rivcl 
Tlie coasting ma^hvoK are much larger than the river mach i-tig ai 
coat £40 to £100 (Re. 400 - Ha. 1000). The average length over 
is thirty-five to forty fwt. the breadth twelve feet, and the doj 
four feet. They are usually built with a very slight sheer fr 
the sti;rn Ut the aft«T-part of the main-mast the sheer graih 
incTcading from the foro-parfc of the mnin-mast to the stem 
■which L» generally aet at an angle of 60" to 70°. T} 
vosmIs are always built with a curve in tha fore-part, t| 
sharpest section being from the lower part of the stem to the fc 
part of the foot of the main-mast ; about eight feet from the aft 
pari of the main-mast to the stem ptxit is a straight Hue. Maehe 
Duilt in this way are said to sail closer to the wind than ma«At 
with level keels. All arc open, but to make it easy to walk fore 
aft bamboos laced with coir yam are laid over the beams. Fi 
the after-part of the maitt-niaat to the after -part of the mizzen-mi 
they are covered with a roof of bamboos, palm leaves, and stra 
faatened with coir yam. On tlie top of tliis is a small deck, wh( 
the lindal stands to steer and under which stores axe usually kc 
They are rigged with two ma.'rta, two yards, and a jibboom. B<_ 
niaeUs take an equal rake forward. They are supported on eitl 
side by light coir rigging, and forward they are made fast byj 
Htnn^; coir lashing to a round post close to the mast whose lower at 
Gts in a wooden bed placed on the upper part of the kelsaa. Tl 
people give two reasons for raking the masts forward : the L>oata 
fa»t«r and they labour leas in a heavy head sea. The jiblxxnn issnv 
compartid to thft othor, as they do not use either the jib or 
niiKzun sail except in light breezoa. In nmning before the wind. ev( 
in a moderate breeze, tha jib is not used boaiu-te the foro-nart of ' 
main Htul takes the wind out of it, and tlie mizzen sail is not 
because it prevents the aftor-part of the main sail from drni 
The main andmizzcn sails which are laieen-shaped are made of ligt 
cottou cloth, cut into narrow strijM to straighten it On each i 
coir yam is laid and the two edges of the cTotli are turned over 
the yaru aud »t;wn. A net of sail-s for a twelve-ton ina('At;acost8£dli 
to £4 (Rs. 35 - Ks, 40) and if repaired la&t? Hv« or six seasons. Lil 
all country tigged vctscls, tne machva has to wear in tackil 



the ynwl is fastened to the halliards on the forepart of 

rBiaiA. HalliarHs placeil in this way are n grc-nt .support to tliu 

rs«et,iw the low«r (Mia iHalwav-q f&HlenfttJ aa far aft as the f<ir^-part 

frf the mixBen-masL Maehfai do not confine their trailing to any 

puticulor porta In March and April many brinf/ ha^^s or 

mv ' :i .■ fnjm thii South Kanara ports and from Kml^rnl in tlio 

T'l--. ind tin* villai^i'S noar it. Most of the South Kliuira rice 

I U bnm^lii to Ilnniivar and Kumta and most of th« rici^ fn>m Katgal 

l-snd lh(t villngi.'s ni'Br it is sunt to Gon, Smaller machnig run-png 

llrtftn fuur to nine tons ai-u fuand in the Tadri and Shiritvati rivers. 

CfKt £17 10«. to £-W (lUl-5-Rs.400). They dUTt^r from the 

r marhv4U in hanng very little sheer and a perfectly straight 

I, thi< straight kit?! ta-ingan r<1 vantage in th». shallow rivurs whi;ru 

pmi-mlly piy. Most of tlium wen fa«t<?nod tojiuthvr with wir 

III thi- saiur way an t!u: lai^t-r cjinot-t ^"ho>•M^ of thu Tailii 

iri^-fcT arv asually lari^yr, ylrunj^r, and not «> crank as those un the 

'Sbir&vati river. Thi'^y montly carry salt from i^nikottato Katgol 

,.., ] ,-. .. :-i.Tinediato villages, heiiiK paid 9a. to lOs. (Rs, 4( ■ Ra. 5) a 

Mig back a cac^i of grain at ratcK varying from -fr. to 6e. 

[jU- - ■ lu, ii). II no cai'f^o is availabit! tlwy rt'tuni in bullaat. 

^Vith fiiv.>urablc wind and tide the up and down jonmcy con bo 

<ut ei^ht houni. Tliute marhrdt curry one mast and 

Lil. MiKt of tho ovmors live at llonAvar and k^c thoni 

'odIutv. 'J'be man who hires the boat UHually acUi an alvcrsnian 

< or tin'iat and «ngsgc« two men to help in u-orlung the boat, paying 

[cacli Sdf. (Kk. 4) a mouth with f(xxl. The fu.-auicn aru generally 

iChrifttians, Matiaiumadiuut, and Hindus of the KMni caste. 

Pofltiv* and inaehviii are so much alike that it is difficult to name 

•ay point in build or in rigging by which a lioat of tho one daaa 

tsui Iv koowu from a boat of the other class. If ati owner is askod 

why he calls hia vua>>cl a fodav, hia ansver \» that the machva im a 

; imaUur vessel. But a reference to the Custoius-house register 

ralw iWH maehva^ c-i^ual lu size and value to any paddv*. Padave 

in Btze fi'om twelve to thu-ty toim aiid some mackcds are as 

u twontj^-eight tons burden. The only difference that can 

^IJe tibmiirved \s thnt few paddca are flatter bottomed than maehvofi. 

\ Tb4 rig and the nccomtnodation are precisely the same, and the two 

doMtss of craft generally ply to the same ports. lu Kumta vessels 

[are built which their owncis call mathma but which properly 

litii* are juidnsa, much like though somewhat smaller than 

seen in BomViay harUiur carrjing cargo to and from the 

ling. ITiey have a peift-ctly straight ktx-l from stem to stom, 

'awl are mostly i-ngaged in carrjing cotton bales from tho wharf to 

the tihipfiing iu the roadstead. In fine weather and ainooth water 

they carrj- 1 00 bales in one trip, for which they are pud 6». (Ks. 3). 

Durin:: strong wiikU, when they have to reduce their loading to fifty 

hale«s tJiey arc pai<I G<?. <4 oru.) a bale. All other cargoes, whether 

tinport or cxptirt. an- chained at tho rate of •iJ. (2 ans ) a khandi of 

hAi pounds iu fair weather and 6d. (4 ant.) in hafl weather. Though 

I owing to a saud^ltaiik ncnv the mouth of the Tualri they can work 

[ oaly aloui seven hours a day. they manage to make an average of two 

IbipA s day. In the ).lack .wason Rome aro rigged like oi-dinary 



Sailing VoaMJt. 

Chftptn VI. 




coasting paJi'ivt and tiwlo to ports bcrlwecn ITonfivar an J Ooa. 
vary in t«i7j- fnmt ri^lit to flevi^n tuiu and in co^t from £25 to 
{Rs.250-Ra.3O0) exclusive of sails and rif^nj;. They ore 
owned imd worked liy the fishing claAMc^, <>»peciA)ly the Kh&rvis. 

The pkalenniris hullt on the Kiiiinra coosL nre hardlv aver more 
than Rily Ions Imnl-Jii. Tliowt* built of cheap timber, if fii.-5tcn«>d-A-ith 
nails cost £200 to £300 (lU. 2000 - Us. 3000), and if fasU-ned with 
£160 to £200 (Rd. lUOO-Bd. 2000} ; those o£ tciikn'ood, if fas 
with nailjt, cost £300 to £400 (Its. 3000-Rs. 4000). and if fas 
with coir, £200 to £300 (Rs 2000-Ks. 300tJ), They ar« m 
built with grt^at bciiiii and depth. A jihatrmitri of about fifty 
bunion ia 35' 6" long in the ki-tj, 18' tf' brood, and 7' 8' dwp 
tliR upjx-T part of the tiniberit to the Kiuiwale. Nearly all arc b 
with square sitcrn-s. A.**, unlikfl -built vessels, they have 
piuthn oa the rudder, a strip of wood with a groove in Uie ceat 
nttcd to the aftcr-pnrt of the iitern-]>oNt or mddcr>trunk and 
foro-part of tlio rudder which ii* rounded 'a placed in tJio 
ajid hiHht'd to the stern-post in thr*H! places at coual dlstjuices 
small coir rope fhattntdru on a ml« are built with most k 
from tliL* aftL*r-part of the main-niafft to the st^m. and the aftar- 
of the hull is higher than the foropart. When afloat or sai- 
they appear very much down by the aead though the dilTeriiDce 
draught is probably nt>t moro than one foot. Vessels in this tl 
aiisver tht^ir helm quicker, bnt their npeed is somewhat Icsscoi 
All arc built with n curve on tlic forf'fcmt. hut the ciir\'e U much I 
than in vessels built in and near lionil»ay. They carry heavy m. 
well raked forwai-il with light j-anLs, which enable them to h 
a large K|)ruad of canvas. A lortj'-ton jJtaUmdri lias gencridl 
inain-mast fifty feet from foot to head, a mizzen-mast of tliirty- 
fect. a main yard of eighty feet, & mijaen-yard of sixt^ fwet, an 
jibboom of ihirty-Hve fw^t. The sails are roa<le in the m 
way and arc of the same shape as nutchva. saila. Phal(m,iri« alw 
carry a veiy large jib. For a phatemari of about lil'ty toiia a 
of sails, including main-Hail, mizzen, am) jib, co»t about £:!0(Rs. 21 
He cluUi is much thinner and pocirtrr blian that used by pJiatemd 
built n«ar Boinltay. If well looked after and carefully re[>sired a ■■ 
of fiaibi lasts about nix seaAoni). but under ordinary citcumHtan< 
sails seldom last over four years. As the phntemAri in open like t 
machva and juiihiv, the same Dooriiig of ^<plit hamlxio la laid a 
passage for walkiug fore and aft, Tlie covering between the ta 
and mizzcn<ma8t is abo, as iu the ma<!hca,of palm leaver and atrn' 
but at the time of loiuling or utdooding much laUmr and timu in mivi 
by tricing np the sidoa The larger iiiiatenidri* usually trade with 
^nibay, taKuig cotton from Kdrwdr and Kumta and retumitu| 
with n general caj-go or iu Ijaltast. Including the captain. tM 
crew, who ai-e generally Uin^IuM, vary from eight to twelve, Tho«e 
which caiTy twelve men liesides the captain have a mato whose lUitv 
ia to see that the vcswel i,-s pi-op<'rly loaded nnil unloaded, the captain 
looking after tJie freight and the entering and clearing of liia vi 
at the Customa-homH;. The pay of tho captain is twice and of 
mate half ax much aguii a» tlio seaman's pay. As (ho 
ad\«iiceG aud grows stotzoier the rates of freigl'it and the pay 

flic crew increase. From the opciiing of the season in October (o 
tli^ i-flrly pnrt of April a Keauiaii wliu makes a trip from Roiiibay 
to Kilrwdr oud l>aclc receives 8s. (Re. 4) and aoiuetttues 10«. {Rs. S). 
Bftwtieii April and the end of Mav the rates ride to 14<. (lU. 7) 
>n<I »o)netiitios to 16<7. (Rs. &). If the trip extends to Kumta ho 
rvci^vtw \h. (8 ans.) uxtra. 

'I'ha tliirteon ports of tho district arc for costoniB purposes 
stuped iutt) tliruu divluoas : KarvriUr with tbro« porta, Sad&ahiv^^, 
KArw&r, aud Oa-udiya ; Aiikola with four, Belikeri, Aakola, 
Osngllvidi, and Tadri ; and Houiivar with six, Kamta, Murd^var, 
BonAvar, Bhatkal, Maaki, oiul Shii-Ali. Duriu^ the t^ight years 
wjdiiig IbSi tlio yearly value of the Kdnara 8ca-tr»iJe nvcrujjed 
iU2tf.82fl ; it nw^ (i-om J£l,+(i3.tl6 in 1M7+-75 to £1.707.124 in 
IB75-7tf. aud foil to £1.2+8,792 id 1877-7«. lu IH78-79 it again 
tOKt to £l.H12,fl81 ;tu\d after a »uddcu fall to £1.4U5.874 in L879-80 
■gain r08o to £I,525,*M in 1881-82. 

The following statements give (or tba eight years ending 1882 
Uio vnliie iif exports and ini(i()rts ntcuchoFUic thirteen porUi. They 
idiow that iu 1882, of the tliirtton iwrts, six, Choudiya. Bulikuri, 
Ganj^Wali. Murtlonhvar, Matiki, anil Hliindi, hail a total traduof less 
Uiau 110,000 ; four. .Sad^hiv^, Aukula. Ta-lri, and Bhatkal. had 
bftwu.-.D £10.000 and £25,000; one. HoiiAvur. h-jtWct-O £50,000 and 
itOO.OOO; aud two. Kiirw&r and Kumta. above £100,000- 

Kdimrit S«a Tradu Imp^Ht, 1874-tSSS. 

1 DravoK 





















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nT«3 MI.IW 




Chapter 71. 



I tlfi-S 



(Bombay < 


Ch«pt«r VI. 


Kdn^ra 8ta Trade Srjx^. IVH-tKi, 








ia»-n.j uiMo. 













£ < 

(MM 19,00 


































injUV OAK 















iiM vm 
iajirSi tkJat 

«11 M7 
IN 4M 








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The following st«it«'inrnt sllow.s the total tra(ie oE catli cast 
clivi.sion during the HBine eight years (187*- 1882). Of the thi 
divisions, UuiiiLvar, chiefly on account of its coUan. coloured wc 
ware, and spiet-a. mostly sent to Bombay, )iad the largwt tt 
average, and Ankola the smallest average. In Hoiulvar, tho t< 
vaiup^of iiniwits and ex|)ortn rose from i£795.«06 in 1874-75 
£i,0nfio7m I878-;g; it fdl to £946,426 in 1880-81. and agl 
rost; to X972.993 in 1881-82. In K&rw&x the total vftla«i 
impovta and exporta rose from £643,170 in 1874-75 to X937,27I 
1875-76 and fell to £413.190 in 1877-78; in 1878-79 it again 
to £722.604, in 1879-80 it feU suddenly to £391,713 and a 
rose to ££24.322 in 1S81-8S. In Ankola the hiKheiit total value 
iiDporta and exports was £35,286 in 1876-77 and tho low^ 
£22,757 in 1879-80 ; in 1881-82 it was only £28,268: 
lC4nnra Sw Tratk hg Cuthmt DirUlvm, W4-lS8f. 



neyzi. 1 



. ToUL 





























1 tsn-TS. 











11 tM 



















fffMora Sea Trade hg Ciatomt INtitioMt, 187$ ■ ISSt. 










Ankol* ~ 
























mt-at. 1 

















Ut.S43 1 Ml JU 





Tlie Uireti portii uf th« KarwAr uroup, SatJibiluvg&d, K/irwilr, and 
Cb«(idiya, bod in 1881-82 a total "uafU- worth X.>24,222. of which 
£194..'>SG wutu Unparts and JE321>,636 exporta. The chief cxporta 
are cdttOD, ltati^-c hauJ-ioade cloth, and litisk<Ml and unhusked rice. 
Thcsd artieteA a>-e pikrtly pn^lucul in tlm tlivlsioti and partly 
brMicht for export from above the !^ahv(^dris. Th* importa, moat 
of wriich oro For local nsti, are cliintly n-)tea(. toltacco. and Europe^u 
doth. The traders are Vduis, Gujars, BrfUimans, Musalindus, Goa 
ChH'^tiatiii, Eiirnpean-t, and PlLrsiti. Most of tboui nro men of 
njtirjU. The shippitiff is phittonidria, bulflds, iniichvds, aud paddvs. 
Bunidvs tliu local sailing craft, stimiiicnt from Bumbay, Vengurla, 
and Monffalor. and other Ualahfir port« of 1000 to 2000 tons, 
■Ui'I AszXtbaglAs and otli4>r vcsscIh of bfly to 100 tons visit the 
ports, anchoring abont half a uUe from the laudini; at Kdrwitr. 
T>J ■''■^r.\4ris, muchvds, and pu<ldtv arc built by local BhandAri and 
carpeiiter-H, and have crewa varying n-om three to twelve 
itdj are ff<tnoi*ally local Kli4r»i8. Olibits, Dildi«, Bhandilris, and 
Ambis. Tlic CTL'W are paid about 14*. (Ra. 7) a month, arid th« 
CWtain twice aa mucli. A trip to Bombay generally titke-s ten and 
to llftdraa fifteen to eighteen days. 

The four Ankola porks, Belikeii, Ankola, Oaugdvali. and Tndri, 
bad in 1881-82 a total trade- worth f 28,269, of whicli £Io,073 
were iinporta and Xlit,l!)6 export;*. The chief exports ore 
bom I.-OOS, husked and unhuBked rice, boms, figh, ooGO&-ktfmel>i, salt, 
timber, and wooden ware, llicao articles aro partly pnxluced in 
the division aod partly brought for export from DnArwAr and 
Belgouni. Thu iinportfv though grcftter than the exports, are 
kllDOst entirely for local u«e. They include husked and anhueked 
rico, wheat, yani, and fish. Tho traders are Gaud Sii-iwvot 
BrOhmaiv, VAiiui. MuHalindn-i, aud Oirbtians. Some of them 
liwie on tlicir own and others on borrowed capital. TJie ghipping 
iafiodig.muchvds.aniijjuiltrvidris. Bcttides the local craft, vessels 
oi twenty to thirty-two ton<j from Kochin and other Malabar 
vuriA. of six to fifty tons from Goo. ond of seven to sixty tons 
mnu Honilvar Kuuita and K^wdr, visit the ports. Tadri gives 



I Bombay Guett 


Chapter VI. 




uiicliora^c a iiiilo froii) tlm lAii'tin<; at hij*ti tide to votocla of 1] 
toni« un«I at low tido to vt^H»oU oF \'AQ toos ; Oangiivali, a mite 
llic laJiiJing to vessels under Hfty toici ; Aiikola, near the Ur 
At high tii]c tn va'au-l^ of eight toai aiul at low tiilo to TCsseU 
six iMis, am] nlioat a inilc fram the lattilin),' at iiil titiicA to vcss 
of grvater tonnape ; luiil Bolikeri, nv&x tho Uudiiiy at hij;}i tM« 
vessels of fifty tons ami at low ti<le to vessels of twenty to! 
ffodw, fihittemdni; anti -nutchrdM are Imilt \iy the local carpent 
and ai'o DiaiineU hv a captain and a crew of two to seven noamt 
Btwiden their ineara, the crew arc pwcl 8« to 10«. (Ra. ■(■•R&S) 
month, and the captain twice as much. On special occa-rions th 
aliio get n>wBrds from the tratlm. Atrip to Bombay with a favoH 
ahlc wind takoH throe to five days. 

Tlw six Hoiifivar ports, Knnita, Murdcshvar, HonAvar, Bhat 
Manki, and Shiriili. had in l»Sl.R2 a total trade worth £072.yit3,l 
which £28*;J25 were importsand £688,668 exports. Thechicf oxpoil 
an; cotttin, cocoanuts. epict!*. Mack pepi)er, and bet^^Inuts to IJoml " 
and grain to KiUiknt, KAnnnur, Mangalor, and othr-r Malalidr]"" 
Thtsw articlej* are partly produced in the division and 
Immj^ht for export from "above the Sahy^dris and from ] 
The imports, which are chiefly from Bomluw. Manjirftlor, KAIiW 
and Kananur fm- local nst-, are wh«at, pulaa Italian millet or bdH 
HU^ai: camphor, fip, and doth. The traders ani Surftfiv&t, ClutpSvi 
and Konkari BranmanR, Vdnis, Mibialniiliis. and Europeans. So| 
of them trailo on their own and others on borrowed capit 
Bc-'iiile.s tho«i' local traders, a few up-country merchants sUij 
thc-ste yorUi during the busy aoaaon between January ami 1 
The shipping incui<les hodis, vuuJivlt, jxtddva. pfuitemdri*. 
baititU. Besides tlie local craft, stcamera of 400 to 1000 
from Botnl>ay, tudfltk of iwcnty-five to 200 ttms fi-om Aral 
and of fifty to Hcventy-flvo from KiithiAwHr, and jJintmM 
of ten to 100 from the Malaliiir coast vWt the ports. Hon&\ 
gives imchorajfu at nlx>nt 125 ftint from llm landing, at h^ 
tide to vessels of sixty aiul at low tide to v«s»ela of I'oi 
tons; Kumtu, at alxtut ISS feet to Bmall vusmjIh of four 
twelve tons, and at about two miles from the landing to 
of greater ionnu^'c. Tho anchorage of the reuiaioing four 
in generally in the «ea. Hoflw, inachvds, aud phat^m&rU are 
in tlu-f*y portfl generally by Mrilvan and sometimes by Krtnii 
Il«tii%iri, and Malalulr eaj-pcntcrw. Vessels of under t«n tons 
nianneil by a captain and crew of four seamen, and above ten tons 
of sfrven to twelve seamen. Tho crew arc paid 10». (Rs.5) a 
TOonth, an<l the captain twice bm much. Witli a favourable wind a 
trip eitlier from or to Bonilwy takes five or six days. 

Owing to recent changes in classification no compnri.'von can 
niaiie of iuci'casoor <le«reaa« under tho different article-a of t- 
Tlif fullowiug statement gives the approximate value of tho cl 
articles imported and exporter! in 1830-81. Of £1,440,448. 
total value of tlie <M-a trade, £991.20.5 were exiwrts and £UB: 
vcfji- Import*. The chief it-ims under exports are i-oltoii vuliiW- 
£641.0l>9oi-64(i7porceut of the exports, brought for eipoft. 


ly from Bclgnum, WiirwAr, nml other iiilaful dJBlricU; 
voluci lit X^7,2I5 or 2*74 pel coiit of the exports, 
UK»a!y from Tk-Ljann) ami DhfirwArto Ilatn%m and MiUliAr ports; 
^.' .nt-.I «anM, valued at il0,->61 or ro*j per cent of the ©sporto, 
to Bfjmliay; riw?, Urth honked and unhatked. valuuJ 
M t. ■ -.i-j <.r tJ'54 p«>r cent of the exports, sent to Hw Koiikan and 
Unliiliilr ports and to the liwtricts above the Saliyiiim ; HpirH«, 
valuL-d at Jt2Ih,0^l or ilU9 ]*ft c^mt nf tiw fji\M>Ttn, wnt chifHy to 
Bomlaij' ; and other iiiLsceUaneoiis articlt%s. valned at £2!,89*>, acut 
nmrtly to Konlcon and Uala^Mlr porta. 

Of £lt9,2+3. the total vnlne of imports, the chief apticlcH are 
iwiwi and yam. vahitid at Xt}2.Gr>8 or 13'Oi per cent of the imports, 
br' Ml IJoTiil'ftT Uj U; nmilo into hand-woven cloth ; piece- 

&■ d at £r»7,Ilj4 or 127- per cent of the import'^, broUf|;ht 

Ir .y for local use and for inland ti-ansport to Belgauni nnd 

I)' .nhiLsked rice, valued at il 1,513 or 856 percent, brouftbt 

fr- i.r ports for inland traoHport to the difltricts above the 

Saitj."!"- , raw motoLi, chk-lly bms.'* and copper, valued at £28,491 
Iff G'S'l per cent of the imports, importeJ from Bomluiy to be 
bl ■ ctwkiny, water, and other vo.s.wls ; oil and mlBt*<hi, 

rii . ', 17,7H2 or 'Ai)o percent, brought from Bombay and Kochin 

for iKcal u«o and for inland transport; bbH, valued at £1+,4S7 
or iV2\ per cent, brouehl from Kumta for local nut; silk (;oo<U, 
vaJu*.-] tit £32,866 or 7'31 per cent, brought from Bombay and 
lUwlrrt.^; and H])ic06. valued at £17,S0y or 3'06 per cent, brought 
front iVimliay and Malaltitr ports for local use and inlaud transport 
to Bulguuui and Dhdrw4r : 

KdMtra ArtkU* nfSra 7VaJ«, ISSOSI. 

J, AlfltU. 













BMklBf, A<i. ^ 






Hptnti anil Mqaoia ... 


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Olt koit Oil fwoli 



1 . 1 in, 






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miu »Mft OaJmirlaa.. 



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UbnIluitMw ... ... 





Tout ... 



' Kdnara U not a manufacturing dLsttict. Tlie only craft for 
which it \& known xa its sandal wnotl-carving. Otlicr branches of 
industry which arc worthy of notice are the working in metal, 
bi>rii. cano. earth, and stone ; oil-pressing ; the making of moIaasDa, 
Mtochu. and Mlt ; sawing timber by steam ; ami the jail industries. 

I OaitriKitod hy Mr. R. E. Cindy, C.8. 




[Bombay Qant 



i Chapter TI. 


U«U1 Work. 

iorn Work, 

Cane Wwk, 

For upwan^R of b c«ntary the sanclalwood-carving of KM 
has been well known. The workers are the Otnlgars or catTei 
who are round in nninll nmulivni in the :4ub>(li\-imon!) nf Sir 
Sitlditpur, Uondvar, Kumta, and Ankola, and who call thecodeli 
Cbitani, Mana's name for artisans. They are said to have oodk 
from Ooa after the efttablishmcut of Portuguuse power. They 
carve saodalwooti, i%"orjr, and ebony with uxquisite skill ; thoy 
work on tho lathe in wood niakiug beautiful lacquered articlea; and 
they make the pith ci-owns which an^ worn by bridegrooms, and 
the pith llowerH ami cnwts whidi are much used by the lower 
clasaea of Hindus during the Shimga holidays in March-April. 
They work the latlie with a bowstring of raw deer-hide, noi 
like mo^t carpenters with the help of a second workman. The 
article.^ made are workdioxe.s, eabinets, work-tables, watch-stands, 
glove-boxee, jewelry-boxes, writing-boxes, pen-holders, pen-stand^ 
card-cases, chi^ss-lioards. paper-weight.s, piiper-cuttcrs, needle-cwes. 
cord-boxcH, and various other articles. Tliey vary in value frim 
2». to i-SO (He.I-it^.500). The carved work reprej«ent'( the go(is 
and heroes of Hindu mytiiulogy, wild boa»t(>, monkeys, parrots, and 
other birds, and creeper and Hower tmCeries. Tlio piece of sandal- 
wood wliich is to be carved is carefully juuootlied and pollslied with 
sand-p^wr and the pattern is sketched ou it in pencil Tlie t<^>ol8 
used in carving are of native Diake and ai'e small and delicnte hke 
the needle used in English embroidery. The Gudgars generally work 
to order, seldom ofTering articles for i^ale exccjit nuch oa liav« Iteen 
condemned by the person who oi-dered Uiem. Their chief calliiw 
Li engraving and painting. Although their sandalwood-carving is 
much liked by Europeans there is little local demand. Some of the 
article,-* carved by Sulwuuia of Honitvar wbicli were sent to the 
18(i7 £x]iibition iu Paris gained a silver medal. 

Goldsmiths are found in all towns and in almost all largo 
villagua Some of (he town goUlsmiths are skilful workmen and 
make excellent ornamental gold and silver ware. Blacksmiths aro 
found in towns and in most large %'illag08 and their crafc i;^ well 
paiilj thoufjh the demand for their work is not large. Coppersmiths 
and metal -potniakers are found in the principal towns and earn 
more than any other metal workers. They are chiefly Christian 
KfUu&ra from Uo«. 

Fancy articl«s of cattle, deer, and bison horn aj'o made by Home 
carpeut*;™ and Gudigars with considerable skill at Kumta, HuiiA- 
var, Siddiipur, Bilgi, Sirsi, and Sonda. The demand for the work ia 
iflnuU and in no place employs more than a few families. The horn 
15 eoUoctcd in the district, the price of a horn varying from 6<i to 
2«.(4 an*.-Re.l). The articles made are small jewel-boxes, combs. 
snuff-boxes, cups, handles for sticks and knives, buttons, rings, 
and toys. A jeweIry-l>os cosfe about 10s. (Rs. 6) and a oomb or a 
SDUff-box M. to G(/. (2-4. ans.y. 

Excellent cane work, both useful and ornamental, is made at 
K(trw(ir by Chinese workmen, who were formerly convicts in the 
Kdrwar jail. The raw matei-ial is brought from Bombay. Of the 
cone articles oaay-chairs cost Ida, to £1 <Ra 8 • Ba. 10), oomiaon 



«hura 9s. to ]2«. (IU4i-IUC), footetooU 4«. to (fo. (R«.2-Ra.3). 
Inefaeun bukot« Qt. to 12y. (Rs.-'B -Rs. <J). Indies' work-luukoU) Gs. to 
1<I«.(IU3-IU 8), (lower vafi«8 3«. to 10s. (Bs. U- fU. 5j. wiL-itc-pupcr 
Iaiktfu3«.to6ii. (R!iU-B8.4), andcoto 10*. to £2<R&8-Rg.20)t 

PotU-rj' k farrif-i on in most towns anil villagc& K«i noLn are 
HMtif! aljovu anil lilack [niLs arc maJe Ix-loW ih<: Sah},'&<lri!i. The craft 
tbllvea U>tUT alHivL- the SabyiUlrU ttiau on Hiv utast. Of Ktnne. 
frying pans for native wheat and rice cokos, ju^, anall flat Vntsina 
to aiorv wat«r, and oUi«r vesaels are made to a auiall extent at 
Scjmd. thnie miles from KinviLr, and neat- Cbftndivar In K.umta. 
Thr material usrd vi an a»b-CAlouri.-d pomuit Hiatu found in tha 
D*^i:htioitring quarries. No f««« ar<r cnargcd for qtuurj'ing the 

-prwidng is an important industry. Oil for lighting is chiefly 
!.■.<( riveted from cocoannts and to a small extent from wild oistor-socd 
and from the seed of the undi or C'olophylliim inophyllnni. Tlie craft 
is fuUow«d on the coast l>v Clanign and a few Christians and in tbo 
nplands by L)n«tyatfl. tTie oil-prcswr extracts oil either on hia 
UWB account or from nmt«rial.4 >ninplitMl 1>y hu>iV>niidnit>n and .thon- 
fceopm. Tlie mill, vrhich is a rude and clumsy machine, ^tand^ in 
th« courtyard in ihu houitc and i» worked eitlier hy thu hand or by 
A baltocic. CoAior and undi oil is nst^l locally and larf^ qiiantitici 
of cocnanut oil are nent into the Ratniigiri fotin and to Bonit>ay. 
Br»td(;s in lightijij^ i4>i<ii oil is used in painting boat«i. 

&lola:taeb \n made by most liuishauduien in all parts of the dis- 
trict in qoantitir-s sufficient to moot the local demand. Very little 
UtLVtA the district. The work begins about January and endti in 
Mar. Molasses in cliiefly made from sugarcane juice whicli ia 
■ y a rude and old-fashioned mill called ^/'airt. The juice 
. large copper or iron caldrons and st^ji-ed in earthen pots, 
T .'Uie mill coAts £o to £G (Bh.50-Rs.60), Above the 

8^.,. lUc luulHSitea i3 hardened and niaile into cubical blocka 

by means of wiwxlon frames. Besides from sugarcane juice Khan- 
diris, K.oniilrp4ika, and Chriiitiaus luakeamall (|uantities of molosaea 
frrwn palm juice by l^«iling it with lime. Palm jaice moloRSes 
IB Bitwtly usL-d in Hwectening coffee, an it gives more tlavour than 
s^rsimne iutttn.s»ei4. 

Catecliu is nia«le in small quantitiea on the coast To make 
catvcliu tlic kkair true Acacia catechu ia fulled at any season, and 
afl^r the whilv wood liaa been r«uiovt«d, the heart is cut into umall 
bits, and put, witli onedialf tlic <|nantity of waU-r, into a ruund- 
twllied earthen jint. It is then Ixjiled for abimt three houi-s;aiid 
wh^4i the decoction Iia^ hecoiuc ropy, it is decanted. The samo 
qaaiitity of water is again added and boiled until it becomes ropy. 
when it is decanted, and a third supply of water is given, llns 
extracts all the substance from the wood. Tlie three decoctions are 
then niixe<l, and next tooming butod in email poti until the 
extntct N-conifs thick like tar. It is afuirworda allowed to remain 
in th<* )xiLs fur two day^, wbi.>n it has Ijeconie no hard that it will 
not miL Some bosks of rice arc Hpruod on the ground, and the 
tUelcenod Juice is formed into ball;) about the size of oranges which 

Chapter VI. 





IBomlMi; O&Mtt 



^aptCT VI. 



are placo'I on the hnsks or on leaves wiil left seven days 
till! »iiu to dry. Duniij^ the dry seanon the bidls are sprcaiJ iii tl 
shadtt for two mouths aiid daring tlie rains for four niontKn. Th 
are then tit tor solu. The making of caU-cliu was ttlopped 
sevei'al years, but in 1880 a small txHitract was granted in Iioii&\ 
yielding alwut .t;{G4 {Ri iHitO). 

*Up to 1878 salt nne<I to be manufactured along tho coast 
S&nikatta. Kumta, Bbatkal, Hh'iHSi, and Bailor. In 187R, uod 
Govtriinu'ut orders, all minor !*nlt--works were clo9c<l, and at pi 
(1882) SAnikattn, aUmt ten milis north of Kumta, i* the only pi. 
wlit-n: <Mdt b uiaiiufactiired. The ISiinikalta f?alt-work coiilamii 1^ 
dgara or salt-paii.s of which only 128 an" in irse; the n«t aj-e oiti 
-w&siu or buvo be«u tunifd into rtce-ficlds. Of tin; 128 in usv, 11 
dgaTu, containing in all lO.-WOiwnn, were worked in 1880-81 
yichled Gobo tons of salt, or 3463 tons over the awmgo of the thi 
years ending 1879-80.* All Kanara salt-works are tJie proper 
of private individuals who pay an acre aasessmont varying " 
Ss. 7U to Gs. U-/. (H«. 2\^ to Ha. 3^*.). 

A few i«alt-makers do not begin work till Febmar^' oroven Us 
bat most set their paus in order soon after tli« bc^nnin^ 
January. Salt is never remoi'ed from the pans Iwforc the middlo 
March or nithor before S^ivurdtni. In nrepfirinpr the pans the tt 
thing in to bolt out the rain-wator whicli has gathered iu the 

Tbi» is jjenorally done on coiitrnot by Inlwurers who aiv paid 1». 

ls.6iL (8-12 ana.) tho ekUta or thirty pwis. The pana vury givatly 
iu dze ; ou an average they are about sixteen fe«t long by fuurtet 
foot brood. Wlien the water has been bailed out the soil which v 
gatliered during the rains U removed from the pans and eight 
t4:u inches of sail wat«r are let Into them. The drains are do 
and the water is left to evaporate. While evaporation goes 
the embankments or fnindiui and the reservoirs are rcpaiK'd ; i 
when the pans arc completely dry a second supply of <^ll water 
allowed to Bow in. After thin the pons are supplied with 
water evBry second or third day. and biicy ore troudou one day 
beaten the next until the surface hardens. The surface is the 
levelled and niadc even by drawing a jilank over it, a boy or a 
wuniau standing on the plnnk to acid to its weight This smooUdUHH 
gDi:3 on for several days until grainc <}f Halt appear here uud thel^^ 
wliieh are worked into th« ginuntl with a plank fnstenud to a long 
pole until a thin crust of salt forms on the auifaoe. ^j 

Tho day for removing tho salt from ttic pans is tixod by consnl^f 
ing the village deitie*. From tins day forwanl wat«»riH let into th^^ 
pojis, and. except on uluudy day», salt is daily removed and ia 
neaped at pUcea set apart for the puqwae. The work of 
removing th<> salt Ls done by Agiars who arc paid in grain. Tliey 

*C(iBthtmt«dby Mr.>rM>lii Jtuiwotit, Aotiog AnciBtAat C«U««torQi i 

-•Tlutlcfaulit ua: 3S5$ tan* In te77-78, 9031 loni in lS7fl-7Si, uul 3308 tcM 
1870-80, giviiw mn BT«n)|{« of 300fi tons vliidi 1b leu by SUH) tatiJi tluw 03&S tons, 
fmuluoe a liSaSl. 

mudwi or Ifrt pounds of rough rico for each cktUa or thirty 

Tli«j uvt^ratre tirtxloee of a ^hilta 

«tki:i : . - t-^^tiiiiDtc'tl ataUitifc vi{.;ht luul ii hmf toiLs (2 aaiiie ox 

ItAlniiiui in<rns). The sail is carneU from thu uilt heapK hi luat) 

'- l''"«nT'* to Uic platform ilk frout of tliti kolhdm or ftall-etore**, 

iinmrvrs aru paij U. 6(J. to 3* («««. 12-Ri Ii) a ytidi (if 

.((■!■ toaa. The iait i& k-ft on the platfonn to dry for 

ic, whtii, atiiltr the sujitTviaion of » Govurmiii'iit 

L i4fi*rr, lU L-> M.t;igh>'.l ftjiij Mtorvil by labourers wlio W'i jwii'J 1*. to :}*. 

r •»>^fi-U.->. IJ) a y«itii. acooiiliug to the iliatunccof tUo salt-^toru 

Jm iilalt'oroi. Salt cuuts to make about id. a ton {Ra. HI tbu 

' ' ' The cliief [loiuU in whidi K&uara siJt-uiaking (litfi-Ti 

-in salt- making uro Uiat tho salt is doily n^inovi'd from 

j'(i.-ij ttiid Is kept in httlt-storiM or kothurt, 

B^wcoii 1874 mid 1S78, the Kdnara salt Iratln wa,s very dull > 
more laud than vtas wodUmI was aet apart for salt^niaking. 
tupplr wuM ^frvattT tluui the dtitnand, and a largo l>ftlance wai 
ay* ill hand at the close of t-adi yiiar. The rpsiilt was a con- 
t glot in the murkct which kept thn price ho low that the najt 
Banuucturers mn-lu littlu or ao pnifit In la78, all the worka 
•xcopt nt 8iinikaiu were clobcd. The wfaolu tra<Ie in salt was thus 
tftrowti into iIk.- hand* of thu HaJfc-owncra of tliot plw-t-, who wen; not 
■low to n^aluse their position and enhance tlio pric*. The price of 
80 poaxid» (one In'iiun vmn) of salt n»c from 2W. (IJ nns.) in May 
1S7S to It. (S an*.) in May isT'J. This eontiaued to April IS«0, 
'' brought it down to fW. (6 aiij".). at which prico 
I. This jj) the ratw at which thy uiaker« sell tho 
a^t Vj iht liv'-it.'w-holdLTs or roiiul trailurn who [my the duty of 5a 
f"i •iirhty T>«imd.'i (Kh. 2^ Avian) and spend alxiut i^'f. (I dixki) 
Ji weighing, bagging and carrj'ing the Bait to their ohops. 
. ^■- I'ltAl co»t to the trader of eighty pounds (1 man) of salt ia 
tlw!n?fore 5*. JOJrf. (Ite. Sf^), Tlie wholeisalo liconsf-holders 
p^Dcndly buy thtir sail a little clicaper than the retail license- 
holdt-rs. Tli'ey pay i,* (lU 40) tbt« yuJi of +i tons or 120 Indian 
mauB, or Sd (5J htu.) the man of ejglity pounds, while the retail 
liouujieea pay 9U. <ti tins.) the muH of eighty pounds. Tliese celling 

Erict*:? prevail mthin a diatuncc of ten miles of the salt-works ; 
eyou'l ttiat limit prices incraose pi-oportionatuly to Uie di^jtauoe 

The retail ilo not actually retail tlie salt, bnt sell 
it ixt *M. 7\d. for eighty p«iind-i (Us. 3,»j the man) to consumers who 
CftU afford to bny ho Targe a quantity at one time, and to ahop- 
ketfjkcn who rwtaiJ it to ]»etty eousumers at |'/. (-fy anna) thejiAcr of 
thirty-two loUii or at alwut id. the pound or 7#. (Ra.Si) the Indian 
muu The wtiolusale licoujie-holdem generally trade with up-country 



he dAtani u'f : Ttu) total c<Mt of HwIditK one i/<f'li ft 130 miiu of aJt It lid. 
1? vntw fttthetiit«o( U.M. {id ait) th<ifAUIa artWoyddU ; Si. fid. 

tl' Kt the tato nj two niiuf4i of rice or 13*. (Rn. 0|) lh« ehltta or 

*«u /.j^Ju; 2-1 ijlc. 1| for e^nyinu tb* wUt to t]i« pUtform ; 2x. (Kb. I| tnt gUmgt ; 
MHdlt, SJ. (lOuiu.) fogr lUkhJuftit Mlt^tona; gtvins the total coK ol 12*. -t^. 

iBotnbty Oasatt 



iptM- VI. 



^■U laduililM. 

mprchuiU and carrierit. Tliey liave their kIiojm on the Sahyil'lr 
roads aod Hell 160 to 8000 pounds (2 to 100 man*) ai a time. 
Their rates are lower thiui thosi; (tf tlif ivtail license. hoi d«ni a* tln-y 
sell a two man bog at 12*. 3(f. to 129. 6J. {lis. OJ-Ks. 6}) or at 
fit. \^(L io 6«. S<i. for eighty pounds or Ufi. 3|1, to Ra. St th« 
Indian man. 

The SAuniKori saw -mill, about tive miles north oE Yelldpur, was 
started in l«7Ji under the 8Uper\-ision of Colonel W. Peyton, the 
Oon»n*atoroE Forcst6.atA cost of about £6100 (Rii. 61,000). The 
mill lies in the heart of one of the chief KAnara forest tracts Tho 
machinery include-s fonr plain circular and om> crOHs cub saw, work- 
ed by three steam engines each of twelve home-power. The millft 
are in charge of a European sab-assi!>tniit cont>er\'fttor of foreHto 
who is a trained tnechuiical engineer, an<l who is oinsisled by one 
foreman, one head Htoker, oni) aHsiKtant ntoker, t>ne oilman, one 
cai-penter, two measengers, and one sweeper besides a store- 
keeper. The yearly ca-it of tlic establishment is £7f)n (RA7il-^fi>. 
The average number of handfl entertained is thirty-three; when 
there is a prc5H of work aflditional Irnndn arc token on. In the 
beginning the mill worked at a profit, but in 1879-80 and 1880-81 
the demaJid for sawn timber fi-oni Beipaum and DhArwAr ft-ll «o 
con.siderably that the working of the mill showL-d a Biuall lofia In 
1882 it 0,'^iun yielded a Kinnll profit and in ISSH and prabohly for ' 
several years to coiuu tlie lur^^e demand from tho ountrttctorti of the i 
We^it of India Portug^ue^e Railway will ensure good return^.' ^11 

Tlie chief jail industries are cane work, weaving, and carpentrj^l 
Between ISrt;} and 1870, during which there were seveml Chinese" 
convicts in the jail, the cane work was excellent, bnt, since their 
release in 1870, the work has ileclined. Up to 18f*2 two handlooma 
turned out excellent shirt cloth, chequered table-cloths, napkinfi. 
loweU, coarse cotton carpets, and coai"se cloth, which hail a n-aily 
sale in KSrwAr. Since 1 883, to encjnroge private enterprize, tliesa 
jail industries have been stopped. Of carnentn,-, neat boxes, chai 
oots, tables, tools, and benches are made by long-termed primnerg. 


1 Tbe d«UUa an : I& 1BT9 70 » prclit «( £1681 ; in 1676-77 ft profit of £€W i in 
18T7-~S *■ pr«fit of £3S5 ; m 18:S^T» a profit of £3Kfl i in lS7ff-60 « 1«W of SSSS ; in 
IBOO HI A lou of JE2S7 ; u<l in 18SI'S2 a prulit of £10. 




Kanara, H.bovo the Sahy&dria belongs to tlie Karndtak. From 
lt^■ yiiily tirniia if. lias almo'it always formed part of tke territories 
[the gr>.>ur dyuasLivs wUicIi havQ h^ltl Muutur, the Karnitiilc, aad the 
Bdwao. BaoaTasi, abouc Bfteen miles aontb-cost of Sirai, iho most 
1->-<- —{<• place in tlie diatriirt and oao of the most historic plncca in 
ra lodiuj ia repeatedly montioned in ioscriptioos fruui Iho 
ico li'i lu tliu r-ixleentli centnry after Clirisl. Many of tlipso inscrip- 
tifma ir.'r*:^ .N-.H-jclcd and translated by Sir Waller Elliot betweou 
i " ; in lS7ti n larRp niimb^r of ibeni wciv cmlwuiied ia 

SJ :'ryof ilaistir;^ and in l!i82 tlieir iaformntiou was 

wbauBlod by ilr. J. F. Fleet, of tlie Bombay Civil Service, in liig 
Dyna^iios of tlie Kanarcoo Districts of tho Bombay Proaidoncy.* 
Kvitbur Mr, Rico's nor Mr. Fleet's wnrk includes tlie coaiit of 
KAnar«, and except those remrdod by Bnchannn it) I8D0 few 
UUKTipiiooa frumtht) coast dietrict.s have been published. 

Vram anearly period the KilnarHOoaat lias been debatable land. At 
timo it has been part of the Konkan or West India, at another 
of Keral or Sontb Jndia. Some Hindu goo^^raphers make 
1, the fuiuous place of pUgnmHt^e on the coast nbont twenty* 
ii)p< »oiitb of Kdnvar, tb» Ixjnndary between the Konkan or the 
kajis&ad Keral whicli stretchos sfuith either toTinnovetly 
«; ' ' , '.' Comorin.* Others make the Seven Konkans part of 
KenU and take Keral as far north as Surat.' The K&naru cuaat 
■MntLE to have been almys governed by local chiefs, 'rimes of 
nrddT and prosperity, when the local chiefs vreru tlie under-lorda 
cf some strong inland ^ovemmeDt, neom to have boen divided by 
loQ^r periodA of dintre-'^t when control wua Tritbdrawn and the 
|i»lty chiefs were left independent and at war. In spite of local 

ChaptAr VII. 

Earlj Ilwtorjr. 

* Tbo Mrlj ISadD deUUa are chiefly from Mr. J. F. PlMt'a Dynulicf cf tb« 
KinanM DiatricU of lti« Boubky Prcatdency i the rnktcrikU for Utn IVrUi|,-nMw 
SwIiaB bAv« h«fn contriboUd hy Dr. fltowwi Dtt Cunhk ; akA mnab of tho n<ttu.iiiiiig 
fortintti Mn Cmn a hUt<rry ot Kiaua prep«nkl tor thaGuettMf 1iy Mr. J. iloatoalti, 
«f the Ifcimhsy Ci'-pl ^rvift. 

' " r irw Vola. B«iiH»I<rT«, 1876, 

Ly Oasettwr, BumlMy, 1882. 

■',-,.„. -..„i,, .: i...,,*, I.5;WUm){i'« Macketur.i* Colloctioa, Nov S.liliM, 59 j 
VMln* JmttuI oi Lit«r>turo vulS«i«n««, I^Tt^, Wi Aceorditig t^ thn TnUr or 
KivareM! rMordti tba <«t«ii Konkua u«, bogitiiilna frnm tb« north, Kintta, Virlt*, 
llAfAihA. Kankana, Haiga, Talav. and Kerd. Wiboa'a MackenEie Colltctlaa, N«w 
UiUoB. 3S. * Buchiuua'a U>'*ut« >iid Cuiara, II. 348. 




Chapter Ttl. 

Kut7 Hulory. 

contests and oF changing- orcr-lnrdB, Binre early historiaU tii 
|>erbapB sl>out the Heventn century after Cliriat, the oreaicr parbl 
the pre«ent North Kinara coast has formed a distinct territ"^ 
diviBioD known n% Hai^n or Hnyve, apparently tho Land of Sm 
froni h<ibtt or 'mi the local KAuarese for a enabe. 

Few traditional references to KAoara hare 1>eeu traced. Li 
other parts of tlxe west const Hindu books a^erilw the origin 
Kilnara to thu groat warrior PoraabBrAin or Axe-B^, the si^ 
incarnation of Vighnu. This great warrior dcfcnled tho Kffbatrii 
twenty-one liraea. When their powei- WM utterly bnikeu Farashnt 
was anxioutt to Huttlo in the lands from which liis oiicmiea hnd * 
driven. But Uio Br&hmong would nob allow lliiur blond-et 
cliampioD to lite witli tliem. Ho retired to the Sahyidris 
■hootioe ftD arrow from tliocrost of tbc rango won from tho sett 
atrip of mgged lowland that runs aJunff the Western Ooe 
Tho books toll liow ho raised certain wbito shipwrecked oorpsen 
be Brdbmans, snd afterwnrds disgaated witli thoir want of fail 
loft thorn a prey to the wild hill-tribos.' According to an luswuj 
quoted by Buchanan, tliu BralitnHii:i whom Furushunlni settled 
ilaign or North Ktinara and in 'I^ilav or South Ktinnm wero Hi 
and Mfichi BrAlimnns. They wore dcfeotod by low class chiefs, 
tt fisher or Moger, the other an impnro Holayar or Wholtiai 
Aa accoant in tho ]!t1ackenzio Collection of MSS., of doubt 
tmthfiiluoss aod perhaps uot applicable to North Kiinara, tttst 
that alter the liret IJniluuaus wcro iiitrt'duccd, the Ci>uutry was dim" 
into Bixty-four distncta mid iho government was ves(ed in a re 
Dumber of BrAhmaos chosen from each district. The Br&hmi 
lived as orcr-holdcre of the laud and as ofBcials. The defence oi 
eonntry was entrusted to ton and a half of tho sixty-fourdiatrif 
Therepre«entativoBr4hmftn3oI the sixty-tour districts cbo«e fourj 
their DUitiber as a conncil whoBc term of office lasted throe yc 
Orer the council was a fifth Bruhmun president. Tn timo 
arrangement broke down and a rulerof the warrior ca»tp took the pli 
of the BrAhmun council.' Anotbcr of tho earliest traditions ie 
the K^iinru coast was undur B^ran, tbe king of tlie south, tho fame 
rival of Him. ItdTan united tho charactereof Brihman and B&ksbi 
and according to tradition founded flro temples within tbe 
limits of North K<iuftra.' Mr. Rico notices two referencos to 
Kanara coast in the Hale Kansada version of the Jain 

■ The tt(iry of Pumxhiiriiin ti pvoa in Bnchaaui'i Mfteni, Tl. S4D ; and In Elpliinaf 
Hlitiiry. 230-240. Ai-rariiiiig toTuIartrftditioiii wlion Fnruhunim rvcovcredT 
uiil HaiiC4 friiRi tho aeui he ttirnvd the ooaat flshennen into llmhmAni. Wben he I 
batoldthemif thcywDrccvorin troiit>l(? tocitllonhini »n>l lie vuttld «■»« tothnr : 
Aft«rK>mctiinc, toicc if he woutil kMphiBKonl. the Bnibmaai colled on rkts*liaF 
Ha ettin« uid lindins that ha hail bwn av«dl«Mly tr«iihl«d dogntded tiMB Mti 
Shndru. \Viliinn'«\I*ck«naia CoIlectic>R, New Editton, C9. * 

■ BuebsnAti'* Myiorv t.nd Caoiira, III. 183. 

' Wilion'a MitcllaRiioColloptioti. Now Kdilron, 36-57: Asiatif Rn»Mirclie», V. S. 

* Rdraii'* bmii^ca •ro, WnhAbi»ir»h^iir mt <lok»rD. Murtl«hT«r D«r Hoatl 
Sb&Ri)i«tibvar on tho loutb of HonirK Uko, Dhdf«tlivAr atioiit fiw milMM^^ 
KiinU, nnd ^hivobvur iivar ScJiabivend ; BuchkDM), 111. IK. Thi> tradiW 
little Tslne iia ninnj' Shftir t«mploi in Wttiom Indi*, «it«ii ■« far aortb M SoT 
TiUn in South KnthiKwAr, claim to b« fooaded by Riru. Pnadit Bha^vlulil. 



942), that BaT&u'fl kingdom ended at Gokam, and that ia 

'» time Honiinihu or HunKv^r tcbs the soat of an indepeodeat 

'-* Mr. Hico nlar> notices tbat, uccording to tbo Mab&bliiirat, 

r. tl)6 gvLoral of Vudlushlliire, conquered Maisor of which 

waa loTi^r, snbdood many bill chiefs in tho Sahyadris, and 

iiiing lu ihc coaat, o7om»n Konkau, Gaul, and KcmL' Two 

criptions are recorded, ono by Ituchauan and tho other by 

'.Biooi whJL'h profysa to b(.'dated in Yudhiahtliira's em whoso initiftt 

ui ii.r. ^100. BiiL-haDau's inscription, which ho saw aC the 

Bple uf 7! -ivamt BaDaTi(fi,pn>fes^cH tu buhiu}.'- to Siuihuana 

T^rT"» of Yl. i-Vr fauiily and to bo daU-d 1(>8 of Yiidhi^hthirs'» 

'.it it B.C. ^V'^jo.^ Mr.lttco'iiiaeoriptioQiBOUftCDppcr-pIatofotuid 

... ... Shitnaga or norlh-irofit divinion of Mauur close to Bnnav^. 

Si prof<*3seR to huro becD gloated by Jsaauitgays aod is dated in 89 
,r.t., V ■> i-rijira era. that ift in B.C. 3012.* The origin ofthese 
, which nro certainly forgoriee, haa not been oxplaiood. 
lu iijilAJid K^iiara Banavibi iu the aoath-ciutt is one o{ the 
utcy places which claim to have beoD tho roi^idoDCO of the P^ndsT 
bmu«?re in their twelve ye«ra' exile from Northern India.' 

"^ c-nrliest piece of history at present known to hm rcoorde<l o£ 
•trict is that about B.c. 24U, shortly after the groat coancil in 
A^ eighteenth year of the Maurya Emperor Ashoica (o.c. 242), 
tb* misaioiiai^ or thero RAlcdhita was sent to eprcad the Buddhist 
region in Vanir&i or fianar^L' It was u merchant from 
r..;..vnntior Banavilsi who, about b.c. 100, built tho great Kfirlo cave, 
liirty fire milea north-\re&t of Pooua aud the Vaijayauti amiy 
& -jiuowhat donbtfiilty mentioood iu inscription 4 in KAsik cave III. 
of aboul A.D. 10.' In the second cuntury after Chriat the Egyptian 
MO^mpher Ptolemy (l.'>0) enters tho city in hh list of plaoee under 
tt» fonnA BauaauHi or Banatmsi.* A Puli iueoription engraved on 
Ibo edg«« of aliirgeslaie dab, ornamented with a five-hooded cobra, 
bv been foood in tho conrt of tho great templo at BannviUi. From 
the form of tho letters Faudit BhagvAnlill Indnkji allots it to the 
air- '■ • iiry after Christ, that is about the name time us or a little 
fc- . i'.-my. Tho riiler is named Hiirilipiitra ShiStakami of 

tbo Viuhukndttdniu family, or perhaps of tlie Data family of tho 
place CHlled Vinhakada or Yishnukada.d Uis title Shatakarni 


Early Hi! 

' Kiva'k M7ior», I, 1S3: TTm Jtia BtaiAynm mi eompcaed in Hale Kuuindj by 
Uw povt Pampa in MI. Rica'a Mj«on, L 178. 40a 

* Btoe'B Mnoiv. I. ]»4. > BaohtuiBn'« ilTeon, ITI. 2.10. 

* 1Imc'« MrioiT, il. SSI. AocnrdiagtoWilK'B (TltgiiiM'I'hiucp,II.2:ii>'fanamGJaya 
Mtiagi to %,c. ISOH. ' DcUib ut> e>Vtv lUMliir II&uk>iu. 

* ToRiMir'a Uah»vmw>, 71; tiwIUn Antinttniy, III. S73 ; Ciuinuij;)um'i Aneiont 
9Mm]>tiV •>( Inili^ 488 ; Rioo'i .^lysnn. I. 131. 

' SvtMTsU PAniphlrt,JL of Arcteologiul Surrey of Watorn India, fiS ; Bomluy 
(hMtteM, X VL JU9. flSS. " Bertiiu' Ptolemy* W5. 

* Ifca Dane tlAritiputrft b uwlMwtood in tntMi wn of Hiinti, tfaa aamo vt tlio fsmily 
■as* «( Ike kia^m oiotlMr. OUiu tvhn of ths midc family on ua»lxt\y cftlled 
Owilamipatra ukd Vinsktbipulra. Th* Diu»e HiritipulM Itai th« i^eoUl int«rort nf 
famnff one of Oto tMt* Wh at Cha KwUmbM wlio ruled In BanavAm b«fin« 
AA, Ml uaA qf the Clulakyw by whom hi a.u. 060 tho KuUinbaa' powar vaa 
mntirown. AccordiB^taur. Fleet (KAnanw DynutiM, Siiote 2) lU sn, at least 
byth«ClMliik)'iu. 'loeinotadahUsliacoiiacctioB with tbo Shitakarnia ao the Danto 

am ia Xviih India as irtiU u ia tbe KBtb. 

IBombfty Qu«tt 





S*t]y Uistofjr. 

a^iuciatcfl Ihiii king with (bu ^n-cul dytmsty of tlie SlHUokaniia 
AndhrabhritysH, ivli<i, a littlu bufnru th-ia timD, seem to liaro held 
whole bnsuith of India from Supira on the TUinft ooael to Chart 
near the mouth of the Godavari. Thiti ifi not CDnndcrviI corlaiu, b»t i 
probability is increased hy the fact that abont 20O jears before tl 
a branch oi the Sbiitakaruis was BOttlcd aa far south oa KolhA) 
The next reference that has Ijcen traced to Kdrtnra is iu the Gr 
Periplus of the Erythr^aD Sen, whoso probable date is about a.d. S^ 
This mentioDR the island of Aigidioi, probably Anjidir, and Raiaeil 
which haH not been identified^ and the coast tovn Naoura which 
geueralij supposed to Iw Ilooarar.' 

After the Shdtskarnia the next local dynasty of which record rei 
arc the Kn<lnniha.=t of Banavdsi. Tbefir^t Kadambn kinpf is mid loi 
Triaotnv or Trilochana whose dateiHgiTen ab a.d, 16S in ou inBcripti 
found by Buchanan at Bellig&Te in north-west Maiftur, bnt thi^dat 
ftlmoat certainly wi-ong.' Accordiug to a legendary account giveii| 
Mr. Kice,' the fonoerdynnsty camo to an end, and in order to ebt 
fresb sovereign an etepluint was presented with a garland and 
to give it to tho person who was most fitted to be Wing. The elephi 
presented it to Jayanti, Triloohuiia, or TrJnetrft, who was call 
Kadamba because when a babe he had been found under a kadat 
tro«, Nauclca kadamba, where he had been left by his parents Shin 
Pirvati.' ftiicbauan hns shown that the inscription which mentic 
Triuctra Kadambn, or one of the same date and found at the 
place, 18 a, forgery as it gives a list of twonty-one Kadi 
and twent^'-oneBarbnrika kings.* It is ppobalily for this reanon ' 
Mr. Fleet does not meution it iu his Kanare»e Dynasties. Accordii 
toMr. Fleet, ns faroRprescn tinfonnation goes, the Uanav^i Kadaml 
cannot be traced earlier than the tniudle, perhaps the beginuii. 
of tho fifth centary.* Of these Endanibas, who wore of PaiAeik 
Haisi iu Belgaum and of Vaijayanli or BuuariiBi, t«a coppcx-pl 
grants Lave been found, sevun itt Haisi in DelgHum and three 
Dcvgiri iu Dluinvir. Tbcy were Juina by religion and belonged to i 
Mduaryai/o^mor family. Tbeirnamt< Httritiptilniuiid their u^e of tl 
three-seasoned or Buddhist vcar ecem to connect Ihcni wit b the carlii 
fibalakarui dynasty. The family bad four certain aud two donl 
raccessions, and as their power was ovcrthroxvn abont the middle* 
the sixth century, the establishment of tho dynasty dates from 

) MflCrinillo'f Pmplns. 1S9-I30; TnHIiut Antiquary, \'ni. I4(^ !;at«t«I writ 
have Mentifi«<l thaMuEiriaof Pliny(i.D.77), of Pi.-utui^r'«TaliIo>(A.i< Ptolc 
(*.D.I90>, aodottbe P«ri]j|ua 4a.d.'.MTI. with Mirjin. abmit twenty niln imrth 
Hunlrar. Rcaaoos nKBhowii uudrr Mirjin why thin ifl(>ntili<intii>n miut ^ve way I 
I>r. nuniell^ BuyjgetttiHi tli&t Muiirii wnsKmignnor on (he MftUljAiMiub whoacr' 
luuno WH Mnyin. 

> ItacIiniiKn, HI. 168 ;WiU«D'a MbckAOKia Collnetion, N«w Edition, 00, IfrO ; 
1. 470 ! II . a52. » Mynnrw, 1. 133. 

* Rica's MysoN. I. IM. Ttis two Uf-r brmichns of tliD iamily. tha Gott IQM-IS 
ui<l th« second IteiiA«Ui KiilambM (1068- I2IJ3) t«ll tha *Aiae 8tor>- regarding 
foander. * Daclinnon'i Myiora. III. 2.1'J. 

* Ur. Rrm (MyBorc, II. SA2) Botiooa that in tlio iMglnuuig uf tliv AlLh 

Majhao 11., ttic Koiigu vliiof of Talknii iu llauur, marriud tli« aiitw t4 ihv 
Kulanib* liiiitf KiUbna-vannA. Aocording to Mr. F]««t (KAnarcM- DjnmatiM, 84] 
KriihiM-nrmt wm th» bdcmuov of Mayura-v-armt, tha fouixkr of th« KftdwDk-~- 
tir later KtduahM, whoM |>rob*ble dat« u about a.d. 7.V). 

from near tho Ijetfiiinioff of the fiftli century.' The 
fm to have cstiil)li«lied their power by dofcutiog G»ngn 
T kiugs.* Mrigeslia-vBTiuA, about a.d. 600, U mt-nttoueJ us 
ig Gaaga and I'ollav kings, and hii^ suoc4.«)Mr IfjiTi-riirm^, 
rabont a.u. 530, is mentioDiMi as ovurthruwiDg ChiLadudunUn, 
, of Kaufhi or ConjpTenim, who waa of tho Palla?- dynasty, 
ng lo Mr. FIctt tho Iviulambiu' powiT waa at its highest 
the oloeu of tho fifth eonlury. Their print-ipal capital 
Paldsik uo¥r lialis) iu Bvlgaum, and, be«iilos Banuvi^, fvhich 
iscripLioDB aUu tiamo Jayanti. and VaijayantipurB, th<>y had 
oE poorer at UchchnehriDgi near Harihar in ilai^ur, and at 
nliL whU-h has not hw?H idiiiiLiliL'd. Accordinj^ to Mr. Rico' 
.Hy Kadaoibas ruU-d over Wcet Maisnr, Tulav, and Ilaiga, 
^he cdUfit districts of K^tunni. About the middle of the 
Btury the BanaTiUi Kadambas were overthrown by the 
P^. Hut t heir first overthrow did not destroy their power, as 
why year!) hkti!r (Old -GSi) the ^-eat Pulikeahi II. taken credit 
: -n th(? Kiidatnbua of llanardfii. It in considered doubtful 
Kitdanibas wereof h>cal or of northern origin. The story 
■bihl frmnd nnder ihfi hadamba trc*", whirh is alw) told of 
t'Vnrmii I. who rcvirod tho family about tho eighth oentnrr, 
te the Tiew that they were of local or southern origin, 
lan has recorded a tradition that Maynra-varniii vvls a 
of Ti^liif^u ori^Q. It ^ice3 a special interest to the old 
bas thai nrcopding Iwth to Colonel Wilks and Jfr. Rice, tho 
rand tutcrualinKntceof CoorjjrsorKodagtis.who hold tho hilly 
' tij the sonih-nrest d MntHiir, are Kadambas who came into 
iwder a loader named Chandra-rarmA.* Tho rcTiral of tho 

Chapter VII. 


iba tnccoHioH were : 



[not nunodl. 


[Mot aaiDcdl. 

I I I 

Ravi-rumt. Bhinn-varmd. ShivnrathA. 


itfu] mien arc Kriahnn-rarBiA aiul Dcva-ranna. Th«y may ham ntlod 

KAkiutha-TanvA tn'nftvr Hnrivigniul. PlcDt'a KAaareM Dynaatica, 9. 
iM vrcn Ml early anil impiutant fanilj iii Maicur. But tboir hiatot; b 
Ur. Fle«t ^KinarMie DfnaittMM, 11-12) hiM ahiywii rcaanni for liolicvin^ 
el Um iBftcriptioiu ra^rdiag thom are fargeriet. Tho I'allav dyruuty 
ths tncHt im[inrtant t/aaraitm agaiiut wliotn Uie Kadanimn anit sfurwanls 
ru had to ftitht. Ahonl tho mtdilia nf the iiixlh ccintiiry they wure 
iVMi «ol of VatajN PT l^iidAini by Piilik«Ui I. Early in thfi sovtuth 
Baftcro Ckalukyaa (orrtd them out of Vc&gi uu tbe east uuaat bctu-nti 
boa and tliv Ooditvan. In tk« tiiiK of tho Woitcra Chblnkya iVilikcihi II. 
1) tt>«ir c«)iital WKN at Kiechi cr CMii«v«rain and tk«y lon^ ContiiiDud a 
[ 4faatty. Tk* FalUva rank in ttw PnMn* with tha foreigD riMia, tba 

k)taka«, Bud Yavaius. Mr. Fle«t (Dynaitia*. 191 boa ahnwa raaaoiu (or 
lat tlicy irere Anacidao raTtbuns. ' Myaore. 1. 1D3. 

|y«ni«. III. 93. Tlic but dyuaat^ id Coon (tOW* 1634) iroro not Coorga 
naKBi >-nuiek uf the B«daur, Ikcn, m Rvla^i family of north-WMt Mawni. 




Chapisr 711. 


rt« Kad&inbM, 



Kndiimba family under the uliglitly altered form K&d»mba, 
Majura-varma utUaoavilfil in tlio eighth century and nndor Qal 
at Goa in thu tcubh century, and, in epite of occa^iouul revc 
their cootionaDce in ])ower at Bsnnvi&ei until Iste in t-ho tliirt«ci 
oeotury (1277), make: tliu Kadambos theboud ufcounoction betwe 
the fragments of early Kdnani history. Nor do tho Krtdiiml 
disappear in the thirteenth century if tho uceonnls are conx-ct w\ 
give them the honour of supplying the (oaudera of the first dj 
of Vijayaoagar kings who continued in power from about iBSS , 
1490.' They seem also to have spread south along the ooMt 
Buchanan mcutiontj Kadamba t^hiufe of Vadianagar in Hmttb Ki 
The chiefs of Humclia iu norlh-WL<st Maisiir, who are bultt-r Icuoj 
by their later title of chiefs of LCark&laia South Kiuarft, who 
power in the sixth century under the var\y Chalukyaa, seem 
a&VQ boloDgod to the Kadamba family.' The memory of KadanJI 
rule iu K&nara was still fresh at the introduction of Hritiah pui 
iu 1800. In 1800 nu account of the Kfinara forla prepared 
Major ilaclcenzic stated that iho province nf tioa. the cciontry nc 
Suuda, and the sea coast were ruled by a Kadamba. Thiti iirobaL 
refers to the later or rov) red Kiidambasj but nrfaetherto the oaoai 
or to tho Ooa branch is doubtful. 

Kirtti'VarmA I., the Chalukya king, who about 5G0 overthreir 
poweroftheBanaviaiKadamhas, was third in descent from Jayaait 
who,as for as present informationgrx's.wasthefoandernftheChala) 
dynasty. Of Jaya."Himh and of his anns nuddha-yanuA and Rani 
nathing but the name» are known. The earliest member of the fa 
of whom record remains is Vijaya-varma, bho son of Buddbn^vari 
who in 472 made a grant of Pariyaya village near Jambusar in Cent 
Gujanit. It was his coasin Polekeshi or Pulikotthi I., also 
RanaTikrarau, who, an fara.<i is known, first invaded the south. 
nameChalukya is derived by tradition from ehu!Jui,cJtaluktt,QTehttlul 
a watur.pot, from which their ancestor is said to have sprung. 
Mr. Fleet has shown that this is a Into story, fur though ^Att/jl'u n' 
pot may be the origin of the later forms oE tlie name CbAlul 
in the Dcccan and Chnulnkyn in Gnjariit. it cannot bo 
origin of the early namo which is written Chalkyu, ('ha)ikya, 
Chalukya.* Prom the fact that their first known inscription belonj 
to Gujarat it has boon 8Up}>osed that the Cbalukyns were a noriho 
tribe who did not pass south till the time of Pulikeshi. They elaid 
to belong to the Soma-vansh or lunar race, and moabioD a succeenic' 
of fifty-nine kings, rulers of Ayodhya. and after tbem sixteen mc 
who mled over the region of tbo sooth. They seem to have 
some oonnection witli the BauavAsi Kadambas as like them th( 
claim til belong to the Minavj-a ffofra and to bo the sons of HAi 
Thoir fiiraily-god or ktd-deoata was \''iahnu and their crest was Vishni 

' Ricn'a Myforo, I, 352; WUion's Mackeniie Colt^cti^o, L av. 

• llywro. in. IMS. ' Rims Mysftw. IU. 116-117. 

* Tho name Cholk« or Solke ia s wiiltinirMil NnuHie unaag tho MarSt 
Kuubuhud Kdis of tho BonilMy DeccMi am! RonkuL Itiia (IxiTho i^ma u^ 
tba eamc M tiM cnrljr CAaltfu. '!%« iwine may pcrtjatut bo traced ta t^teUwi or mt 
a word in UM for a goat-Unl ttom tlio 'Mngn-Haiitlii wnnl iL*t % be.giat. 



At tbe some time tbej pftlroniHe<i both JaiuB nnd Sliaira, 
»t t?*.4 ou one occaaion, in 1095. made grants to Buddhiste.* 
M>efi deTot«<l themselves almost entirety to thoUngiotm 
nursiiip. Pulikeshi T. defeated riie PallaTS and abont £&0 
lbUsIi«d his boad-qnartera at V^Upi or lUdami in eouth 
)(^. HiH Hon Kirlti-vBriui I., n-hose roign ended in 567, Rprvad 
lluW& po^orto tbe south and west, defeAting nnd eubduinff the 
, UaurjKS, and Kiidambiu; a giuat of his is recorded at A'dur, 
ki miles east of Udiiga], and the Cbalokyaa ore said to hare held 
_ chundn which wbh oEtorwarda part of the Bannr&i Twclra- 
ftoosuid. Kirtti-varm&'s brother and successor Haogalish (667-01 U) 
MuiutAiued his power in tho neighbourhood of BanaviUi and orer- 
tBODe tlie M&tang&s apparently earl^' litlUtribes. taking Revatidvipa, 
Oos, md pATt of tho Konlcas; but whether ae far south as tho 
WCHint limits of Kiluara doi^tt not appear.* Ou the d^ath of 
MaBenlisifa in 610 the Cholakyn. domiQions vero dividod into an 
caaierti kin^um whose hcad-qiiarlers were at Vengi in the delta 
«rf iho Kriihoa and UodArari, and a western kingdom whoflo hoad- 
((aarters arc believed to bare been at Vnti^pi or BAd4mi. The 
WBitem kingdom fell to Pultkoshi IT. also called Satyfishraya 1., 
% great ruler wLu is meutiooed usoonqaering the Kitahtrakulas, tho 
Kaidiunbas of VaimvAsi, tboGongan, tbeAInmB, theKonkan Muuryaii, 
At LAteB, the ^[(ilavas, the CSorjaraA, the three couotries known as 
Jlahar^htra iurliiding 99,000 viUageo, the Kosalu, the Kalingns, 
Ike I'allaras of Kancbi, the Cholas, tho Keralas, and the Pandyaa. 
B» carried his arms still further conquering the great Hsrsha or 
fisribavardbana, abo called Shiladityn, of K&njaknbja or Kanatij. 
A flptfcial interest attachea U.> PtiHkenhi as an Arabic chronicle relates 
thst in dij Khi>sni II. of Perwia w'Ul an cmljupsy to him which is 
IjcIieTcd to form the subject of paintmg 17 in Ajanta cave 1. 

About SV) Potikenhi'fl capital ia deecribodby the Chinenu pilgrim 
Biwea Thsan^, aa the capital of the kingdom of Moholacha or 
BIsharnBhira. ThisbasbeoQ idonttfiml by Dr. Uurgcsswith BAdami* 
a: ntion which has special iutore«t in cooiiect ion with K^uara 

i) ' L-ause, to have attracted the notice of the Persian king, 

Palikushi must have had codEtdI of the western coast; and if hi a 
cafiitnl wa9 as far sontb as lUdAmi, tho coast of Kiinam was 
pnibnbly in hia power and its jxjrta ccotrea of foreign trade. Ahoub 
660 OD tbi* death of Fulikt'shi the power of tho Clmlukvaa was for A 
limn nvdrthroHn. Accordingto one acoountlhoy were driven across 
ihi 'ris, by n coinbiuation of the Pallava, Choln, PAudya, and 

K' ' gs. Within about twenty years (670) Pulike»hi*8 aoii 

Vifcrainmiitya T. rostored tho power of the C'halukyas, defeating 
tho PaUnna.C'holaa, PjLudyai»,RoraIa8,and Knlabhras. VikramAdltTa 
8nc«-«led by bis sou Vinayiiditva (1180-698), a great ruler who 
bribed as arresting the power of the I^illavas of K&nchij causing 

Chapter TIT. 


iMl'a KUionM Dynutlaa. i9. 
■ejunous trvlitionU or <la«l>lful rofvrencw to Um ntl* of the «»riy tnbM, Ba«liutui 
|I^*r.rv'. in HHi ^irM the cnaitiMi th^e tho OntlunMWi with whom May o'^vonni 
lihiUnitia (tU'^t 7U0) ooKnnaMi Kiaon irere <lnv«ii ant by Nanila, * WboUtani. 
nan! )■ dill a tr-oiicnl traiUlion id KAbva tlut ia t«rly timci Uw oounlrr wm nl*d 
Igr Uolayv chief t. 

[Bombay (hMtt 



; chuptCT vn. 

[Bftrly Cbaliikyu, 

and K4damhfu, 

tlie rulers of Kftvora, Paraaika, and Simlmlaor Ceylon to pay triba 
and onslaviag Ibe Pallavae, l£aUl>lira8« Uaihayae, Vilas, Mala' 
Cbtilan, and Pltndyfts. A tablet at Batagllaive, twRiity 
eouth-cnat of BanaT&ii, raentionCj apparently as Vinay 
vassal, Pogilli, the king of the Sendrakaa, a Eamily which _ 
moDtioncd io an inscription of the Kadamba king Uui-varmd (5i 
Viuayaditya's capitftl waa probably at VAt-iipi or Bad^mi. In 
VinayAditya waa snoceedeu by his sou Vijay^ditya (696-733), 
peaceful aud strong ralor who maintained tbo power of his fsmij 
HiH successor in 738 was his eldest son VikramiLuitya 11. (733-74' 
also a powerful roler who ororauna tho i^iUaras, Pindvas, Choi 
Keralas, Kalabbras, and others, and set liis victory. pillar on 
southern shorea. In 717 Vikmmi!iditya.WB8 aaocoodcd by his 
Kirtti-Tarmi H. (747-760), vrlio about the year 760 was overthro 
by the R&shtrakntA king Unntidnrgn. Eirtti-varm&'s osly ineort 
is tho grant of a village in the neighbouThood of Banari 
Durin)f Ibo overlordehip oi tho early Cbnlnkyos no roforonce 
been traced to tho Kiiinara lowlands except that in 560, on 
overthrow of the Bnnavttei Kadambas, all the sea dietricts of K 
are said to have been held as feudatories o{ the Chulukyas by 
chiefe of Huuiclis iu Nortli-West Maisur, afterwards of Earkala 
South Knnara.' 

From the faiuily-lree of Kirth*-Tarni4 II. also railed EirttidevB 
who gororned at BaoaT^Ki in 1068 as a feadatory of the wes^ 
Cbalukya king Soraeshvar I., it seems that about the oiiddte 
tho eighth contory, probably during (lie disturbnncps wh 
accompanied the rstabliBhmont of HAeltrafcuta rule, Maywr-va: 
fonndcd a new dynasty of K&damba!i. According ui Mr. Fleet 
slightly altered form of the naiue, Kddaiiil>a instead of Kadam' 
ahowfi tliat the new dynaaty were not direct descendants of 
original family. Mayor-rarm&'s date is disputed. Calculating 
^im Kirttideva I. id lOOSand allowing an average length of iwen 
two years, which is tbo avor&ffe of the six rulers whose dates i 
known, 6fteen successions would pliu.'o M&yur-vuriiiH about the raid 
of the eighth century. Accoidiiig to ihe Kargutlari iuscripti 
in I14ngiLl in DhAm'ir, Uaj-ur-rurmil watt preceded by a lino of 
soveuty-aeven anoestora of whom uothiug i& kuown.' The story 
Uayar-varmd, who is ulao called Mulkanoa K&damba, that he 
tlie son of the god Shir and the Karth, is the samo as the story 
Trinetm-, the founder of the first or Kadamba dynasty, and of Jayanla. 
or TrilocIianaKidnmba, who founded the Goa dynasty about A.U.Ht'" 
Alt are said to have been formed from the earth at tho foot 
Kadamba tree where a drop of sweat fell from tbe brow of 31 

1 RiiM'a Mytore, in. 96. 97. Th'««' ehialt nuern to hkvo h«<m of tha Ksdambal 
'UuohAiun (Uyiore uid Canan. IILIGS) noordaMi iiucriptjaii found U Ooki 

a Kiilaiaba Emperor cat Cluknrarti. nn uicwrtorot UayM^ruinA. "tbo cUto ia '. 

o(tb«-" •— ■■ ■ - - 



hit Kalinf or S.O. 8980, wluoh auirt be oitliar a, muiakK or a tamty. 
FlMt'sKibaacvMDjrnMtiMi, H 89 1 WUaoa'e M«ckiuuic CoUocUoo, J 


Tbo mooauiotia of the Goa KAi1aiq1)m uro CnliHlIn. KhuthMlw L ar 
OliatfaiU. Mid Cluittyx (lOOTI. Jayah»tlii J.(ia-c>). VijuyiditvA 1. , JikvakMhilL (LI 
Ponnidi or .Shivdiittn [1U7-LlTSt. Vija)-&.litya II. or i'lNhnaohitt* (1147-r 
Tribh«vMini»lla, had .SLutUdov 11, (I2l|} ■ liSO). Ktnarcac Dyiuutica, 90. 


^yhM I 



A is doubtful wlictlior tbo two Baoftrdei and the Goa fomiUea o( 
Kulanibiu or KaditmLa^ were of local origin or were nortliernere. 
Tim li>geiid favuuns the Won that they belongod to one of 
Ibe Kanutak tribes imil ouggftsts that Kadstnba majr bo a 
Brafantoaiaod Eorm of Knmmbar, tUc widotipreod and <n-arlike tribe of 
KinaraMi Bhupbunls.^ According to anoUtur tradition Maynr-TArniil I. 
CUM from Aiiiluhetra whiob nan been identified witb Abichcbhatra 
ur Riitniiagar in Robilkand in tbe Nortb-Wost Provinces.' Biit> 
a^ Ills hiK-a auggeste<I (Vol. XV. Parfc I. p. 117), Abikghuira or 
'- maj DO a Sanskrit rendering of Hariga or Uaiga, tbat 
, .. ..iinara, for Hsiga id KAnarese means tbe land of sniikoa.' 
jnr-varmA i^ said to bave brongbt witb bim, or according to ot hor 
^>uDt« aent for, ^OQd nnlbman:) from Ahikshetra and eiitablisbed 
tbani in his dominiocK.* Tniditianat details given by &fr. Rico favour 
the riaw that these Brahmana wero introduced by sea.' Thoy 
saro first distributed tu the conntry along tbe coast trhich was 
ilmdiMi into sixty-four sections nndor four centres, Kesarioid, 
Barictir, Mangnlor, and Kadaba, each of wbicb was in tbe hands of 
a BribmAD gorernor. From these oentrM tbo Br&bmans are said 
luTe spread into soutbtrrn Tulav- and into the Knrnillak above 
SAhy&drb. Aocordtug to Buchanan's oooount Muyur-varm&'a 
rtbmatu, liko Parasburiim'a Bruhmuus, wi(b whuiii tht;y arc cither 
idmtiHod or eonfusod, bold tbo country till thoy vrens driven out by 
aknr'csate chief Nanda, a Huluyur or Whulliuru. The Ur^bmiuis 
ve said to have been brought back by Nanda'a ma aud to have 
oustinaed to rule tUl thoy woro orercomo by the Jain family of 
GoffsappB, whnrosetopowar under the Vijayanagarking«(13-'i0-1560).* 
Bachanan also noticos a tradition tnnt Mnyur-vnrmA gave his 
in man-iage to LokAdityn, chief of Gokarn, and helped him to 
y tbe Uabashika family.' Of the (ourtoen niters botwoen 
Maynr-varmA about A.D.7fiO and Kirtti-TarmA II. in 1068 only tbo 
Mfr.y-= are known.* 

. li^hcrakntas, who abont 700 woo their way to aupromo power 
m tbo Kamiltak, ha>re been traced back to about A.D. 376. It is not 


Ku\y CkalukyM 
6W-1M. ^ 


760 -K3 

■ Tb« mggwtian lliM KtuUmtw in k Bnthmuiiicil form of Knnunbsr r«oeirea sonw 
■ino«tfromAiat«ni«nt of Wil«on'R (Mackenba CullenLiun, New KdJliDn, S-l, S4), that 
iSoni ViJaywiAgar djUAsly (1540- 1460}, who are bclierud tti Iiavo bocn KMUmba*, 
«iT** KnniM turaitr. 

■ fUsi. M : Eico'i MfKr», 1. 194. AnotLvr nccoiuut plaoes Aliiobulih<btr> on tlio bauk 
■Hk»nr«r8taillftntFlMl.&4; (M»D]iArolEiiliui Anticiu&ry, IX. 262), and ac^anliiiy to 
BmViMii (tlL 183) AhkhchliAtn wm in I'uliiigkna. Genenl CunniiiDhBin'N dit- 
tmmj that S&maa^r ii atill knoirn lu Aliic.hcliiutra FAncient (l«o|irapIiv, I. Sfitt [ 
(hiVni III K..W.P.,V. 817-823), ptaix-n tlir poMittua ut Aluulidilialni bvyuud dUjmt*, 
Iksngba aa lUiMd Id the text, it M«nia iirvbabfii tluit tbe Aluluhatni ul tUia Lnwlitioa ia 
Data or North KAiun. 

■n< niumtioii tluU Ahilubotra '» « Sonakrlt ren<1«riTiK •>! t1i« KAiuutm H«vigaar 
Ha|Bt ncaiTM anpport from the local hiit«Ty ul tbe HoniiJli moaaaUny of tiM (vpra- 
I aMtakhv ol tka Smiit poatiR at Sonda. in vlikli (t^ulutru u mmitioned u \n the laud 
rfAUkahrtm. Sae b»tow ri^Mof Intfrreit, 8uuda. ' Dachanaii, tlL Id 

»X7Ka«.l.ldl. *Ilucb<viuui, lit. tat. 'lluchaaan. IILlll. 

* Tfaa namu arv i Uayur-varmi I., KruliuA-voro;!, NAcn-vwmi I., ViKlinuvMnil, 
Htl|ra-T«nti, Sat]ra-v>ni>^ V ijA^a-Tumi. Jaj-Acarma V.. N&ua-rarinft II., ShUuti- 
»»fiB»L Klrtti-www*!., A"ditjF»-»«iii4. CliattayaChWU or ClKtlumi, Jaw-araitt 
IL M JavMinti, TkOa 1. or T«iU{« L, Kimt-TarmA 11 or Kirttnlon I. {1068-1077). 
TUel'* lUaanao Dynaitjai. Table a(t«r p. 86. 



Chapter VII. 


8i0-SS0. - 

certain wTictlior tliey were Borthornors oi a feimily of Rattas or 
tlio widfttpread tribe of KAnarese Jmsbanilmen who fonaerly _ _ 
tbo strongest fighting (:laic<i in the Karuiitak aiid Maiaur. This 
Dr. Barneli's view.i Mr. Fleet seeius to iodine to a northoru ori(^ 
and to trace the name to RthhlrnS^uta or Itarhtraptili, a title ineaoii 
a district-bead who is subordinate to HOtnc over-lord.' Tbo la 
UMOriptionH state that the fatnilj was of the liuiar race 
deaoendantsof V'ada. The RlUhtrakutu kiny whoovorihrt-w tboL 
of thoCUalukyasiaihaKarnAtalc WiLsDiiulidurga or Dfiiui-varmAJ 
Aa inscription oi bis, dated 753, etatos that ho oa«ly defeat 
the army of the Ronkan and skilfully put to flight the kiogs 
KAochi and Kornt, the Cholas, tbo PAndyns^ Shri-Harsha, a 
Vajrata. His Bucce&^tor and uncle Krishna I., who contitiued 
press on the dofented Cbnliikyas, in noticed an Cdtablisbing hii 
at the hill or liiH-fort of Elapiira, which Mr. Fleet iuclinea 
identify with tli» Kdnara town of Yelliiputj but which in Prof 
Bb&od^kar'a opinion ia the great EUora necu* Aurangahad.' 
is said to have had n famons temple of Srayambhu.Shiv, which 
Profeeeor Bbandarbai-'e opinion, is the great KailAs Cave at Elloi 
Under the nnroei^Hfiil ItAantrakuta king, who is known by bix title 
AmoghavftrahaL (851-877) and whoestahlished the Rashtrakutacapit 
at M^lkbcd about ninofy miles itonth-oa.'it of Bhotdpur, thn Banavil 
TwelvB-Ihouaand, the Belgali Tliree-huudred, the Kundaras 
Seventy, th« Kundur Fire-liundred, and ibo Pnri^ri that is 
Pidigereor Lakshinonh^'ar Three -huudi-ed were governed aa uader-lol 
by one Bankoyamaa of the ChoUkotan family.' Another inscriptic 
at KyA^auur near HAiigal, mentions the governor of the Banav^ 
province an Shonkaroganda also of tbo Ohcllkotan family. Tbc 
inscripttoDB are undated ; they probnhly belong to some til 
between SCO and 870. Two other inscriptions show that, till nboi 
the olose of the ninth century, the Chellketan family oontinncd 
govern the Bnnavani province nndor Amogbavarsha's son 
aaocessor Krishna II. who is al&o called AiE&Iavaraha T. 
inscTiptiona are at Kyasannr near IlfiQgaJ and at TfUgond 
Uaisur. The KyAaanur iuscription records that MabisiiuaDt&dlui 
Shankaraganda, probnbly the Shankarganda who is roeationc 
his father's feudatory, was the feudatory of Akalararslu I. an 
goremed iha Bunavitsi province nnder bim. Tbe TSlgnt 
tnseriptioD, tho date of which is illef^'ble in the photograpl 
mentious the saiuo Shankarganda as the feudatory of Ak&lavaraha I 
io charge of the Banavitsi proviuco. A third inscription at Adi 
Deer Hdngal, dated 904 (S. 826 liaktdkthi Samvatgar), mentions 
under AlckkvarRha I. some other MahftsfSnianta of the Chellketan 
family whose name is doubtful, as guvornlng the Banikvaai twelve 

1 fioutb lodiND Psltonanh;, p- z. * Fleet's Kjuunat DfDutte*, 32. 

■Indian AntiqnvT, alt. J^n^Iu■t number. In Clio Seplcraber nHMibcnr Mr. Fit 
aCMpta ProfoMor BhiodArkar'a interpretation. 

BuahMUUi {UyaaM, lU S1&) rooorda froia SoimU ftn inMriptioo found iJt m 3» 
moBMtttry. daUiil S04 4.s. 727} in which ChAmusdA ItiJA. who it atylod ehi«( ot 
tlia kiogiof tbe MnBth. lumtioiu ajlvftnUgn gsintd bvfaia »n«wtAni BaidAibi' 
BnUiloTDrtheiollowcra r>{ Bntldhi. T)i«reU>ppu«it]yMUieiniitak« iaUierax 
*itbei of the dfttc or of the nama erf tba kiag. * FIctl'i KAaaiMo ProutiM, • 


thooHUKl.' This snmo fiitnily ritli thoLitlc of Mafadaiaiailta, in tlio 
nnoa of Kali-vitio, had tbu govemiucDl of tlio Banar&si proYiuce 
10 Oio, ilariog Llic reign oE tho lUshtrakata Krishna IV.' 

la 073ond*;rKnsbna'B son Bwftklai or Karka III,, thopowor vf tho 
RiHlitrakutati wiw ovurlhiown by Taila II., thu founder oi Ihf sticoud 
djnastj f)i Chalukvas. These revived Ch^lakyas cbAnged tho family- 
tnUDO fpjm Chaiukra to Ch&lukya, a ohau^ wjiich occurding 
to Mr. Flei>t shows thiit thoy wero not tho direct deBoeodauts oE 
Ulo ohginal family. Tuila seems to havo t.*8tubUafaed fais power over 
H mnch of EAnara as was Euriiierly ander the lUshtTBkutas. At tlia 
CioM of tlio t«utb century tho BaoaT&pi province is montiouod as 
governed b; Taila's ander-lord BMm&rasa, who was called Tailapana* 
Ankak&ra ar Tailspa'a duLmpton. Under tho rovivod ChAlakyas tlio 

' HMf^ KJbuuvM Dynuliea, 36. 36. 
■ Tb* B«»btnkuU (amity tree U : 

t)Utl-(MMl |. 










OMn, mm *■■*!., 


Oort»di m . 

FlkbhilUFvKlu I., 

JacMtuun I.. J<i(BiIiudn f.. 

lit talUliluoutnilra ]. 

Ue. H»uda.in7> 

(^».Mi «o4 en, 9. ni uLd Ttn. 

Crlabu U., 

«tJkUhf«nhk f. 

(A.*, ra wrf «] , B. «n Md »». 


(V euTimiTanka I. 

OoTitxla IV., 

JinKoi'S* II., 



Bo kiM wV* GDvinMMtii. 

Indm IT.. 


u« m. s. wi^ 

Kriahak III. 

Atvc^ftruaha tl. 

Klrapanit ll.,«t Aki]>T»^>n. 
(A.D. »«a uid UM, & WT Mill BTS). 

(luln m.). KaUUiL. Kwlun. 
AmaBlwrtnlu 111.. 

or TaUkbhMitnodm UL 

PT JUulKlirti 

fmtttiti U MM 

lr#ll«7» CMlu()ra Mop 


073 I U 

(Bom bay Qaat 



Ctupter Vn. 




Kfioars oplands, most of which vi-rc included ia the Buia« 
Twclve-thooflnnd, formod part of the Kantala ooontry, the centre 
beod-quartcra of Cb&Iukya power.' Tbo K£nam hiwlands, or 
Imsb tjie pAi-t of thorn cnllod the Hktvc Fiv(»>hundt'od, the 
between H&agal Banar^&i B«Iag&iDTo aud tbo coast, coirespoadil 
to the Aokola, Eiinita, and Kaiidvur sub-diviBioue, vere coosidE 
oQc of the KoukaDBs. In 10O5, under Tnila's son and eucoe 
SntjilshrHjH II., Dbimiu-^ia, Tnila's cbampion, was 8LiU (;(ir(>miD 
Bannvdsi and the neighboaring districts of Kisakad and !<ilQtaU( 
During the next twenty years (IOOO-1<^0) the CblUuk>-im 
was wqU nphcid by VikrnmAdityn V. {lOOX-lOlfi), and, under 
sncceeeore Akk^evi and tTayasimb III. (1018-1<H!^) it was cxtnide 
by the conqaost of the scTon Konkanao (1024). Tbo nnder-Iords i 
^uiavdsi seem to have been cban^d. lu 1019 from Bab^gfimi 
or Balipura' in Maisiir, Kundiimnra.«n, also caJled Sattigana^hatt 
with the title of MahdmandaleshTar and of the bmily of 
Kidambaa of Banavibii and Bifngal, was governing* the Banai 
IVelre-thonsand, the SiVntelige Thoosan^ and the Hayve Fi^ 
hundred to tbu borders of the western ocean. Tn 10S4 and lOS 
mention is made of JXaii'nr.vTannil 11. of lbs Kildambas of Banav 
with the title of MahAniandaloshvar, governing the H4d( 
Five-hmidred. ]n 103!) ViuaydUilya, the founder of the Hoj 
dynafity, as MabauanduIcBhrur nf ^' ikramiditya VI., goTemod 
South Konkaa apparently iucluding the North Kinara ooast' Ui 
Jayasimh's sou and sncccesor Somo«hv[krl. (1042-1068) Ch&lal, 
power was further extended to the eaat and the north, and their capif 
waa establisbcd at Ktilyrtn about forty miles north of Gulbarga, 
the city was bo heuutlilLd that< aecoi-ding to their own aocoant 
surpa.'i.'iod in .'Splendour all other cities of thocarlb. InnplandKAna 

I The eiutt divuiona ofEuutkU wit, tlie Buiavlae rwch'V'thotukad, thoPtoaii^ 
E^vft-hnndiod, Uto I*nl)gM« TliKA-liandrod, the ilolvoU ThrM-buiulMf], the Kani 
Tluiw-tlioiiMnd, UioTot-ft^ftloSix-tbenauu], theKalavi(:(liT>ir«c-hiiodrcd,UieKiHki 
Soveo^, tha fUgadaffo Serenly, rad tlie Tsdievflill TliouwuiJ. FlMt, 42. 

* FlMt'N KiuLFon Pynutioi, 44. Balipura. mora oonintonly written BaJU|[lTo 
BkUteimvev uftbont twenty tnilca eouUi-ount of BuwvAn. In tli« tireUllioenlurTit 
M OhlM to bo (tykd the mvllivT of ottic*. tli« capital ot anoient eittoa. Bio«'fl Slyi 
U. 36S. It AiWuDtl* ia in>cnj)iioiia bii<1 bu [)r4)mi&iiW Umpln whtoli ior t««l« 
finith arc not •Dr(AM«d in Mauur. Aooordin^ t« Biic^hanon (Mj-aoTe, lU. 250> 
BanavtUi KAtfaualua had Ukeir o^ltal tor a time at CbaDdrn^ti hill aboat ten ntUi 
•otitli-vrat and tweuty milca weat ot Balligivii. C'oinMire 1ti<«'B Myaora, II. 369. 

* The Haysaba, who are b«at known u the HojvttlM of Dr&naamiiilra in Mni 
ruled from about 1030 to 1312. Vlwir name ia wlao wnHtta fioyaaoa, Pov«al«, 
PoyMtt*. Th«y boloiwtattio luiMg«ot Vadv and n«ni to ba ooonooU'd witli 
VAdanof D»vgiri(HnkIS]S)ai thiy both have Uiefamiljr title* of Tidava- 
and of Dvtr«%-ati>ninKriMdhiahrar, •apnine lords of UvUrAyatt tho beet of elttea, 
apparontly Dviraiamudra, tb« modem BaUbld in Maiinr. Tiiiaiyftditya(ll)3d) wastbe 
tint of the family to eccure any cosaiderable ahant of power. Tbe two chief a wa ol 
tbe family won Vialuiuvardliaua from about 1117 to 1138 who waa iadepoadeot 
in name, ami ItklliU II, (1 192- 12) t) wlio overthrvw the KnU<bat7> •uooeaaoi* 
CltiUnkvM and also dafeatod the TAdare of Devetri. Ria aon Nareimh 11. 
wai demt«d b^ tbeTidan.aad liia p>aat-gmidton Ballila til. by Ala-ud-dta^gi 
Malelc KAfor in 1310. They nuteined a second and final deinat from • geoeral 
Ifnbamnutd Toghlik'e in 1327. The rollowinj; nm the rniccciwioni : VinayAdH' 
n(M7-107a), KrayaDn. BalUlaL (HOS), ViBhnnvardhaaadUT-llST). Nandinhl, 
BalUU U. (ligi-lsTl), Naraimh ll ((333), Soai«hvar(1252>, Namiinh 111. 41254 
I3«n, and BalUU 111. (1310). Fleet'a Ktautoto Dynaatic*, $4 ; oonpaTC WilaoB't 
M a cken rie CoUecUon, New EdiUcn, M. 

Ibdr uitliorily was well ni-Miit»in€d. In 1045, from bifl capital nt 
lUUin'oiiTe, ITuriketuui, wJtli itic litle of ^lahamumlalenlivu', vnn 
iig the Biioavdtii Twelve' t-lioofiand.' In 1063 bomosbrar's 
^Lu-i i|tinpn Ifiiilaldevi, of ttie Oauga tavaily, vna entrnsted witli 
tik! govemoiQnt of the BaDur&si TwoTvc-fehoasand, and sbo socms to 
bv* ooatinufd tn govrrn it till 1055 undur the iiojuu of bcr soti 
Tikniiaa aflervrardB ViknimiidilyEi VI. (1073-1126) and vritfa tba 
lalp of Uarikcaaii of tbo BaaaviLsi Kiidumbaa. In 1068 tbo 
BuMTui Twelrc-lboaxaBd was uador tbc uauogctaeDt of the 
UkbAtnundaleAbrar Kirtti'varmll II. of tbo BansTAsi utd HAoeal 
KidftmliKB. Tbu Buniwdsi EAdambiis nt tbiH timo and on till toQ 
faegioniu}^ of tbc tbirtccntb century bold an iiuportoul poisttioD. 
Tbc>T wt-n> L-iitiUud lu bare tbe musical iustnimeut called perv%atU 
fUy-l ia front of tboiQ, to carry the banner of ft monkey or of tbo 
a. '1, aud to use tbo siguet of i\m lion. Tliuir family god 

K^- .a nndt'r the name of Madhiikoshvn.r of Jdyantipitra or 

Bam^nixi. One of tbvir family titles vra^ Banaciim'-ptiravarddhititicarti 
or Saproino lijrd of Ranav^i tbo bout of cities. Kirtti-vormi. wnn 
■MOceuAl by bis tiDclc8bilnti-Tanu&I[.,Bndboby bia90D,graadBonB, 
ft&il great-gmndson till 1203.* 

!•■ 1075, dnrinR the nile of Soinesbvara'a son and successor 

-'ivara.lL(10(i!>-107S),'wbo wnannunimptirtttnlkingjUJoyiidiLyu 

r,anjfa faimly, wbo bad fuugbt with Huceesa agaiust tbe Cbera, 

. HtlndyH, and Palluva kingn, vtaa gcivrming Uanav&si and tbe 

ucigiibouriiij^ dist.rii'ts. Undor Soinfabvar IJ.'s sufcossor, tbo gruat 

V-ln^rT;ji!-tv:t VI. (lOTS-ll^tfj wbu usurped bis bi-utbur'a autbority, 

I an imporuiit part. It was apparently as govumor 

,. , - ^^a:, while »liU young, VikmnwUiityft (wtftblisbed bis 

ftmo nnd popalarity, coinniaoding many saccossfnl Dxpedilions, 

dcfoatiag' tbe Cbolns and plundering Kanohi, lending help to the king 

of Miklnva, atlucktu^ tbo king of Siuibala ur Ge^'Ion, deiitroyiug t>bo 

■I of tbo Mulaya hills, sUying tho king of Keraln, and 

' tbo citied of Oiliignkiiuda, Vungi, aud CIiLikmki>t.ti. Ho 

-lit to have thought of ostahlisliing biinself in iiidopon donee 

__ ..^^_ i^i, and it wan prolxibly with tbo objtct ul strcn^tlieaiag 

hia |MiWt>r in that Dcigbbonrbood that be gave bis daughtfir Mailnlderi 

in — — '■ ri; to Javatwhi II. of tbe Goo KAdambas. AftordepoHing" 

h r Sonoeebvar 11. (1073), VikramAditra garo np tbe idea 

Of b'Dj^i^ig Banar^ a sepDraie capital. Still Banavtisi oontinaod 

t>t Ik- the head of one of his moat important provinces. The 

>■ (-ommaDd was nUviiys held by ouuof bia chief fcudatoHcs. 

Ill - -. : waa governed by the Mabamandaiesbvar Kirtti-varmi tl. 


Bocoul Chtlokya 


KjlsHNdlM to ui buGriplioo pttbUabtid in the ABiatiaR«Mucti«a. IV. 433, about 
IB ftbddlc S tlia ekvcatli oeulury. Sbti Dev I'tia ot KaumidIm un Iba Braliiuiiutr» 
tnikUol tm ft pilKrinuife Ima tbe aonr«e ol tlie Qugea to flukorn uii tb« oc-eou ftud 
irrarraii ull thu fctagJoois on tbe vny. Biri't MirtLt-i-AHnuMli, 5>^. 

il* on. TftiU I(. (1(K>(I-1IS»), Ilia «ODti Mkyur-Taniii III. (1191) ukI 
U. ,1 n)-'^^^a<t1hcuDepJk«w-Kim<]«ir (llSI-1'203]. PIl-oI, St,. Buohun 

tMj».-f-'. 111. :;33) r^ordii • lattir biacriptiaai d^ted )WT (8. 1130) from Uinnl [n 
tkUmir. U'llaun (Uutkeuue Coltoctkia, Xew Kdition, 92) notiot* KtaaniMi in- 
Kn|)UDnial ttoiutrlil, ^kkruiiur, luwt Goluam in tbo twelfth, tliini-eulb. aDd fuarteeuth 

"- --^ 

(BcmlMir Gt 


Chapter Vn. of llio Banav^i Ffidambas and in 1077 by the MaliApmdl 
^^^^ and Daadaotynk Barmodov. Between 1079 and 1081, vnth 

^^' tillo of YuraMj or licir>npparent, it se^nia to have been held 

anl'ioa!'^*'' VikmnnWitya's bftlf-brothcr, Jayiuiimh IV. Javaiiimh rose 
rubftliou. lit- gained to bis side many of the local chieftains, i 
advanced Ut tlie Krishna, whore he wiui deFeated nnd taken priaoil 
and the rebellion cruulicd. In 1088 (tanavaai waa gi^rernea by 
Mnhiiniandnlcshvar Shiinci-varmA II., nlito called S&ata or S&nf 
of the BaonTitii Kadambaa,lhe uucle of Kirtti-Tarmi II. Betwc 
1100 and 1 136 the BnnavAj^i Twelre*thousand and the IMuiiofal 
H4ngal Five-hundred in Dhai-wilr were under the KAdambaTaila '. 
He seems to bare made Panun^l or Hangal, which is nl»u calt 
Yir&takota and VirdUinagara, bis head-quarters, aa in 1103, 
Mahipradhitu and Dandandyab AitBiilApflla and in Hit 
MahflpradhAu and Muuevergade or chamberlain Goviuda we 
goreming at Banar^.* At the close of and probably dnriog 
greater part of Vikram^itya's reign (1^73-1126) the St 
Konkan and apparently the coaat districts oE North Kt^oara w< 
held bv hia son-inJavr the G«a Kddamba Jayakeshi II. Juyakc 
eWles lumsolf Konkana-Chakrararti or Knaperor of the Koskan. 
1126 heis doscribed uh unveming the Konkan ^ine-bnudred, 
Palaeige Twelre-thcmsantl, the Hayre or l*ayTO FiTo-hondrod, and ' 
Kavadidvip Luo-and-o-q^uarCer. 

Daring the peaceful reign of VikramMitya'a son and sncca 
&oaioahTaraIII.(ll2()-) I38)Tailapa II. continued to govern Bnnat 
and EUltigal, his sons Mayur-rnniiii III. and Mallikdrjuna 11. bell 
Ifoirtnh*, associated with him between 1131 and 1133. About Uiia time 

ili7-llST. province oC BanavAsi, and apparently the lowland parta of Kaoaij 

were overrun by the Hoysala chief Vishnnvardhana, of wl 
only two datrs are recorded, 1117 and 1137, though he probal 
continued in power for several years later. V>shiiovar<lhiina, wl 
was the grandson of VinayAditya the founder of the Uoy{ 
family, made himself ludejiendent though he continued to nae 
higher title than MahnimaDdaloshvar. Ho established himat 
in the territories of the Maisur Gaogas. According to 
inscription K&nchi or Conj^rcram fied before him, Konga 
ahakon to ita foundations, Viriltkot or B&Dgal in Dhii 
cried out, Koyatur prolwibly Coimbatur was deslroyed, CI 
koto made wuy for him, and the Konkanaa throw down tl 
Bmi8 and fled into the sea. IIis head-qiiarterE were at Bell 
or BeUpar in Mai^iir. He is Kaid to have taki-u BanaviLd 
Hflngal from Tailnp 11. the K^dainba. He did not hold 
Baoav&ai district;^ tor any loQgib of time, and ifa is doabtl 
whether be ever held the North K&nara coaat. One inBcriptif 
gives him Hayve or Haign, but acoordiog to another his weatfl 
□oaudary was the Bi^rakaniir pa»8 to the Koukan. The mc 
important fact in Vishnu vardhann'a reign was hia convoraion 

I Ba<4iDriui (Mjwiro, III. 302) reooids from Kuilkli ia Murar ■ eonMr-pUte, ' 
A.P. 1 ISO [S. IMS), ID tlio c«igB of PvnHHUni ItAja, « RidMnba oJ Bauvlii. 
o^iof iia» cat bun ideatifted. The dAt« falla wtthln the t:imo of Tail* U, 




UDism to VaUhnftrUm. Ho is naicl to luire become tlie patrnn of 

bo groat Vnis^hnnr reformer ItjdndTnij and to have trootedthc Jaiaa 

rith ffreat cruelty, & purxocuttuu from which, except in the coast 

"rtriutR of South IC^nant, they soem never to havo recovered. 

eoaat cnpitAl is said to have buen at BarlcAr aboul forty 

ktint nooth of Bhntkal,' but his change of religiuti from 

|ktDi6m (d Vaishnavism gteaily Icaeoood his power io 'I'olav 

South Kanara.* Somechvara IIT. was aaccctidod by Iiis eldeat 

with th« title of Jaia:adek&taalU 11. {l|!iS-li&0). Oudcr thia 

the mle of the Clialnlcyas was mainlaiiuHl, tlioiigh in tho 

ii KulForcd from the attacks both of \'ishnuvBrdhana and 

Kimamlias. Towards tlic close of his reigu (1148^ 

:», whose chief capital wag Kalyan, formed n. provincial 

at Kndnlipnm, the Sanskrit tra)i»lntioii of BAIehalli the 

of plantains, in the Hdngal siib-diviginn of DhArwiir. In 

the Banavipi Twelve-thousand waa governed by tho 

iyalca Bummanayja and in IMt by Mallikiirjana I. tho 

I of Taila the Kadamba. JagAdoka.n)alla in IIM) fvna nucceeded 

f fcts j-oiiDger bmlher Taila III., who about 1101 hist his pfjwer. 

owi»g to a dcfoat by an eastern king of the Kakatya family,* 

tly to tho revolt of his chief commaiidi>r Bijjala of tu« 

Rinri family. Taila did not lontf survive his overtbrow ; ho wan 

in 1162. In 1152 iheBanuvasiTwelvo-thousnnJ was govomod 

Dandaniiynkn Mahiideva, and at the time of Taila's overthrow 

\\Q'2) by the Dundauiiyaka Barmuraaa.* 

After 1 161, BijjiUu, the Katiichuri. thoroughly est«blish(?d his power 
tho Chiilnkya aomintons. Inscriptions of iua occur near Uaanvdsi 
at Balagimvci in Maisur and at Annigcri in, wbit;h 
Ira time was his capital. In IlGl the Dandnu&yaka Barmarasa waa 
under-lord at Baoaviisi. and in lltiil K/ufipayyuniyaka wiui 
ivemnr of tho Bnnaviist TTr^lve-thonsnnd. Btjjala loet his life 
ag to tho revolution oau!«d by the risu of thu Lingftyat btith. 

Chapt«T TIL^ 



'BocKkMit't M^Miv, UI. 113. WilMMi'sMAcktnzi<:C'oUcctic>it,N«K Edition, CO, 
'Mv» r^, in. 113. 

Mtyu or Tirlin^ Liii^s "( Vnnui^! (1070- 1330) nn MJd to hftV« At on* 
.' KiUimrtt cout. WilH'>n'a Mu<rlct'nzif Ciilluct.ioo, New Eilili'ia. 02, 73, 74. 
r iv>lacbitri*{>rKi>lauliDry»s have tho title<iIA*(i<njijaniy>Mrit((i>iiif/iu/iiiinj. tfutt 
lalonl nf KAlonJara the b<at of citici. Thn nrii:inu[ ntiick Uliirtrfiirf^ surtod 
I dhr, nnw tlie liiU-fort of Rltftnjir iu nniKldkliin'l. An auROTiiit imhlulitiil 
ml CuuxingluBi (An.4i. Ko^Hfrt, IX. !H) ■liowa tlut in tlic luDtU, t«oCh, uiJ 
I centari«a m uowarful hraiidi of tliir fuiiiiy Ik^Ii! Uumlctkltaiiil which wiu bIhu 
. . Cb«<li. Tbia lamity toom [mm thur ora, whieh » calki) citli(>r tliL> KAlaehnri 
jib * Llieili vfs, to lUtp from aa tmtXf aa a.d. 349. ThoiT capital mbh hI 1'ripum. no-v 
par. ahuutHiiailc* vcBtnf.ln)(iIi>ur. MnniWnofthiiiTnpuTvfauiityof Kiujutiunrtu 
tloiM intermarriral will) the RAahtrAutos ntiil Wivitom rhillukj'aa. Aiiutlior 
of Uie tribe in the sixth ««iitury luut n kisrtlvni ;n tlm KoiiUmi, frnni wbioli 
' drivvD bj- the cirjy L'h&liikyii Mang»liah- naole ot P«litc«Ui I l.(G10.034|. 
tliuryiut oall Ihemaclve* Ilaihayu wtd oLum dwoent (roni Ymlu tbronsh 

io hara been a tntragu race. Th«y an daaaod with i^baka*. Yavwui, 
FftnwlH, and PalUvi, auil vhtn ov»rUiro«m by the mytbiotl king ^gan,' 
Itn luv< h»a (arced to wear tlicir h&ir*t a pnrtMiuUr fMhicn. JUat'a 
'. 1. 170 : ladlan AntU|iuu7, IV. 166. 

1 Boutbay Qftzett 


Ohapt^ Ttl. 



The foiiniler of this new sect ^vas Basava, the son of an AnUlhjT 
Sh»ivKrilhm:in whowniilMinicithttriitBdgeviicti oriDtho iieighboit 
ullage of logleiiUvai- in KaUdgi BasAva rose to power at Kal] 
hy mai-rying the dntighter of the tninUter nni) hy giving his bcsut 
Bister in mani^o to IJijjalo. t>QOXi after his eiatcr's mat 
BasHvn niiccecdtid Ut the: post uf tniniHter, and aft«r securing hi%| 
by liUiag all ^u)wrdinat« uffic(»8 with bin adherents, be star 
new Rect> which, in the firet instance, is aaid to have done away 
distiuutiuns of ctuito and the obseriranco of ceremonial impai 
MiB foUowurs wore known by carrying a morable 'tnf^ wl 
they wora round the neck, instead of, like the AW ' 
Br&hmaod, ou tbo upper arm. Uijjala, diutmstiug the sf 
of Baiuiva'* power, tried to Miizo biin. Basava eerapod 
defeated fii-st ft party sent after him, and aftorwarda tbo l 
amiy under Bijjalu. He brought Bijjula biick with him to Kxlj 
and, occot^tiig to the Jain nccoitut, cttuatd him to bo aseaisioi 
abont 1167.' Then, fearing the wrath of ilijjalu'a sou 
Murari Sori or Somcsbvar, Basava fted west to Kannm 
auuebfe refuge ia the town of VriMhabhapurav also called 
at toe crest of tbo SiihyA*iri8 fourteen miles west of Ypllrtpnr, 
Mur^i pursued and laid siego to the towu, and ilasava 
despair leaped into a well and was killwl.* After BaEavn's dofa 
Soineshvar ogtablished his power over the part« of Maisur 
of Dlnirw&r in the neighbourhood of BauaviUi, where ia 111 
Dandandjaka Keehav or Kosioiajya and in 1171 the tfi 
mandaloshvar V'yayB])Andya were hin governoni. About 1173 Sod 
oabvar was succooded by bin brotbera A*havanialln and Singbana, ' 
aeoiD to have isburod the government. In 1 17') the Midi4pr 
Olid f>Andan)lyak KeshirjLj was guvertiing ih(> Banav^i pre 
and tburu are gruuts in the Dbanivdr and Maisur noigbboc 
of that year and of 1180. Shortly after this, about 1182, 
the help of Dandaniiyakn Barmarasa, apparently tho man 
had be«a governor of BanavAsi on Taila's overthrow in 11^ 
Soinoshvar IV., son of Taila, cstablishud himself in the noigbboG 
hood of BaoavAsi aud luadu AimigLTi in Dh/irwAr the capit^ of 
independent stnto. Barraaraga was di;;nifiod with the titJo ol 
Ch&lllkya-r4j,^'a-prai)^thdpakll, that i:i Ksliiblisher of C'hAlukyan 
Boveretgnty. In or kood after 1 18;} the portions of tbo Chiihtkyau 
territories which remaiued to thu Kalachurjas were wrested from 
thorn by the Hoyaalaa of DrArasamudra nudor BaJldla or Vira- 
BalliUn. In llS'l Barmarasa 13 menlionod as governing at tho 
capital of Auuigori and the NfahAmandaleshvar Kimadev of the 
Kadaniba family as govei'ning Banavdai, Hdagal, and Pultgera. 
Id the early yearn of bis rule Kamadev was successful. He 
couc|Uorod the eouutries of Male, Tuln, the Konkauas, and the 
Subyddria, and gained for himaolf tho title of Tailamana^Ankukaro 
or Tailama'fl champion. He was attacked by the Hoysala Vira- 

)Ri«0, LSll. 

'TlwLiiiQtMtxltDy tfc« truth «( this story. &nd mv that Bamtm «ru 
into s Uiw in ths tcmpb of awtgaaMfavu at th« lOMttHg of the Krishaa and' 



r!ilfi nif)?-T«Tl> nboat 1192 and BaoaTAai was inVpn. In 11% 
i axt H^D^I. He «n» »t liri;t n-'piilsed, but iu a 
■Jatnlxve v/vro defettti-il ami tlioir guiiowl Soliaui 
• Htrn^glixl oil till iLbotit 120;2.' 

liiaia WTis thp grandson of VisluiuTardhuna, who, about 
before, liad fur a short limo ovcmin tho KAtlamba 
>«f Biuiii.v(l»i. lie waanlsu buuwD tutOiriilurgamiUlA ur the 
pr of Hill-Forts, and wag the first o£ the lIoy»alft famit/ 
lIMmed king'ly cities. Hia inscriptionauru fuuud at BalagAiiive^ 
donifi^cri, and othor ploccfl ucnr RvnariUi. Bofiidea vror> 
'lF.e Knlacliuris lie di'feftted, witli the lusit of ita conmMiideri 
• against kim by Bhillama (118^-115)3) the foaudur 
' dynasty of Devgiri i>r DauliitabftJ in tlio North 
- I^il2). HoalHodpFentod tboCliolannd Fiudrakingg, 
!i^ pikrt of lliu Eoukan, aud tLu prDvimri-s of nnnftrfin 
I or TTiingal. Iu 1102 he bad an ufRovr with this 
<ruilU^u ur l)Aiiduii&yuk, Kn.'vitiin or Flmga by tiAtiie, 
Uurifkvilsi Tw*elve-lliuii>«ai)il anil (heS»iitaligi5 Thousand. 
loi'tauhtluo tho Kf^daaibo rutur ot UAukhI uqUI ikEt«r 1I9S. 
uH>i hiM Duudanfljak Knmulbnda MnllLsetti wu-s guvcmitig 
nSiaUli^re S«venty nnd tho NA^rakhnnda S«Toaty in tho 
■■ country. He hi*A bical capitals at hnkkiinili and Antiiuvii 
r&r. Abont 121^ RidliUa II. geemB t" have been dufcntcd by 
rdn ViUliiv kiii^' i^iiighanii II. (120',)- 12-1.7). IlHlMIti seems 
a oocn driven t*i tho Miuth of tha Tuiij^btiadra., and aoither 
i,i»i^n 'whicli laebed till 12-}3, nor in bis son NamModi II. 's 
~iich lastoil tilt 124!>, nm' during tho reign of hiH succcesor 
( 1 2-10 - 1268), in- any attt^nipt to recover their lost powor 
Kami*tj\"W reconled. In 1277 Hnnieshvar'a successor Narasimh 
11268-1306) tried to take Bauavopi, bnt the attempt waa 
by iliB YiUhiY gPTieral Saliva Tikkmna, who ia cKlted the 
nor fif tbo Kddamba kings and Iho overthrower of tbo 
in ktn^M. After tim defeat no fui-ther notice of the lloTwiIaa 
tdl lia-lliila HL'h destniclion by Malik K&fur and KbvAja 
ithn Bcnur&ln of AU-ud-din Khiiji of Delhi io 1^12.' 

DUf^li tllo iiisrriptioiiii ackuowltiJye uo connection, two of 
ic«^ YiUlaT-NAriiyau tuid IlvAnivati-Puravarridhiubvar, Hocm 

Chapter ■ 



'jkeoViUng l« Wilnw (MiM:k<inii« CoUcctwin, OT) nndor Vin-BftlUb Mil Vira 
nil, IWlnl" power pst'!ii(Ic>«I ont llie Kunitak Mid lli« whole oE KinuB. 
HO (ID. -It) ro^riU from x Join monutcry in SmkU vn inaeription, 
'•SJwIIIVR iS 1I"I), iiiH-l»(^liS<vliUliiv KAjaof Hudbpnn, thxt is Soinla. wlia iMntunn 
- KjkvK ao ivrjr lu^ titltti, |irai«ea liia Tvaclirr Sim MaiUbuiavH Batta 
. taiil tn linv* boitowad proaparity "(i tlit- EtalUla lUja- 

Ifticl irMt« Uiv TlofMllA kiDsdimt, ilefuatvil itad uApiurvd B»ll&la UI.^ 

. .ke<! Uia capibil iWiruuaaium. The Uoy>aliia uwrvr nxjoverW tbk 

.;: .;.i. III. WMKt frve aadeoDtinucd tA nilv (or& time at BalipDrn. But 

. -in WM Htiftlly uinoxad to tlio Miiliuiitiuulau cinriir« by .Muhftntiiiiul 

i:i'J.'>.13SI| in 1327. Thu lluymlu thi-n retired k> ToDnur uear SuntigiU 

ilun soil coaLnmnl t« rxtrciw) tcanc Rort of luithority for fl(W> or Aoounlinj; to 

ihu|i C«Jilwall (TuiiKivvlIy, M) fur kixty yean Icmgor. Tlic iloywUia liavc Ui« 

inlcrvrt that vrlicn Ihuy vers orcrtlirovn by ilalik KAfur, tliuy wore 

; the woDil«rfuIl)' rivlt nod »)abonttv)y >->niani«[iU'd tcmnlw, which tn noir 

, knnwD ntiu ol lUIoUd. ComiMu^ ICioe's Myson, I. SIO. 

IBonbay I 




;vgiri YiJ*ra. 

to abow tbnt the YlhlaTS of Dori^ri, who, oorly in the thirtora^ 
ccDtury. drove Ibo HoysiJas out of iIil- Karo^tiik. wtro of the sail 
Ktuck 08 the Hoysalas. A» £nr as present kuomleitge 
tie Devglri YiWftvs ruled first at Teuevalajfo, where in 111 
Uhillanm (11 88- 1 19:)) woa tlio chief of & oonsidorHltle territoiy. 
was iu hia rei^ii that aboat I1!l2 the BoyfutU kins' BalhUa detc 
tlie YfUUvs at Lakkuudi iu Dh^m'iir. For some years (1187) befa 
this di.-feiit tbu Yadavs bud » viocror whot^e capitnl was at Aoniil 
ill PlirirwAr, and other iiiscrijitions i^how that at this time hp ho^ 
KaWdjfi. One of BhiHamn's inscrintions tnontioiw his ffromlfath* 
Singhana I. as the founder of too house, and records thaX 
subaDod the king' n[ tho Kiirniltak, pmbahly some Bucceas 
the HoTsala king ViahnuTardtiAna (1137). Of Binghana's 
A'liitlugi, who was tho ^thor of Bliilliima, nothing hut the name 
reconiwj.' Bhillama'i) son Jaitwgi I. (1192- 1209), who, as commanr' 
of hix father's army wna defeated at Ijakkundi in Dhirw&r abol 
1 192, does nob seem t^ have sttuuipted to restore Y^tdav powor in ' ' 
Kam^tak. His capitnl Heoins to nave been at Vijnf&pura or Bijitpij 
in North KalAd^, afterward* (U00-lt}86} the soat of the famo]^ 
Add Sh^Ui dynaaty. Jaitiigi'q son Singbana II. (1209-1247) 
extended Yadav power. Uc moved his capital north to DcN'giri, at 
at the Hame time brought much of the Kamitbnk under hi« ntl 
Among other kiii^R he claims to have defeated Btdlflla or tl 
lioysaJaa. In 12 Ut ho had a maciager ef cuHtome, the Mahi>]>ra> 
AhAa Uoiumayyaufiyaka, in the Banav&ii country, and iu I2ld 
tho vrholo of the Canavdsi Twelve-thonaand was under him. Thd 
KsUlau]b«8 seem to have aided the Yfidavs Bgaiuht their eneuik 
the Hoy.saltu,ns from 1315 to 12&1 Vira Mallidovaor Mnllik&rjuuik. 
ooQliouediD the apparently independent command of the I^uiai 

< The t>evgiri YfaUv troo i» : 

Singbana I. labout lltiQ 




Jiutiiffi I. 


SiiiKlwia IL 


Rim chkn lira 



0260. 127U 



A ilAu^tw. 
(MaiticiI t« 

TTelTO-lhousanc! and tho Paanngnl or Hdngnl Ftve-handred. At 
Um floftc «.f Kingluuitt's i-ci>,'ii (1217) liia viceroy Biichirtljft, with the 
titles of MahApradli^ aud Bontipsti, was gc%'eruin|7 the EarniLtAk 
■ad other oonntrJee from Lalcshme^hrar or Pulikuruajt^aro ju 
Dk&rwir. luKCriptioQSshowthst his territories includeihBala^dmTe, 
AaivkUi, Aud Yalsv&l. Singhnnn was sncooeded by his gfnmd«}n 
KrUnu (1248 . 12()0), whose father Jnito^i li. upparontlj died 
dsriofT Sincfhana'ft lifolimo. Krishna, who i^ nlso named tCanhnrn, 
K&DhAra, Kztndhura, aud KandbAra, ruled at Dergiri. Id 1253 the 
•path of bis doiDiDioDB was under Cluiundanijflj tho son of tlie 

Cera! Vichan who is recorded as the conqneror of the Rattna, 
InmbaSf PAitdyas, And HoysaliiH. Krishna was Huccccdnd by 
bis broihor Uabfidcr, also called Ura^ras&i-vabbautDa. He roiKQcd 
for aboot t«D yenrs (1260-1270), and seems to have msintaiued his 
pc'>^ isi and the ucighbonrhood. Id 1271 Kfininchaudra 

«■ > I riou of Krishna, wrested the kingdom froui Aiimna, 

JtlabtMirr's sou. His iasoriptions occor in screntl plncfta in Dh&rw^r 
sad iu BaUgdmve, Harihar. and DdraDgere in Maisnr. In 1277 
ho had n coatoat with the Hoysalas, wua seem to have miide an 
aUmnut tu restore their power in the neighboarhood of Banar^. 
BjlmchaDdn is described aa seiziug the goade«8 of the Bovereignty 
of the Uoyaala kin^, and bis viceroy the Mahiimniidalcshvar 
^liwa-Tikkama 19 (1277) called the etitablitiber of the K^ilamba 
kiDga Btid the ovcrthrower of tho Hoj-BaU kinfrs. Ramcbaadra's 
power probably extended over tho whole of North Kiinara. In 1297, 
VI A maDn<icript written at Suvaraagiri in the Konkan, probably 
Baranidiirg in Korlh Ratniigiri, bo is styled Emperor or 
Ckakravnrti and deserved the title as bis rule waa acknowledfi^d over 
the whole of the Dcccon, thu KaDkaQ,uud the Kamittak. Three years 
Lefuru this his power had been broken by Ala-ud-din Khilji, who in 
12{>4, coming oy forwjd niiirchiss iroiu Karrah-MiSnikpur on tho 
Ganges, warpriwd Rimchandm or RAmadov as he is called by Ferishla 
■t Dergiri, took tho city, and forced Hiiiiiadev to pay tribute and 
■cknowltdge the enpremacy of the Khilji Emperois of Delhi.' 
Between 129i3 and i;J06 the YAdavs wcro not a^in motcst«4l and 
•enm to bn-vu mniutainod their supremacy iu the south. In 130Q 
AU-ud-diQ sent another expedition, under Malik KAfiir, ngninst 
ttie Y&davs and subdued a gi-'eat pnrt of tho Mardtba country* 
RAtncliaodnksubmittedaDd was continued in power till hta death in 
1310. He waa succeeded by his son Shankar. Iu the uumo year (ISIO) 
AlA-ud-din again sont Malik Kitfur and KhwAja U^ji with a large 
anay into the Deccan. Shaokarwasitl-aSectedtothe Muaaln)&Q», but 
did not venture to oppose them, and Malik Kltfur leaving a foi-ce to 
watch Shankar pressed south and conquered Uall^a III. tho Uoysala 
mlrr of Dvirasamadra. Ho returnt*d to Ur>!hi in 1 31 1 . Next year, 
as i>hnDkar withheld his tribnte, Malik Kaftirretnmed to the Decoan, 
M32cd Shanknr and put him to deaths and, laying wotituMithflriishtra 

■ Aoaonting to PorishU (BrigM, 1. 310], KAmadev had to buy peace at the coat ct 
•00 ■»■■ of ooarls muI 2 maiu ZiAiuaoaAM, iuUm, omeraltU, aod upjibirai, 1000 man* 
•fairer, and 4000 piecM nf nlk. ImriIm a long list of olhor prcciou) oonunoditiu to 
wUdi, h» nyi. rcAcoa forbid bb to giw credit. 



Oevgin TtiUvs, 


Bombay Gu<t 



Iiapter VII. 

)cvKiri VAiUtb, 
1188 -JSU. 

nnd the KarniUak from Cbeiit and Oabbol on tlie ooaatof Kol^ln 
nnd RatDAgiri to Mudgal and Itiicliiir, took np bis resident^! i 
IJevgiri and realiKed the tribate from tUu priui^eti of Teliagv: 
and tbe Karnatalc.' Taking' advaatago of tbe distnrbancos at- Uulli: 
which followBcltbe death of AU'nd.diD Khilji (1297>1317), Haraj 
or UariptU, IlamchaDdr&'s eon-in-law, drove out many of tl 
Mahammadan garrisous and L>stablishud hia power over portioi 
of the former lerritorios of Dergiri. In 1318, MubSrik, tho thi 
son of AU-ud-din who had established himuclf uu the Delhi iliron 
inarched against Harap&l, caught him, llaycd him alive, and 
bifl bead over the gate of Dcrgirt. Though in tho Mar&tba coant 
some brancheB of tbe family c-ontinoed to bold positions o( Io< 
im^Ktrtanco and roRpcut, tho DuTgiri YidaTH novur aguiD roea 
poirer. In 13HS Mubumuiad Tugblik (132.1-1351). stnick with i 
central position aud thu strength of its fort, mode Dergiri 
capital and cbaugud its name to Daulntabad or the Ctl/ of Weal 
Three attempts to force tho pooplo of Delhi to settlo at DautatA" 
failed, and a few years later (ISiiO) the Dcccau passed out of Mnha; 
mnd's bands and formed tho territory of the Bobmauts (1250-I490|^ 
who soon OBtablishod their power over the Doocon. With tb 
Eam&tak, at lesAt with tho parts as f»r west as tho Kdnara frontierj. 
thoBabmanls hud little cuuuoctiuii, as those districtisalrr'ndy ackuo 
lodged the ovor-lonlship of tho i)owppful dyniisty of lliitdu kings 
Vijsyaoagar about thirty-aix milos oortb-weet of BeUari 

In the absence of evidonce as to nhethor the YAdars held 
coast of KAnora in the thirteenth century, the account of a 
inrasion of the KSnarn coaet i.s of jntercat. Alxiut 1252 the 
nephew of the Pandyao prince of Madura in said to have bruu^ht u 
sea force against Kinara, reduced tho whole coast to his power, and 
introdaced an addition of ten per cout in tbe land assetisment.* 

Tbe wealtb and strength of tho YAdave on tbe noKh and tl 
wealth of the Uoysaln BalUlas on the south, and the rich temp) 
in Maisur and in DhirwSa- which btilung to about the thirtt'en 
century make it probable that K^nara nharud in tho pruepority 
wbidi the Venetian traveller Marco Polo describes as lunrki 
Malab&r about 1290. It was rich in pupiwr, ginger, cinuamo! 
turbit, and Indian nuts, and had also a maaufacluru of delicut 
and boautifnl clotb. Ships oamo from many quortcrtj, from 
the great province of Manzi in Sonth China, and from Adon 
Alexandria, but the China tmdo was ton times as important ns tl 
trade with the Itcd 8ea. The China ships bronght copper, silk ai 
gold clotb, sandals, gold, gllverj cloves nnd spikeunrd, and carrii 



' Id bia account oC Matik Rilar'a cDoqnoat of Dviiaaaiandra, P«riBhbb(BrigBi, I. _ 
373-374) netiMB tbtt tli« Muulain Ann; [iMiimI to tKc ■.'cost ud Uult n ami 
DMwqne tborc. He adda. the ni<3*qit« renuUn* entity in our days (1830) at ^t ~ 
Itltncehvor. Colonel Etrigga lulda. ttiU |Kiinttnuat lie Kauui'aCapc in KAnara.i 
of Goa, aiid nut ItAniMliTar nt Adntn's Hriilife. Bat it appuua Ram Amir Kbuiini'a 
<182fi) TAfikli-i-Alii (Blliat aul Pdwm.ii. IH. 90.&2i iLat lUik Kiifur i<a«a*d 
■Outb Ui Uadorn anil ilid »ut viatt llic ci^atl cJ K&iiara. 

■ElpUnatono'allialory, 338-'i40; Wtlaon'a Mack<^n»« CDlleciina, x(H .• WilU' 
SonthOf [ndfx, 1. 189. ThisrefoFwioeWFina ttonhtfiduivcorilitif; toBUtopCald* 
CnoDBvally Manna). 42) Pandya powar deeayed ia tLc tvreUtfa ccatuf >-. 




ivar coarHa apices. Tlie people wera idoUtors irith a laagaage 
of tboir own, n kiTifr of thoir own, am) nr> tribute to par. It was a 
gnat kinKiloiri.btil iW (xiasts wereinfcstfd with corsairs who aatlieil 
(nrth in Hof-lj; of more thaa a hondrfKl vessels, Tliey took thi-ir wives 
ftad cbiltlivn with them and stayed at sea diiring the whole Hummer. 
TWfnry or thirty of the pirate eraft, dvo or six miU>H apnrt, madi? a 
iiao ikod rovcred aouicthiug hke a bandrod miloa of sea so that do 
■Brabant »bipfl could escape them.' 

The nabmaai dynasty which nilod the DetMran from 1343 to about 
Xi90 Beem never to have cxtonded their powor so far to the souih- 
W«t tut K^nara. Apjnrently during the whole of thiit time, and ou 
tt least to Ibdb, Ktoara and the Bombay Kamfltak were mider tho 
mlf of two dynasties of Vijayaniigar t>r Anpgondi kings of whioli 
tho firvl Ia9t«l from about 1330 to 1480 aud the secoau from abont 
14&0 to l.liSO.* VijuyanuKni" th" City of Victory, originally VidyjU 
ua} lli«(_'ity of L«aruiug, lilatidu oti the right or aoolh hank of 
the Tangabhndra, in ruggud picturesque oountry, about thirty-six 
iDtb>9 north-wotit of Bellliri. Jt and its guburb Anegundi on tho 
Dortboru bank of thu rircrr form one of tbu tiavab rnina in India.* 
•fl" I', whtuh is probably the richest and tnost powerful which 

t. cr the south of India within hiistorio times, was founded 

liy t»Li itrulbura «\\o are generally known as llakka and Btikka. 
Tbey aro dcwrriUfd as tho sons of Saagama, a princo of tho Yfidav 
Iinu and lunar race, who is described \a one iuscriptioo us Saitiioka- 
nitha and who8a Eothor'g nnjne seems to bave been Kampa. As thoir 

' Till«*« Mwvo Polo, n. 334. 32S. Ac«>rdb|{ t9 m traditioo wliicl) wm gcnenlljr 

Mil rill a1 Ti i inthn fnrlj p&rtc>f th« tixteMith oontuiy uitt which tb« piKialiftr 

Walrilinliirn 1 certain tomploa and tomba kt MudUdn in Smith K&nArk ■c«n)mto 
■ippot, a p%*t Ctunaw flevt caiu« to Weateni tuilia in the twolCtli L-untiirf and tho 
BMpW Httind Klanii tho whule «vat«ni coast, (Ttira Votum o( Da (tama, 147 ; 
firBuaana'a Architcctara, 2T0-27S). Surae MuaauoAn and rortugncw! irritcn havo 
f^iCaii nfcrrnci-a to Chincm at (*hcul lu Kolibrv sn<l ut (itigho in South KAthiAw^lr 
(M IkraW/ Uftacttcor, XI. -l^J, L7U). But nu aljca or trnJitiOn oE n ChiacM *«ttlc- 
■Knt haa W^n Itmed on tho oaxtt ni North K4nara, 

a Boehuiui (MyiArD. III. IIS) plnoM a Varan dyaaaty at Aoogundl batwean 7S2 
amAtas.aa-l Mt. Rioe l.M^aora. L 'JSHi dcacrihea AaoguuiliaatbctraditiuiuJtlta of im 
^rlT Vavnii i)ynuty of wlwmlUlWialuuiwu. 

■ K*whoU (Jiiunial .Uatio Society, B«b^1, XIV. 518) give* tho (oUowbis 
deMTriiiti'in o( the Viii\'iua^ftr niiiM : Tht whole of tli« oiit«ii*ive aita oocuinvJ 
by tbo mina ft Itij&ru^Lr in thn a<iath hank of tfa« Tutt^ahhidni, tmd of ita 
(■baft) Anognnili on ttw Dorth bank, is iMoupiacl by mvU hmv pi1«s ami bnaiva 
«(gT«alte asd gnuiitoiilal ^ttaa, Mparatod by rooltydofita* and narrow myiji^'l 
VKlIm, snrumlicnd by preopiUtod maaiM td ruak. Romo nf tholnrgtr dii-bottiiinL-d 
VhUcti an irrigated t^ siinciilncU (rooi tii« river, and appear like to toaiiy rordant 
uj — . ;„ <',:i, .Arabia Putn«>a of Southctn India. Indeed iorm parta of thn wililvrncvi 
f,l . ,.|pd mo, hut na a Inrf^raiuler tcale, u[ thu haddiml aMcmblaffo of bare 

gcj, iatb« banki of thu Tungabhadra. The fununlioii i« tha aainci, tha 

•cauticcu i>l v«0rtstion. tho arid aapoct u( tliv bare rcx^ki, aud tho iptca gnau 
l^ .rt^.g thn prcacocQ u( apriMa few aoil far 1>ctwe«u in thu dopUia of the i-illcya, 
■n (oaEiUxa amunini to both loiutlitiM. The pcslca, t'>ni, and IvgEuig atoaei of 
MJiUiaisu- ftad Anwndi iodtntthu b^rix'^n in pictanM^ne eonfnsion, and ar« acttrccly 
Ib l« diakLi^iahwd from the iiiur« artificial niini of the anciont Hiiida raetropoha 
af the DteeAH, which are utuaJly oonatniatsd vitb blocka qosmed train th«r 
^1mi aDd vie in grotMiiueueaa nf ontlino and mukiToncaa of chanctci with the 
alli-mat^ kirineaa and Widily exhibited by nature in the oiecly miaed lugginKatoiiea 
■wi (xiliimnar piten. anrl in ilia walla of piwdinoua cnboidal blocka of gnulte which 
oim ureal aiwl toft hct nnweive domaa and ridgea in aatural Cj^slopoan mownry. 




1330- r 

IBomb*; Guett 

liipter 7n. 
133(l- itsa 



en.rt!ei>t inscriptions aro found in Muo north and west of Mail 
]k[r. Ttict* tbiuks tlioy may bo descended from fBudatoriea of 
Iloysala BalliUos; acoonline to anotbur trrwlitioo ilioyivero of 
KdJcateya or Waraii;;^! fainily ; and aceonliui; to a third account i 
belonged to tlio Banav^i Kadauibaa,' Biebop CaMwvU 
aocond of Mr. Eice's tradiitoaa, tliat tliey oatne from Wamuf^ 
Ntzliin's Dominions which hod been taken bv tlio Muhammadiuis ^ 
1323.'^ Ttie brothers Hakka or Iloribara and Bukka are aaid to luii 
been helpod by a ^gd named Uadhav, who according to one accon 
vftis miitisl<.'ruipriiice Saogama aad acoordino; to another was theV 
ot thu ffrpftt Suuirt raonastijTy of Shringori in West Mnisiir.' Ho ■ 
onlightuncdeuouglitoseotliattheonlj safetjof the Hiudureli^onl 
in the protection of a jiowerfnl monarch. Tho Vijayanagnr sovoreignl 
aduptvd the vardha or boar aa the emblem ou tLe ro;f^ signet, aod 
their family god was Virupiksba, a local Shir, in \ honoar then 
gmutti ore aigned Sbri Virnpiksha. In inscriptions tho epithets Vie 
Pmiapa Pi-nudhaDcra arotLoseoummonlyapplied to the Yijapuingn 
kings' who ivere knowu as Rityas,a sontbern form of the title U^jc 
tlai-iham was ihe eldest. €>f firo brothers thft fonrth of whom, Manij 
oon(}Ocr(.>d tho Kadamba. IdrritortoiiandnilodasTioerajtDUieSlui 

> Rii;«i's Mywrc, I. 197, III. 9S. and M»ilru Jotrninl nf Literstiins and Sde 
1878, 141. It ramy lie noCiwiil Lbattbe KimiMi tnktrcUer Atliauuiu>>{tkltin, who 
in thia Ticcciui in 1474, caIIh the rulor of Gicbencghnr, tbo Kaidam ki&n. Ill* 
Indw in the XVtli Cauiiinr, '19. 
. *'IHnnc%-«llyMauuttl, «, 47. Bucliacnn (Mj-«iro, ril. 97) RiftknthetnaF tliu Knrnl 
6F *ho[thcr<l M>«te. His «tor/ (Uy«>>r«. 1X1. IIS, lIC) U Iho unao m tLkt Mliiplml 
BUhuji Cftldvetl. Thev wvre tko trenmuy {[oqrdiaoii t>f ['rBtiM«4n, Icing of 
Andlim cmiiiUt, or\^*ranaal, wba wn orurtbruwn l>y th* Mnnlnitui ut ll_ 
They cam« U> Bbri Maha Vi<lf ftrunjA. a btahft i^vAini and rlewnth ■■ccettor 
ShiuikArActUryft, And takvd lii« hvlo. He vimIvJ UM otul, kcrordiiig to liis or 
Vijavaungiu- wna Ix^iii «nH fieiuhcul iiftvr Im'vitii J'mra in 113^. 'tLv (ivuLiir crvwi 
lIiLkk» »nd fAve him tli« n»nta of H»nliu« ItAfMu. Tb* Port^a«>H< liiaton 
b^riii (KftTT, IV. 399) »*yt Klaara. properly Clunutaea, bad no fD^nr till Bofcn : 
klMplierd bttilt Vijnyatut^nr. , 

■ Mdtlbftv WM « flucccuor of SliuiIiMilcJUTya anil huul of tlw great Shrii 
tiionut«ry in tboKftdurdiitiict ofMoIiur. Ho voaa inan of ^«t learning Aoc 
iiiB to Dr. Buruuti b« wu ttio wuno u SAyviB, ihe luuoua nmimaitaUix outboVe 
Uioe't MvBoro. t. S33. 

* Mr. Rice (Mysnm, I. 221) givw tho follnwing table of tb* Vijayuii^ar kiDLi. 
Dottna UitX tome ol tbs ilatci ato ttoiiMCnl and tbat nioct of tboaa haodtsi do* 
ItadiUou arc wrong : 

Vi/asattagar Kiugt, IS^-!SS1. 

Haiihan), nil():j^ nuiya^pa 133G-ISB0 

Itaklu, Vim llukkAima 1350-1979 

HftrihtiTAlI. 1379-I401 

L>tva iJiVj-a, ViJBjra lUya, Vijayo Bukka 1-(0|.|4QI 

Maliiknijima, VirnMalUnuft, PmidhaDe\'a 145l-l16iS 

Vimpikaha 14fi&-U7« 

KaroM, Nnnunnih ]4;d-1497 

Vira Karaimh, Nanimh tL ... ... .. ... I487.1G09 

5^^.! i««-'«^ 

Sodbiva KAya (Dinu BAJa reggnt unipa tbo Uirone 

tiUiSaS! ... JM2-157a 

Sri Kanija ILija (TiriUMala Kija, brothirr of Rima RAja, 

..tMfi) . I«74IG87 

\ ira Venkatdpitit ... ... ... IM7 

■Tbo Toiail bwour-giiiiu; plural of lUya u lUyor and tho TvIupb plural 
WyalB. Cft!dw«aVTiiuM'T«l^,47. 



, of aoTl1i-w«i Maumr. That VijayaDAgrM- poiter waa boou 
to tbo west>orn coast is showu by the African trerellcr Abu 
Mubaminwl, bctttir knovra as Ibn Balula, who visited tU<! 
. coul iu 1342. Ibn BatuU. came to the island of Smdiibar, 
loUyChitttkul orSintakuru, thomodeni SudlisliiTKad close to 
r, wkidi \i« uc>tic«a va» Clis LmuI uf thirlv-aii iDlaad vill&gea. 
[dtdDot sWpBt Ciiitakol, but dropped anchor at AsmiUI ittland DOftr 
lUy Aujidjv, iu which waa a temple aud a vrater-cistera. 
id on tltc iabind and foiiixl aii asoetio laaoiag agaiiul » voJl 
Ipbced between two idoU. He seemod to be a Moslem but would 
tblk. He uoxt came to tho city of Uinaiir, that is Honllviu', on 
Xauj which T&oeirwi large vessels. The people wore Moslems 
leSbifui or Arab soct^ famous sao-B^ters, the meo peaceful and 
^la, tbu woiucu ctia&l« and httiid»oiiie. Mo^t of (hoiu, butb mcQ 
womeo, knew thit Kuniu bj lieartv Tliero w«re twcutV'thn« 
jcboola for i«.v$ aud thirteen schools for girU.' The ruliu^trhicE 
«M Jamil- ud-din Uuhamamd Ibn. He was subject to an iitti[I<?l king 
tiaed liahab, ciiAt is Uiuiap or Uariappa (I:j39-]3o0) of Vijayo- 
, J&mit-ud-diu was one of the beet of princes. He bad an 
of about l3(XK> men and the people ot MalaMr, though a 
and warlike race, feared the chief of HouAvar for faia 
at seftj and piiad him tribute. Dm Bututa went on to 
it and camo bock to Hon4rar where he fuond the chief 
iog on expedition against the Island of Siodiibur or Clutakul. 
went with a fi«et of 6fty-two vesaeld aud found the people 
iind^or ready to raeiiit thetn^ but after a bard fight carried the 
bj aonolt. Iba Bututa started for UodAtot and after a second 
to Kaltkat CiLme back bu Chitakol, but a.s he found the town. 
by an iutidel kin^ he left for the Mdldiv Islands. Ho 
IS MalabSr £rom tjind&bur to Kaulam or Quilou as all 
with tioee. At every half niilu Ibure wsis a wooden rc»t- 
r, a well, and a Hindu in charge. He gave water to Hindus in 
ils and puurod it into the hands of Musalmilns. In most parts 
the Mnsalm^n merchaais had houses and were respected. In all the 
QOtmXrj there wan not a span free froin cultivation. Kverybody 
bbd a garden with a hoDso in the iniddle and roaod it a fence 
of woa£ People travelled on beasts of burden, the kiug aluue ou a 
bone. Traders wore carried on men's bocks and noblna in a box 
on roon's shouldora. Mcrcbauts walked followed by two or three 
bondred carriers. Thieves wero unknown because death was the 
panishmcnt of thcfi.' 

Of BokkaorVira Bukkanna (1350-1379^, Hariappd's brother and 
anooeasor, Bachanao records an inscription, cuted 13/4 (S. 1207) from 
Oipntara or Kup^dde ten miles sDuth-east of BonavdHt in the reixn 
of Vira Buka K^ja of HosiuAvali, the Sauskrit of Auegundi the 
Elophaat Pit.* Another initcnplioa of the same year (1374, 8. 1S07) 
limiid M Sokam reoords a grant bj Shri Vira Bukcaltiya by the IWvour 

> VuU'a C*tliAy. U 4IQ 

* Lm'i Dm HaeuU, IU. ie«, ie7,l7'l. Yoti! fCaihnj-, II. 444) ii)catifiM SiiMUhnr irith 
0«L It 9»*au la bi tbo iudo m the f ortuguiMc Siatakva that ii CtutakiU now 
a«lteki«)CMl. • MjMre, 111. 239. 


(Bomlwy Omt 





of thp fof^ nf VimpfiVslm, tlie local Bhivof ViJAyanagar.* Bitclinr 
rccortia a tliinl grniil, uli^u found ui Ookani, by tlie son of llnriin 
RAyv. to support ao inn.' Tliin fulls vrithin tie reign of Harihl 
IT. (1379-1401). He foiinct atliird mscriptioa al Gokarn, of Ui 
Itliya Trilocbia son of Harihara fUya, king of Hainw, TiiUr, 
Konkaii.^ and another at GersapF» dated 1400 (S. 1922) in 
by order of Traiip Deva Ki;a Trilocliia, king of Viiayanagw, 
Jain cbief of Gersappa grant-ed lands to a temple of GunaTanti| 
Gersappa.* 'ITiis mention of a Jain nnder-Iord of the Vijayai 
kiof^ at Gersappa supports a tradition which BacbaDan loar 
from the Ur^hmans of Ubatkal, that, ondcr the Vijayanagnr 
tlidre weru local chiefs at BImtkal, at Sbir^i about ^vq 
fnrthcr north, at CbandArar about ten milee easi' of Knmta, 
GcFHuppa, and at Mirjiln, though the Br&hmanB made out tl 
Hivsn cbiufa were of the Brahmnnie and not of tho Jain fcutliJ 
Tln*a« Jaiu cbiuf^ were pmbably, as in other parts of the Vija; 
nngar territory, styled Nftiks." According to Mu^lmAn acco 
about ISGH Bukka suffered a HerieH of defeabs at the banda 
Mnhammod Sfaih BabToani (1368-1375.)' 

ilaribara 11. (1379-1-LOl), tbe third in saccession and ine 
DcTa liiiya. {1401 •14^'ilj grtiatlj extended the power of Vijay; 
Haribara is said to have conquered Chola, Kerala, and I'^ndya, 
aides br bin victories canning the days to appcur cloudy to tho t 
blindod wives of the Yavans or MnBalmAsa. Daring these two re: 
thoir power oxtcndcd over tbe wholo of Kanara. Tbis pari of 
Knrniitak entirely escaped the bloody wars between VijayanagAr 
the Ufthmani kings which from time to time Uiid woftto tho oo 
of tbe Krishna aud tbe TuDgiiLbadra. The land seemato 
been well governed OJid prosperous as tho MusJm^ historiiUU 
wonderful accounts of tue wealth of Vijayanagar at the begia 
and at the uloae of tho rciga of Dova Kaya (1401-1451).^ ~ 

' Mjton, III. ITOi 

want bock to tb« canqoMiof the cMiRtty by HikribsrK Rlyalu in IS3$, In mi|i| 
at tho tnith at tbeae oceounUnt'a neard* Sir T. Unnro «spl«iu (B«port oT i 
iity LSOO) that tbe vkluc of tbe Unil hiwl Imt th* acooviiUnta to tBk« tiM « 
urc of tbclr pkporo. They were urittcn in black booka which luted toon i_. 
ccntuiy ; two cr tiurvo oopjw wsra made, anil when » book booame worn a froah l 
waa taken wiil a mcniorauduBi ant^md in the tiUe-|Mgii biuiUoiubii io the tUiitiri__^ 
«ra Uta y«ar in whieh it was written, kn4 thv vwr in w)u«h U» onxinal bad bees 
written. Huiy of thowlioafcB bad latdy bocn loat, but enanA reeiamrd to make • 
«)mpl«to ahetnct of tho luid-rant aurtiiir 400 vMn. AibnUutot'i Lifi> of Mti&w. 
L 163. ' Mjwnt,, III. 17a * iSyton. lU. 174. » Mywrc. III. IBS. 

* Kioe (Mraorv, lU, 98) mj« tlio VijsTana«ar kinm fCotrcniNl oatlying dlitritu by 
Aiob called Niika. Utthop Colilo-vll (1'itincTully Maaanl. ^09) iiolinii that 
Siftk, whkh in Kaotkrit mMna laaaor or chief, wua in Southern India tbe Uerodi- 
tacy title o( certoia Tctugu eutM. In Teluga the maaculino tiint^Ur ii wntton 
Nivodnaad in Tamil Ntyakkan. Itii the aame word aa lb* MAliyiliun Kavm or 
Nair, BuchiuiAD (III. 123| noticca thai in Soath KAnara Ibe Vijayanagar' kit ~ 
allvwu'I till: Jain chief* to manafpo th«ir oivn BtTaini. Thnw local aiMHir-Iorda i^ 
aU.> Blyl^d PAliKAni wliirf. in Tamil i* RiUyakSra, iiiTeliiRii PAleMdo, u»d ia Kin 
PiU^ra. The word propeily mnim* the tioldor o4 a camp or niSituy snnt. B 
C^UIwell (TJnnovelly, fijt) noticei that tha Vijayanagar «r Tdu^ I'aleair 
•ufinoaed to be the loni of thirty, thmo vtllacr*. 

' Btiwt' Fcriahl* II. 817, 326 : Elliot and ftowaon. VI. 2Sl. 282. 

« >Vn.liU i'Bnag; IL 390! tdla bow Firwt Shih B*hiii*ni(lS97« 1*22). wlianba^, 
•d ku fatbar-in.Uw I>a<ra lUya ia Vijayanagar, fouuil the rowl for aJz nOet a«t 



r Dora Kilya, Vijayanagnr was visited hy two BlmTigers 
ti nn Iiulian, who w&« io India bettv&i^u 1420 and 1 110, 
AUJ-ur-HiiKKulc, tlii-^iunbftasador of tliu JVr^ian king 8hAh Rukh 
.bi> kiti^at' KalikaLnliowBa ID Vijayauagariii 1-143. Ntcolo Cotiti 
led Uoli that i$ Mount Dc\y on Uio MaJabar coast and froia 
went 300 milos inland Uj Vijayanagar or Bizenegnlia. The 
w»s sixty miles round and vaa said to coDtaia 90,000 men 
to bear arms. The king- had 12,000 wires of whom 4000 went 
pt- nod HerTcd in his kitcboo, 4000 went oa horw-bnck, and 4000 
■i-n. Of thy litter laditfs 201)0 wore chosiin na wires on 
-Mat t ho V would burn wUon Ibo king died.' Nicolu was 
aacli impmsaed by a great oar-festival. Two ohariota crowded 
vith priests snddniicin<>--girlH woro dragg(^d along, poopto throwing 
(hcnu-^lree under tho wheuls that they might be cnuhed to death. 
Otbera, iwd ihia was ostoemed aliiglier sacri&^o, drew a roya through 
llNir bodies and hung from tlie oar like ornuments.- Abd>cr- 
Saxstftk, tlie Peraian ambassador, reached Vijayanogar from Man- 
Balor. Oo his way be passed tbroogh Hodonr whoso hoaaes woro 
tike {rntoces, its beauties like bourts, and its temples and other 
tniildini(» marvels o£ sculpture and painting. He found Viiayanagnr, 
whero be arrived at the eud of April 1 443, an exceeding large and 
popaluus city, tbo seat of a king of great power wlin»o kingdom 
Btretched froai Ceylon to Kulburga and from Ben^l to Malab&r. 
ICoatof the land was wet] tilted and fertile and there were about 
900 aea-piirta each equal to Kalikat.^ There were 1000 elepbanta 
Bsd an army of over a niitlioa men. ITiere was no more absolute 
fiii in India than the king oC Vijayanagar. The city bad seven 
fortilied walls one within the other. The first or ontmoet circle 
cuBcW^edatipnt^? eight miles (2, pamsangt) acroea. Between the first, 
acnind, and third circles of wall woro fields and gardRns, and from 
the third to the seventh or inmost circle the space was closely 
cniwdfd with markets and shops. The seventh or central circle 
was on 3 hilL In it was the paliu^a of the king and four markets 
with a lufty arcade and magni6ceDt gallery at the heed of each. 
The markela were broad and long. There were always sweet fresh 
flowers and the different crafts had separate quarters. Many slroaou 
flowed along polished and level stone channels. On tho right of 
the palace, which was the loftiest building in the city, was a pillared 
liall where thu jniuiHtur did justice. On the left was the mint 
vith hollow ehambcrfi full of masses of molten gold Opposite tho 
mint waa thu police ofUco with 12,000 soldiers. Buhinu tho mint 
was a market 300 yards loog by twenty broad, where the daneing- 
^la livod. very beautiful, rich, and accomplished. The king was 
■xoeedingly young, of aspiu'o body, rather tall, and of an olive colour. 
I>tmDg Ab<]-cr-Bazxak''8 stay at Vijayauagar, tho brother of the king 
tolled many of tlie leading nobles and all bub succeeded ina^saHsiuating 

«rthculy-g>t0a|)m*<t iritli clot It of gold, velvet, Mtio, uidotfaorrieli ■Ui&. Tlia 
twd priticM raA» botwc^ui ntnk* nf lienutidil boyi mid girla who wavad pktw of gold 
wu] iitrrr lltMDm ovEr thoir hoaili ftDil threw them tobegitbcanMl hj tJia peopl»L 

' Mmjor'fl Indik III tlm XVth Cactiir)-, III. a 

• Ukjoi'i tadift in tU XVth C*atur>-, III. 3S. ■ Elllat gLud Dowmm. IV. 699, lOL 






'CJiiipl«r VII. Ihotitifj. Tho king Bofc on b tJirono of pold inlnid with jcwpU and 
Bistarv walls of thi'tliruue room wore liue-il with |>lutc-9 ui golJ. During | 

, , of tbo timo Abd-er-Romak wss thera k Christisn was inioii 

^''iSwa,^ Thoro WW a wonderful FeBtival ai Daeara time or jtfaAannirami, 
1S90-%(k Scptomber foil-moon. Tho groAt plain near tbo city watt filled 
Abitr-RimaJe, ODcluuatiag pftrilionaoOTered with luosfc ddlicalo and liwtU'Fiil pictoi 
144^. of animnls, and there was one pilliired mansioD niae stori^nbigh for i 

king. For thnni days, with th« moBt gorgeous displaj, daooiDg-f^ 
danced and sang, fireworks blaxed, and sbowmeo tuid jnggU 
porformod wondcrfnl f«it«. Abd-or-HaBtRk loft Yijayanagar 
tho Stli of NoTODtbcr \-ViS and reached MangaJor on tho 23rtl 
tho same month. It was impos^iblo within rcnsooablo space to}^ 
an idea how well the con ntry was peopled. All the people, high : 
low, oven the workers in tho mnrket-places, wore jewels and 
omamente in their ears and i-ound their necks, arms, wrists, 
fii^OTS. Prom Mangalor he wont to tlie port of Ilondvar or llan 
and there arranged for a ressel to take bim back to Persia. 
ctart4>d on tho %iilh of January and reached Oriuoa on the 22nd 
AprG after a voyage of sixty-Jire days.^ 

Diiring tho reigns of I)er R£y8*» Haccvsaors tfallikAnnna (I- 
1465} nnd Virupfiksha (14G5- I4"9}, the power of Vijaj 
greatly declined. On tho coast thuir greatest losa was tha oaptnvo^ 
Ooabytha MuaalinAns in 1470.* Formerly trade wa« diatribnl 
among the different Kanara ports, but, after tho HusalmAo conqat 
trade was compelled to ceutru at Goa. In 1479 the old Mi 
traden of UonfiTarmigrntod to Goe and were so important aa 
tion that the new, now tho old or Muaatinilni town of Goa was 
to roooiTO theiu.* According to tho Knsiiinn traveller AthAoa 
Nikiliu, who was iu the Deconn about 1474, the king of Bic 
attacked tho Tory powerful Hindn prinoo Kadam and took 
cupitnl Bicbcueghtur* u vast city surruiiuded by three forta 
croBsoJ by a river. In the capture 20,000 people were killed.* 
Wu« perhaps in coosequcQCO ot tho ill-fortuno of MallikdrjuuA ai 
VirupAksha that in 1479 the old family was set aside and a ~' 
dynasty founded by Narnsaor Nnrsingh. According to one ace 
Karaiugh (1479.14S7) was the slave of the last king Yinipiiksha^ 
according to another ncoonnt he was a chief of Telingnna; an 
according to a third of Tolav or South K&nara. He is said to bai 
been a Y^davof the family of Kritihnn Riiynand the son of Shekbar 
and Bukkamn. Ilis conquests est'Cnded over the whole of the Bontb 
and he i« Baid to havu fuinided St-ringnnntani in Knisur. Narsingh waa 
succeeded by Vii*a Nai-siugh or Narsnigh II. who ruled from 145]^ 
to 1 508 and from whom the early PoHiiguoi;e mlted the whole 
Sonthem India tho kingdom of Narsinga." Of Naraingb Bac 

1 Major's UAia In the XVtli C«ntai7. 41. 

'Fll'vtnij.l tK.wH>ti. IV. 103-12& i Major's India in tho XVthOwbiTy.m.l 

•Ilni^K- F..i.l,U. II. 4M. 

* CnmmimUiriM of ItalboqiMvqno, II. tcU. Acoordinft to F»riA {Kmt, VI 
ioa balnngml In tho Moon oS llonlrar before it wu Ukm by Uio Balinunla. 

' Miiprii India in the XVth Oeotnry. IV. M. 

* It H ^oafatful wheUift then trov two niiHa ot tfaa tiaiiM of Nanbfk. I>r. 





Ulo fotlowing gmnta from Kdoam: In the teraplo of 

nr, about six milcB fionth of Komts^ in 14^ (S. 14S2) » 

Kppef-pUto grant by Dcvk R&ya Wodo/ar TrUochia wliich is uiid 

"ibea wuDBof the ViJRyfto«CT.p kings becaa&e tboy gorertied Um 

loips, Tamils, anil Ksniiltuiou ;' abo in thu tomplu of ObiLreshvar 

lUOl nn order frum Trioetn Solva N'arai^iiigha K%bIca, kiag of 

I teas and of Am'-gundi t-i Dovaraau Wodfjor to grant Unas to 

"^ aljio in thu same jjlace anii date, arrant b7 Sulva Oeva 

I Wodoyar RAja of fJaj^'ar that is N'Sisyanagar, Haiga, Talav, 

Konknna. At Dvidarn or Beclnur fiuchanan also foand an 

Spiion dated 1^06 (S. 142!>} in tho rolgn of Jobila Karft- 

;ltik Itiiya, the grvat king of Vija/anagar in wLich Kedali Baavapa 

W'odeyw was oppoiotod lia^s of Barkani with ordore to 

'■ the lands of t.bu f^ods and of Bnihmaus,' It sooma also to 

Mio(ke<>n dnrinp tho reign of Xarsinghin 1409 {S. 1422) that Sada- 

■brNdyak. the founJerof the family of Kitidi, Ikkt-ri, or Bodnnr was 

jUrad in power on the sontfa«rn borders of North KAnarfc.* 

During- the rci^ of yarBingh II. an evont occoired which deeply 

tflbctcd the futnrc of the Vijayaiiagar territories ou the KAnara 

VMt. Va«oo da Gsmn sighted Moont Dcly in South Kan&ra on tho 

SOthof Angust 14flH.^ On his roturn trum tho MalabAr coast, which 

it liad biwn forcod to lonvo boforo tho proper Reason, Vaaoo da Gama 

fi-ttii^datthe ialnQdaofl KundApur now named tho St. Mary Isles, and 

lifi approralof tho poopio, whoso friendship ho won by tho ffift 

' < =,i!tte and other articles, act up n cross and called the ialaua Kl 

fVlron dcr Sancta Mnria.^ Be next called at Anjidiv and remained 

rniinubDatiboS5thufNoTomborto the 10th of December. The 

iignese were p-eatly pleased with Anjidiv. There were good 

ir-tprin^ and tho upper part of tho island had a fine atono cistern. 

trt* was also much wood. The only person on the i<jland was a 

louio bflggar or Jovi who lived onriocand herbs which hcrcoeived 

pftsaing Doats.' While the Portugueee were on the island they 

Vara ^applied with fish, fowls, and vegetabloa by fiahprmen who 

llrrd on a rirer abodt a mile distant, named Cintncola, that is 

Cbitakul. now Sndishivcad, at the mouch of the Aligaor K&linadi 

rirer.* The news thai Portugncsc ships were anchored at Anjidiv 

l|nvad aloti^ tho coast. From Eon&rar a coreair named Timoja, that 

ta Timmaj'a, came with eight hoate covered with branchee, so that 

they looked like a floating island, in tho hope of Hurprining them ; but 

Im boots were mot and acattorod by Uio Fortagucae artillery.'* When 


1480 .TWDL 


k'(I>nridiaA P«l«ognpbr, 60) arriM oa Virv^ktlik the lul «ftb« cariier 

^b>1490. The PortagiMwO lustariMi Vulk-y-Siun (Kerr, VI. SU9) uji tlu 

I Horpfid by NftRingh.kfterwbon) tlMcitywucwedMftriinghiBatoailof 

* M]«OT«. IIL IH. > Mywra. UL lU. ■ Mysore. IIL 100. 

* M)Bure. III. 2&4. * Tbr«o Voyacm of Vaaoo da Gam*, Ixxx, 

■ CMlautted* in K«rr's Voyttsea, IL 88ff. Tho St. Uwt Um *» about twttabjr 
■dW •oiitt. of Bliatkal. 

' C^tuiLeiift'i fnller umant U j^vm andfr PtaoM of Intereit. 

* Vmuo iU G&bu.'i l'hiv« Vo^kgA*, ?43-244. 

* Ttiree Vofwea of Vaoco da Gknu, 244. Cwtanliodii uys thoM boaU belauded to 
tlMZanixbl. Ken'o Vtiy»|[<s, II. 336. 






1480- 1380. 


news of ihc Btrango eliips ronohod Ooa, Sabnro, tliat is Ynsiif 
Sbili o£ BiiriiJur. but it was more probably tbo Sabjijo'a Ic. 
govornorj ordorod a Mni^miD Jew, who was ai Ihn head of bis VM 
to taku aomc boate, find out who tbe etraoRtini wurc, and lE puBsil 
bring thorn prisoDors to Gor. The Jew hid bis veaseU ubar t] 
moaUi of Iho K&Iiuadi. But the Portu^uuso iroro waruud by thz 
frieDil^ the Hindu fi^hennea, and when the Jew io a stn^ll be 
piuisod their abipsos if by accident and baiiod tbum in CostiUui, i 
appearnl to be delighted and persuaded him to coiuo oq be 
'HVhen tho Jow vraa secured, Vasco da Gama flogged him for 
treachery, and then with tbe Jew's help destroyed tbe Goa boata i 
carried liim to Portaml, where he vm baptised under tho ns 
of Oaeper da Gama.' When Vasco da Gama returned iu 1503 be 
near Anjidiv Homo thieviKh craft belonging to 'I^mmayn of Hod4t 
a great fiiea-robber who paid part of tho plunder to the kingi 
Gersappa who ruled the country.* The pirate boats were purss 
into tbe Uon&rar river. On enteriog the river tbe Portugue 
were attacked from paliHades by Rmall guns and aiTowa Thoy for 
landing, aod the people tied leaving some Teasels on tho beach lad<j 
with gondn which tbe Portuguese burned. They then went on 
another creek to Hon&v'ar town which wa« liirge and Iiod many figh.t 
men. They fell on it, and, as the people fled, burnt the town and 
that WHH iu it. Next day tbuy reached the port of Bhatkal. H( 
were mnny Mouriah shipH, buca.aso this was n great plac« for h 
rice, iron, and Hugar, which were Kcnt to all partn of India, 
loaod cannon pU^tcd on a wall upon a rock at tbe Imr hii4^0L 
throw stones at the shipK, They pushed on, and landing droi 
Hoors from somo wharfs leaving behind them large quantitioa of i 
and sugar. Tho Portuguese returnnd to their bowts and wont up ' 
river to tbe town. On their way thoy wore met by an envoy fro^ 
tho Bhatkal diicF who had been st-ut to dL-claro hi.<i maHtcr'^iwilUngnc 
to submit to tho PoKuguosc. Da Uama ttaid that he bad no wiah 

t Tlirm VoTkgM, 244, &i€, S53. CMtuih«da'a rdralDii is aornewhat diff« 
Acvordiitg to lun Vmm wm Mtiar« cle«niuK llie bottom of hiti tliif whoa 4 
•tcwigvr uriTCd. H* «Mna Wkd «inl>Mo««l tliwn all «iid (>n>f(-«socl to W an lt4f'' 
ChrUtuuL G«ip«r Moms to htivn oomo back to Indln with Cabnl in August II 
8*e Kerr's Vovs^w, II. 3X}. 390. 40S. Acconliug to Varthema (1309, Badnr^ 
Bditioa^ 1161 U>< oapttun nf Ocin atthu timo was ■ Mameluke, thai u aQT«i& or 
CircaMiao MutaloiAo ii[ Chri.itUn birth, And '(OOof tli«carruou wtro Mainelnkoe. Of 
the concLitioa ol the pvopk the only rcforcucu tbat baa mud traced in Um aooaunt of 
the tint vongt U tliat tho Moor tnorduuibi irnrn rioh, but the ptapla of tho coddI 
had BO jirodt or inoume, onlv enough to kovp tli<:m in lifa ThrH Voyigw, IM. 
applied to XfalaliAr ratliai tlian U) KAnara. 

* Oiuper CnrrcA (Three VoyattM> 303) cslli Tiimnaya a foreign Moor. Ha (m 
li«Tc been a Hiodu, At the timo of th« uririkl of ttio Portn^OMa trade vu mud _ 
troublod by jnratc*. tkitno from Uoa, UiLxa bf the Portii^«i« ia U96 at Cbitaknl^ 
had jaTcliiiB, loiig awonU, Inrga bucklora of board mTcrod with liidn, very light 
and long bom, aiid br««>l-[>aLnl«(l eaoa anwa. Three VnyauM of Vaaeo da (!« 
952. Other* fitan Houivar in tho Muim year are deaenoM as ontam«Dtoi] 
llapi and (tTcnmaa, beating drnmii and soundmjf trtunncta, and fi Hod with: 
Kcrr'a VciTagea. II. 3S7. Further south, the piratea ni I'lirr.-i nn iht Malat 
iaISU had nBaU vcueU oalled jla^iirc like InrigantiiMt easily roncd, TbeywL__ 
bona attd arrawa and aa crowdod roand Any ihip tbvy fimml b*.>oalin«f, that I 
■tade it *iuniider by Bhootin^ arrow*. They teak th« vcucl and act th* pMpla i 
on abon, and what thoy ttolo thay tUaral with Lho lonl of the ooiuktry. tjtanle 
BarboM, 17. 



bra ttmm and woald make a tnatj on faar oonditions : that the cttief 
'Hit*\ dill not ttado in popper, bronght do Turlcs, and hail no 

^=. irith Kalikat. Thu cbiuf s&id ho could nob pay a taoaov 

Mbote, bat woold giva a thousand loads of cummoa and SCO loaaa 
flf fiae rice a year. He could givu do tnoro becatuo ho wan a tcnniit 
iftkekiDg of Viiamn.tgnr to whom the country beloQgvd. Whua 
AkUacoa was Bati»6ed that thciio statemi^uts wuru tniu liu rocuircd 
fla rve and coTifinned the treaty^ Iq 1505 Dom Prancisco d* 
iibwida, the first Portngtieeo riceroy, hiiilt a fort at Anjidiv, ect a 
iTMriMxi of eiffhty men ia it, and left two brigaDtines to protect trade.' 
Almeida was at AojidiT bnilding the fort, amba^adors canto 
uyia iioD^rar bringing proseuta and a fnendly memago from tbo 
AM. So7eral merchanta also frait^Hl on him, and Moors brought 

EBDia from Chitukal or Cintarnra, vrliere the Hijilpnr king had 
y boilL a fort and gatriaoued it with SOO men. From Auiidi* 
I .Uniinda wont to UuDnvar, and being ill-receired, attacked iU 
Ikt pttcple defended tlietnselres bravely and diKcbarged prodigioaii 
.Aow^ti of arrtiWB b; ono of which Almeida waa wounded. Both tho 
t — .,j.j ijig aiiips look fipy and the Portuguese for a time were 
ironblofl by tho smoko. Lonrenco, the viceroy's son, who wa» 
ft.1cnrard& (I5UJj] killt-d in tho grout fight with toe Egyptian and 
hfuil fleets at Choul in Kol&ba, made & circuit throngb tbo woods 
to ret buhiud the town. He cameacroKji a dctachmeut uf the enemy 
■d was on the point of being defeated, when his father camo to hia 
kdp. Tiwmaya, the governor of tho city and the owner of several 
ffarpK, came out and made excoses for his chief. As he was a man 
tfgTa<:«ful mauuere and appearauoe, and aB he engaged that hia 
oaateT should bcKxime ft vassal of the Porhigae»e, Almeida agreed 
to make a treaty." During the same year(l&0£) an amboaaador 
Varsingh, who styled himself king of king» and oTer-lonl of 
Dg at Huu&vur, reached Iho Portuguese Tiwroy at Kiinauur* 
'llto viceroy gare him a prompt audicnoo on hoard one of bis ships. 
Tbe amba^tiadtir said that his master was anxious to come to any 
agrreucat which would favour Irado between his subjects and tho 
Fy He gave the viceroy learo to build a fort in any 

r- ; dominions except at JJIiatkal, becaoBO he had coded (o Hnother. Finally, io tighten tho bond of nnion between 
hrm and the king of Port.ngml, he offored hia sister, a prinres-s of rare 
befioty, in marriage to the prince of Portugal. These words were 
acootDpanicd by very rich proaoots.* 

Of the districb of K&nara and of ita 07er-lurd Naniingh of 
'Vijayanagafj the Italian travollor Varthoma, who was Id Khuara 
about 1503, gives intereating particulars." Ho mentions thai 

1 Vwoo da Ouiut't Three Voy»ffn, 310-312- 

> CMtaabMUIn Kerr'aVojik^a, Vt. 79. The«>ri]rPorfti{(iuiMfl«etafoatiil .^ojiili* 
a BMt ooarwitenE aUtian tor tntatmg aiiri rdtttlng. DaUila kr« jivin uiidor 
.AajidjT. * Kerr'A Vuyam. VI. 80. 

* Amxilitix lo C>^liIlikl Lnk (Oa. PortugneuM. Liibuci, 1^46, I. <tl!) the Vijaj-MafEu- 
itit oMtic tu AtijiJIv. Bui two ambMiiea «ra not likvly to haru b«eii m&U 

■ v»rili<:iu*adatMandifi 

1W6. p. 177. 

difficult to f»Uow. Ur. Badger &XM bia tiiDO in Kiaua st 

Chapter Vn. 


mm Tsaa. 


[BoBit»r Ou0t 



Cbaptor VIX. 


J-IW U80. 



CeotacoU, tlist is Chitakul, had & pagsn lonl who waa oot verjr i 
lu the city were mauy Moorish mcrcbantfl, aDd a groat qwttt^ 
cow-beef, mach riou, and tb« usual good Indian fruit-. Ttie ; 
were tawn^, and went naked, barefoot^ and bareheaded. Tl 
-was liniijfKTt. to tliu king of Bathacala that tx Bhatkal. Kesfe 
Chitakul Traa Anzotliv or Aniidiv, an ialaud half a mile froni 
mainland and tuhabilcd by Moon and pngans. The water 
excellent but the air was not wbolcBoaie, nor was the isbuid fe 
'I^ro na^'s u good harbour between the ialaud and the luainlaQd.* 
day fn)m Auiidiv waa Ouor or HouA,var whose Iting was a fngan 
subject to kuig Nursingh. He was a good fellow, a great fi-iead] 
the Portuguese, who went oaked except a cloth round his miildie, 
bad ecron or ci^ht ships which were nlwaytt cmifling abnitt. 
air was perfect, and the people long-lived. There were wild he 
stagitj wolves, lion!>, and many xtrango birds, and many peaod 
and parrots. They haA beef of cows, that is red oows, and she 
Id abandanco. There was a great deal of rice, and rosaB, flowers i 
fraib flonriFibed throagbont tjie year.' Batbacala or Bhatkal 
very noble city, five days distant from the Decoan. It wa^ a 
city, very beautiful, about a luile from the see, along a amalL m 
which was the only npproach and pasKed close to the wallu. Tbc 
was no sea-port. The Icing who was a pagan was subject to kii 
Narsingli. Tbu people were idolators after the moonnr of the poO| 
of BLaUtat.' There wera also many itooriah merchant* who lii 
nccordirtg to the Muharomadan n-1igion. It was a district, of 
traffic with quantities of rico aud abundance of aogar, espeOJ 
BUgurcoudied aeourding tu thu Italian miuiner. 'lliQrD were few bt 
mules, or asses, but there weru euws, buf&does, sheep, oxeo, 
goats. There was no grain, barley, or vogotabloa, but nuts and l 
afteo* the manner of Kalikat and tlie other usual excellent fraits 
India.* Varthema wont from K4nnnur fiftoon days east to Bisinei 
that is Vijayanagar. He describes the city as belonging to the kil 
of Narsinga very large and strongly wnllo'd. It stood on the eii 
of a moiinluin with three otroles of walls, the outmost circle 
miles round. The site was bcaatiful, the air the best ever 
and ronnd the city were hauting places and fowlinff places. 
Keemed a second jtarodise. The land was rich and tliere 
much trade and every delicacy. The king and all his kingdom were 
idolatora, worshipping the devil in the same way as the people of 
Knlikat. Ho was the richest king Varthetna ever heard of. Hia 
Brihmans said he had JUOOO {Pardaot 12,000) a day. Bo was 
slwayi! at war. Ho had 40,000 horsemen, whose horses were worth 
*100 to £266 {Fardaoe 300-SOO) for horses wen) scarce, -100 
elephants, and some dromedaries. He was a great friend of 

■ BftdMr'a Vwtli«inm ISO. 'TulliMiut, lS1-12t. 

* Vwrasma (Bxlgvr, lAl) Botio«d at Kalikat a verf gmt nambar of marohsiita I 
BaUuols or ShatlwI. 

* BMdgor'M VarthciDa, 110-13). Mr. Bsdgcr tain theas d«t>i]> aa n 
fiwt)iul,tlMtMKir«ir. Itiatmctbat VnTtliniiin, vrkowaatfavdIlBjHNila. _ 
fiathaoala b«lor« k« laontiona ChiUJcuI, Aiijidiv, oi- HoiiA^'kr. It ia k1>o ti^o ' 
inakM Ui« «U«f of Chitftknl mbieet to the king of llaUuoala. Still tk* want of » \k 
tlia tnib vp tba ri*«r, tha vailed ton-n, tiw lihcnom bo Kalikkt. and Uio dr* T 
from tbe Deocac, all anil Biutkal, uad do not rait Butkol «ove mu Kinrir. 



■ "s, and tiiQ Portngucse did biio mocb bononr. He woro » 

gijj lirtJc«do, ani3 wlieu ho went l« w*r a quiltod drcun of 

with on ovor-trftriat-Ul full o( gDlJun pia8t^(^s nnrl liutig with 

Tbo or; od }iia liiirtte woru wurlb iihito thmt an 

cily. Ht:- I with thn* or tour kiti^, niaiijr lunlM, ami 

or MX thuua&nii bnrsA. The men of coodilion wore clotb of 

oa their hu*A aod n abort sbirt ; their foct were bure. Tbo 

peopW wore n&kcd except a cloth rouud tfio middle. 

elhii^ was evoiTwhcro snfp oxcopt io some places from lioua.' 

LkU reTiuvr of India hi the time of tbu ustahlishmont of 

powpr on tbo KAimni coa^t, Fiuns iiientium Unor tbut is 

' and BaLKadv that ih Bluitlui.1. liu uLto ou-'otiuoa tbo river 

dIa tbat U Chitakol opposito AaijkliT.* 

1206 the Sahsia, that ia Tusuf Adil ShtUi (1480-1310} of 
j^kpor,* Aont Ik dcub ut liixty biuI ugiiiuat Aujidiv undur u renegade 
Wexaspteaa Antonio FiTuaudu, who had taken the Muitalm&u name 
tl AbdaUa. Tbo I'ariagnuito aurrinouj whose commaadcr rraa 
hvioqin B noble GeDOUM, though ill -equipped aod takf-n by 
wprtM, dofoudcd tbo uUjid vrith such g&llaotr)' that Abdulla with- 
draw. Alnieitia, the PortogoeJW Tioeroy, »oeing bow liable it wa^t to 
itttek and bbw laree a garnsou it required, orderxxL tho Anjidiv 
bo bo dcstmjod.* In 1508 Portug'uase shipa ore oicnliontxl as 
t0 ffot clot'p« fit BatioAla or Bhatkal, a lortrMs oinoty miles 
of UtMi.' In thift jeur the Portu^uoee were tbreuU-ued hy tho 
.ftaets of Egypt and Gujnr&l^ and they are said to have owed 
isja limvfy uewa of the movemeuta of the E^ptlau Qcut. 
tiio doso of I50t) tho Egyptian and Gujardt llects dofeatod 
igiieso at tha mouth of the Chcul rirer. Though 
>noU8 ibey suffered severely, and partly from the well-fuuiidt'd 
of tho Gujariit king that Uiu Egyptians were likely to 
not loss dangerous enemies than the Portuguese, the tk-elji 
jw to I>ia and in February 1509 were totally defeated by 
^'■rtu|fae«e viceroy Doui Luiz d'Almeida. In reward for his 
: loess in warniugthKni uCtbeiuovements of the Kgyptian fleet, 
iik: rurtugnese agreed to help IHrnmaya to attack his rival tbe chief of 
BhaiVnl. Whoa the Portngiiese reached Uouavar ttiey found that 
ib' " was over and their services were not reqitireil. Kiug 

^. 'vati detul and bis tioa KriKhnn (1M)8-154^), after bis 

ie;l . .. ' :i.badcoinet<iGokam to weigh hiinaelf against guld. Ont 
'^•f r- <> j: uirtboir orer-lord tbo rival cbiefti bad stayed their quarrel* 

bita Rdya snooeoded in 1508 and ruled apparently till L542. 
ling to one account be was a younger son, and ucconiiag to 
Ifaor acoonnt au illegitimate son of Narsingh. The mother of 
%be eld«r boo. ia aoid to have porsoadod ^arsingb to order Krishna 

Ghapin TIL 

1190- 13 


I BhI^w'i Vftrtlirais. 130. 131. ■ Kmt's ToyignN. VT. 83, 8& 

* Puik kDcw tbiiC ifaje origin ot tho Mi Adil title S*bayo, Itinl i* Kavai. wu Sktb in 
nnate vbcic Yiuul ibe foontkr was brousbtup, Ecrr, A1. 130i comtuuD Bi-icgt' 

*Owt«ii|)ti<i> tn K«rr, VI.9| BmUIwum, QS, (K. Ed tKa IIum V«}i>gce of Vmoo 
dUfiaiBA, D. U3I, a nying of AlnnicU'B u i^aot«d, *I tiuiH Uie nMle uf Kuciuur ssd 
iilliiiiilliil Autidiv.' 

* CumnMntsnee of Dslbniiiania*, 1103 IMi.iiMfiltButiotj. 

• 810-14 

{Bombfty Gonttoer,- 




Soya's deatli, but liis )ifo "wait !tarei3 by IiU fntlier'a miniiiter Tii 
Rija whoso talents aftern'ards addod greatly to the succeaa of 
Krishna RAya's reign.* 

OfKrislioalUya'Brula in KAoara Biidiaiuui records the followhiff 

at Biiidara or Seduiir, dated lo23 (S. 1440) in tlie time of 
Deraradu AVodeyar Il^ja of Saiighilopuni, tlio son ot 8ungtt Biiya 
Wodeyar, an unucr-lord of Krishna U^ya, the chief of rdj^ in vrealth, 
a kin^ equal to Pai'meshvar;' a grant to tho viUiwn BccnantunC 
of Gokarn d»tcd 1529 (S. 1452) by Muhuinaiidaleshvar Kiishaa 
Dovaraaa Wodoyar, king of Vijaynnngar, HaiTa, Tulara, sod 
Konknn ;* ut (iokani a copper-plate laud grant dated 1627 
(8. 1150) by Krishna lUya* and in 1539 (S.I-Wi2) at BhAreshvar 
ftboat six miles aoiuh of Kumta a frraot by Krishna Derarasa 
Woduyar Trilochia.* According to Mr. Rice, probably at no time in 
the history ef tho south did any of its political divisions equal i 
extent and power the Vijnyaoagap of Kmlina lUya. About I5~ 
ha serorety defeated the Muhacnmadans, and for long afttjr I 
defeat a good nnderstanding prevailed between the courts uf 
Vijayanagnr and Bijdpur.' He kept possession of all the omntry np 
to tho Kriahaa ; eaetirards he captured Warangal and a^ci^odud Co 
Cuttack where ho married the daughter of the chief. He was & 
great patron oE Sanskrit and Telugu literature and bad eight po«t 
at his court." Besides being a succesBful warrior Krishna i« belu'vel 
to have made an execllent land Terenne settlement in Maisur aad i: 
theKamiltak. Buchanuu mcotioos the tradition,* and, in support of 
it, records that r^veuuo papers in the po&session of a Bnifatnan 
accoontaot at Gokam shu^vod a revenue HoUloment in lands near 

■ Mr. Ric* (Uyimrv. 1.231) nobimMa minni HtflitMiIly t)):it in Kruhnt'f ^raata 
nUW of Ac-hjrnU R&jn alao occnrB. He nivrDii tn int line tii tl^c oj'tnioB tluA li 
mwinTtfnrtrt Prrihni lfi]m Aoonlinti bi Dr. Hdnir-ll, Kri>hiin>r«ignaHl«)iB I 
ud AoliyaU ruled Iroia UM t« IMS. CUdwcUV 'L'tiui«v«Uj. AB. Om «f fiacbuiMt' 
inacriptioiu iriven to the text, if kccitrkto, ulinwn [hat KruliiM wft« tuliuxiB I 
(S.I4fe). -■ 

* Hyaoni, III. tOIt. 




I My«ore. III. 171. 

Sonitliitarntn in the moilcirn Hailimli, ahiiint tvolv* milo* 
HyKTC III. 171. ' My^oTT.. m, Hi8. 


• Sryww. III. IM. 

^Of thia great rw lory tho Portusnnc hiiitcimci F»n»-jr'Jliia (Kerr. V'l. ITO> gt 
" lani 


the follunriitg <l«t«4U. In JM(\ KnibtUM'lo. kin([ ot V'ijnyaiuigiir, cvllcctcd 35,000 ho 
73O.0U0 foot, ud ms «l«Bl)Mit« witli 12.000 wftl«r.«wn«n Mid 30.009 djincins-girli^ 
N^ovt'T tb«|ir«>t«Mtl«oi RMboJ, that la )U)«)iut, which BijA^nr likd Uk«a froni hi: 
AdilSlulhcanu)tor«li«*«B*iehui. tiotwaiidpreUM) and forcodtoty, forty PcMngui 
kk tiknmrflgliting with great valour. K rinluiarao pri w wd tlw tiif» bat with Baaue 
oau till Uhiu<ophordo Fl^uureduand twnoU I'ur|.ii)m«ec«mcw>tnhi>rMa. Ftiinenda 
■ikoil tbo king ilba atiehlatbeiiiiittoManuftUio f»rt. KriiihnAria apt«d uiil tlie 
■Mond wNault iMing well backed by tbo V'ijftTkiwgar trpop*, wm faooowfal. Soon 
kftar Adil SbiUi MUt ui smhany to KnaliruuAo^ ukiog f<yr tlie rMrfentian of prisooct* 
and plutidar. KritliiunUi agreed un mmlitioD that Adtl Shlh would aeknuwUilgv hia 
aa|ir«iDa aatkonqr U Bm|ienir ui Klnuu aad oomo to kiw his tav/U. Thia dii|in>liiig 
conditioii waa aooeptod Iwt ita imfonnaaiie wu dabjwd. MMUwhila Ray do Mclu 
wlio Gomuaodod in tioa, taktug advaatogo «f tke doouoDof Biilinw pawsr, to«lt pan 
(A tA« conntrv near th* iale of Oca. 

* Biee, I. 230 ; "nnMYvlly Manual, 4S. Accordina apmrsntly t« iiMcriittlaaw (Kw)*^ 
Hyiora, I-S30). KnaluiaoonqwrMlaa lu-u Silnotto. Tlii^ ronrt maaa the Portnyni 
fnaaeaaion* in Ooa. Oos EUlaette formtriT includi'd x tnuch lonnr tnwit af loud ' 
tt DOW iacJudaa. DcO.DaCuiha. SMbvtowp.II6.llS, *>Jyaoc*, L 2fi&. 

and tha%._ 


BCijin which, accordiug to trnrlition, Juteii from Uio tliiio of Kdalina 
-Riy*.' An ioBcnption near Balagimve, across Ibo Miiit^ur bonier 
from BaoBT&sij recordH that tk« Kuveromeat dcouuids &oin tba 
oouDlrjr belwcttD Nagar and Voreua liod boon setttod by a Jaia 
officer durinff the reigu of Knsbtta Rdyara.' Mr. Kioe also noticos 
that the Vtjayanagar Icings introduced a regular a^^stom of land 
iVTcnne into Mikinur,' and from the inqDirios bo made on itklDg 
posstisaion of Kiiiiara in 1 799, Sir T, Miiuro camo to the coDcltisioii 
thftt under the Vijayanagar kings Kiluarft enjoyed remarkablo 
prosperity. Land waa Ta] liable and much sought after.* Mr. Rico 
quoted from n paper in the Mackenzie Collection the foHowiog 
•lOcoaut of tbe revenue roanafement of the Vijayuuagar territory : 
To iinpruTe the r«renue the Grovemment advanced money to nmnll 
lAodholders that they might add to their stock and spread tillage. 
They ropaired ponds and water-chiuinels and dag vrelln. Thoy 
Ifranled leasea to heads of villages and helped (heOito induce people 
£rom nelghboaring Htates U) .<uitt1» a.iid till wa.<^t« liuidit. The growth 
of articles valaed in trade was encouraged. Seeds and plants were 
pmcurcd and the people wexo tauyhb how to grow sugar, indigo, and 
Dpiiim. Traders were eaeouroged lo settle by the grant of advancee, 
Kiul io timea of peace Che Btate cattle wero used to carry grain from 
outlying parte tu trade centres.* 

Though at Unit he neiims to have been less well di^poicd to the 
Portagiieae than his Father, Krishna R&jm malutaiued friemllj 
ndatiuns with the Portnguesa It was beyond doubt greatly owing 
to Portogiiese horsee, weapons, and artillerynkeD thai he woe 80 
■BooeBsFul in hij: wars with Bijilpiir, tbe deadly enemy of PortugueM 
ixnver. Towards the cloae o£ 1508, the year of Krishna B^ya's 
aacceKAiun, the great Afonso Dalhoquerque, the conqueror of Goa, 
Onnux, and Malacca, and the estublisher of Portuguese snpremacy 
ID the eastern seas, came to India. Almeida, the former viceroy, a 
great warrior and lover of power, was very uuwilling to make war 
fur Datboqucrqno and ho did not actually become viceroy tiU. 
November lo09.° Soon after bis arrival Tiinniays of Hou&var 
vaitcd 00 Dalboqnenjuo and tried to induce bint to attack Goo.' 




^ Uniot tliu Mttlciaent gvrMimwat ML wM-tialf of tbo Mtimatad pnidiiM of 
gudeaia And otw-fanrtU of n«« Und. Tkol* WM ft aliop-tnx kiid no Iiouau-Ui. PrwHM 
■Mimed to liave tieen raneh tbe Mma at tiiii time at tiie MttU^iKmi m they w«re ut 
IBOa IIULliMftu. III. 171,172. ' Budiauftni Mjnorw. III. 2»<. 

* Kioe'i Mymrc. 1. 471. * Munra to Bovd of lUvtuuc. Slat Uay 1600. 

■fUra'a Uyrniro, I. 479 -4001 Tbe truth of thu»«oauat may p«rb»|i< bttdiNibtwd, U 
I vlutcly t<j c<?iTvapoaa to wlwt Biahop Caldwvll dMcribca (TiDueiell; Uanaal, 6S) 

— nui aUMKly t-j oiTVBpoiaa to wUMi ItniKtp l^aiowtfii oweniw \ hpuctcuj mm w i. oa; 
■be b«Kiamns«f tba pnaut «Mtan ■ ad attrihiitiaff b) ati wrly ruUr tlM obanct«riatia 
ami aau of a mmI ngllik CullMtor. Wbathar Biahop tWdwelliacorractM- nolia 
hk cattnMt«o(lfaeM^|>cn, Bir T. Monro Iim ahown ItoyooU dwubt (UI«,I,fift) that 
W»Y nmknte ranta wore iatrodnceit iuto E^utra oarly in ihf faiirU«ath century 
mrui wcFB not r»i«cd till alter tlic ovi.rtlin>w ol Vijajruiwar pnwer. Tho Kiunara 
rvtM ^■■m to bare Iicaii liio) •pccball)' low bttcjtuio of tba oiSculty o( tho ooilIiU>', 
lb(tiau.iiupfronibMil'<iuaft«r«,aii<l tliaturbiiilnnaaotitapaopte. In the neishtwur- 
baott of Viiayaaanar tbe Uad rat«i wer* maoh hig^et (Mouiob LUe, 1.03,94]. 

TwiniuKwr. , . . 

*Co«i.D>Ib. Il.fiS. FamfKerr, VI. 129) dcacribt- Timmiiy* aa a.i»wCT*nl p«m«a 
wbu wsa anxigtia w be fiiaoilly with Uic Ptfrta^uQW beoauM lk« bad bo«a vpoiled of hu 




Chapter vn. 


At the close of lf>09 or early in 1510 Dalboflaorqno nmt two smt 
sailom to kiiig Kriatina at Vijajanr^ar, Frey \m\z a Prancia 
friar and Gasper Chanoco, pmposing ao offcnsiTe and defensii 
league ogiuuat Yiisaf Adil SL^h of Bijapur, offeriog n moaopoly 
the horso trado betivefln Ortnaz and fituitkal, and askicg leare to 
build a fort at Blmtkal.' 

In 1510, Trbca Afontto Dalboqncrquo was at HirjAn on bis irajr tO 
' Sokutra in the hope of dofltroring the power and trtido of iba Turks in 
the Hed Sra, ho tvaa mot \>y Timmaya who dissuaded biu from KXii»ff 
to oeek the Muora at Sokotra wueu holiad tbem at hand in Goal* 
Yasaf Adil Sbnh was doad and Ooa irasdead with him. The place 
waji uut Hlruiig, tbc defenders were few, the Portuguese Seet could 
easily was the G oa bar as there wag twenty-ooc feet of vater at high 
tide. Iq cousacjiieDce of Timmafa's advice Dalboquerque changed 
his cour&o and bore down on the castle of Chit&kal (2»th February 
1510). As they were casting anchor Timmaya came with thirteen 
boats nnd a largo body of men from HonAvar. Timmaya renewed 
his asflurance tuat the king of Goa was dead, the place pool 
ctefondod, the garrison in arrears, and the people disoonteotJ 
DaJbuquerque culled hia captaiua and they agreed that Goa shot 
be attacked. Timmaya Rent men by land who foil npijci tlie fortr 
of Chitakul in which was a commandant and a body of men. ~ 
fortress was on tho bank of tho river which divided Hon^var 
Goa. The garrition fled and Timmsya's men threw down part of 
fort, set 6rc to the buildings, and carried off some pieces of nrtilli: 
which the Turks had plated there.* Ou tho Islof March (1510) 
Portuguoae captunnl tho fort of Paujim clnee by the cnt 
of tho Goa bar, and two dnya later the town and fort we 
fiarrundurud without further struggle.* Within a ytiar or two bcforo 
its capture by Dalboquergne the strength and importauce of G( 
hivd greatly inorcaaed. According to tho PortugncflO tniToll' 
Dnarte Barbosn, who was Tninubely acquainted with tho west ct 
oE Indiii between 1500 and 1.')I4, the Sabnyur DolcAni, that 
is Tusnf Adil Shah (U80-15I0) of Bij^pur. was rory fond of Gj( 
and at one time thought of making it his heiul -qnarters. \JiiC 
him it waa a great place of trade with many Moors, nhite me 
and rich merchauta, and many great gentilo merchant)!. To 
good port flockod ships from Mecca. Aden, Onnuz, Cambay, 
^e Matabdr country. Sabnyur Uelcani lived much in Oon 
kqit there his cnptain and men-at-annSj and without hia leave no 
one wont out or in by liiud or by doa. Tho ttjwn was large with 
goodly buildings and handsome streets and a fine fortress. There 
wero many mosques and Hindu temples. After the defeat of tho 
Egyptian fleet at Din in 1 509 Sabayur colled all tho RumiB, that u 

a Con. Dalb. U. In. ; O*. Port. ni. 28. Mr. lifaofc calla GMper, Mi« of 
atntNUudord, a converted Jew of BhfttluL If thii is oonvct lieunilwbly wm 
J«w •dminl u( Cob who wm takes by Vaxm da Gnma iu 1499 awl niidta a Chnit 
■anAtr ih» ii«ni« wf Owtp«r. (S«o »baro p. IM). To th* cuailiUuna aienUoiDed in ___ 
text ^Ir. MAck addt & provitMA tlwt Krulm* shoolil iliow (axwu (o tba ChriOtu 

> Pari* in K*rr. V[. 129. 

■Co<n.D«IU U.86. 

' Uun. Dftlb. IL 80, 91 ; raria in Kerr, VL 131. 




TarltS and U&rotlakcr:, to htm snd treated tliom with great Iionoor.' 
Be bopod Titb tlioir bulp to defeat the Portugese. Mach moDcy 
mui coHoctod, grent tifaipe and liandsnmo I-'iimpeno*like f^llcjs and 
llrigautinas frore bailt, and mach urtillc>ry of bniss and iron n-os 
prepared. A^'Wd tku prcp«u-ktioDs ircro tfcU advanced they set oat 
uaa look all native cmft tlmt plibd under a Portiigneso -pMn.' 

After the surrender of (roa UaJboqnerque made liberal arrange- 
Sncntti for tlif land revcnnc, reducing tlu: amnutit by fifty per cent 
*ad «titrii£tiug the colltiuttuu to Hindus under Purtngoese suporri- 
iiion.^ In April be Bopt Diogo Fcrnandtw de Bejawitli 200 men 
to rebnild Chitakul and remain there. But Biogo fonnd tho fort 
\oo ruined to bu bold and went buck to Goa.' Before two months 
■were over rejKwIs reached Goa that AJil Shfih bad collected n grmt 
mimy for the rucovot^- of Goa and that tbo advance guard 'waa 
adrtwly cloae at hand. In May 1510 the main body of the HijApur 
army entered Goa territory by the paHS of Agdshi.* Tbo fort was 
attacked and nft«r a eicgo of tweuty^onc days Dalbocjuerque was 
forced to withdraw to his shipe,* 

Abont this time a letter reached Dalboqner<|Qe front king 
BeiRarr, pprhapa RaRvmrA] of Germppa Haying that king Kmboa 
hftd wriMen that Bijdpur was seeking liiH alliouoo sguiust the 
I'orluguc-w; that Krishna bad refused saying that Bijtlpar bad 
robbed ium of Goa and he was delighted that hia friends the Pm-tu- 
ffoese ebonld bold it; that he meant to help the Portugiicso to keep 
Uio place ; and that lie had told tbo Gei-KipiJii chief to give the 
Portugut;£« any uii&ifltanoe bo could. Tbu Gursappa chief declared 
Itis readiness tu help the PoHuguese with hia own body and vritb all 
tttc rosonrces of bis kingdom/ 

Timmara had hoped that when the Portagnese took Goa they 
^^ ' ml it to him. To this Dalboqnerque would not agrco, and 

ti. . treated bim with courtesy and made him tbo chief mui 

is the kingdom of Qoa, Timmaya wuh dinappninted. And when he 
■kw tbot as aooD m the maio body of the Bijapur troops entered 
(joa the bad to take to their ships (20th May 1610). ho 
began to donbt whether he had boon wise in allying himself witli 
theni> He wrote to king Krishna to nay that if be brought a strong 
forcti be and cot the Portuguese would bo maetcrs of Qoa.* After 
ikbiiiidoning the fort of Qott the Portugutwo spent tho r€«t of June 
luid [jartuf July in the^ir Bbips in tbo Gon river. On the 21st- of July 
JLhiHKM}nort)uu attempted W cross tbo bar; but it was still too 
tUirmy and ha waa not able to leave till the l&th of August '** At 
wutfiel, en tbo day tboy started, the Portuguese were cheered by 





* Bwai, properly aa iahabilaDt uF AaftboUa in Ama Uinor, In tliia cug U KluDcluko 
■slkar tliAD Tarlt. Tbsr« wwo Buro[>i<ui« at the Egy^tiiui iloct at Diu u Uiq 
ArtuBM* fooDid book* io l«tifi, Itelian, uiil PurliiuTiBw. f una in Korr, VI. 1 19. 

•StMUy". (tarha**, 7* -77. 'Com. Dalb. II. 127. * Cow. D»lb. IL 133. 

■Cnm. Itan>. II. ISft. AoconUiiff to ¥*.tu. (Kerr, VI. 133) oiw dttadimaiit of Uie 
BiApDr mrray «k« Dnnunanileil l>y The mather *ud womcii of lb» fiijipor king who 
■BkinUineil tlicir U«op« oat of tli« gAiBD of 40DO oroatttutM yrixo foUowml tbo army. 

• FarU ii> Kurr. VI. 133. ' CwBi. I>^b. U. ISB. 'Coin. Dalb. II. 105, lOG. 
*Coia. Valh. 111. 34, '^V<m. Dalb, II. czxvi. 



fBombuy Qu«t 



\43bkptM VXL 


£alliag ia with ftfresh fleet of five vessels from FortDgal, and togot 
BQcliorcd at ^njidiv on tlie 17th An^unt,' Dal1)oqat>rr|[ie gailed _ 
to Hou&vur on tUc IDth. At Uou^var lie fouud Brae A'^ieira, tlia 
oiEccr be bad pbiced in comiDaiid of Clijtokiil, wlio, n-t he could 
rctura to Qoa ou accoaat of the Bij&par anuj, had made bis wa 
by land to Hoadvar. TimmaySj who was also id Honivar, 
OD board with the welcome news that as aoon as the Deci'ao i 
bad withdrawn from Goa tbe people of the coantr; bad risen 
driven out tlic BijApar poets. Dalboquerqne Railed on to K&nani 
promosing to return and DQoe more drive the Maaalm&os oat 

In September an eoToy was sent to Bhntkal to maVe a trcnty wi| 
the chief on two conditions, Uie payment of a yearly tribal 
of SOUO bags (84,000 lbs.) of nco, and leave to boild a boiiso fo_ 
a Portngu««a fioctor.' Tbo envoy was also ordoreJ to deliver a 
letter to Timmaya telling him Ibat Dalboqacrquo was making 
preparations Eur Ibu attack ou Goa, that with the help of Timmay 
ancl of tbe chief of Gcrsappa bo was confident of suoc 
ond that be sent two PortogucdC officers and somo PortogG 
soldiers t« captain and support tbe Hindus who were towagewai 
Goa.* Loorcuco Alorciio, Dalboquerque'a envoy, fonnd the Bl 
chief dJsiuclioed to accept Dalboqnerque's proposed treaty, nsj 
that he ooold do nothing without the leavo of tho Vijaynni 
king. Timmaya and tbe Gersappa obief, on tfae other band, 
bosy making roady and intended to help the Portngoese in tbei#3 
expedition against Goa.' Tfats news reached Dalboqaerqae at 
Krtnaiiur early in October.' When preparatioDB were completed, on 
bia way north to Goa, Dalboqucrqoo called at Hoaarar, and waa 
there met by the chief of Gersappa and TiinniHya who, accordioff 
to one aeconnt was being mamed to the daughter of tbe queetij' 
Dalboqnerque explained to them big determination to regain Q< 
and expec'tod TtiomBya to accompany him. But on tboir 
north at Anjidir they found that Timmaya held back." Towi 
tbe end of November Dalboquerque entered tfae Ooa river and 
the 25tb of tho raontb bad driven the Bij^por troope ont of the cit 
and inland.^ When tbe etty submitted it was strangtbeoed with 
Ca»tle and yielded a yearly ravenno of 20,000 ducata. Tbonj 
much trade with Malnbar, Choul, DiLbul, Cambay, and Diu. aud a 
large trnffic in borBos.'" In this year, apparently after tho sccot 
oouqnest of Goa, Merlao that is UalhdirAo, tbe chief of Bon^i 
waa ousted by a yonngor brother nod retired to his uncle at Bhatli 
Dalboqiierqoe uplicld MalhdrriU) aud sent Hliips to bring bim fr 
Bbatkal and men to moot him at Cintacora that is Cbitakol." The^ 

■ Com. Dftlb. XL t9tl-900. Anotber Kooout (Ditto. Ukxvu.) uyi \hvj ntinxl to 

• Con. Ttftlti. U.SOI.aoSL > Com. Dalb. IIT.«%.Kr7. •Com. Italb. O. 2SS-3SS. 

• Com. Dklbt n. ail. XheM ficupvUuiiiN soafn to tuvo bMu for the Ixmtit «< 
Eriahauar not of Italboquunmi!. • Oqio. Dalb. U. cxxvi. 241. 

• Cod. mil 111. 2 ; F«ha m Rarr. Tt l.V. * Corn. Dftlb. III. S, 7. 

■ TlBUnay* wme too UU to bv vE wrvic*. ilidhaTtio, tbo ncpbcw «f Ub« H«ain 
iihM( w\u> warn in cmnmiiwl of thno rnnrli of l!isuDky*'a, at^Hkr dutuit~'~'~ 
bilOMU. F*ri» in Korr. Vi. U6. v w -v 

'• Sluky'a Svfaan, 74-77. " Com. Dalb. la 26. 



hmihrr tnt>d to stop Manntrr^ on hin wajr at Cftribal, perhaps 
KAiivad or Kiirwi&r, aad at Aokola, but &iiIod.^ At Qoa, on bia 
i^reeiiig- to pay £3000 {Pardaos -10,000) a year, Dalboquerquo 
KOfMinted MalhArrto tnana^r of tbo Goa territory." Before the 
aoneof tfeo yuar O^^*^)' Dal boqnerqne receiTwl letters from Fray 
Ldue at V'ijnyiinagsr. He bad boon well reccired by alt except by 
tlio kinj^- Hu fi>uiid Uie king' collectiox troopa aod itttending to 
•h towards the nv^t coastj apporeotl^ on the lulvice of Timmaya 
__ tbo C>iTKap]ia cbii'f, wbo nad written to aar tbat if the king 
broogtit a Klmn^ forct< he and not the Portngoieae might hold Gom.' 
Tba Inzif; luid bis admora seemed to inclioo towards on alii»DCC with 
Adll Sbih. At leaat they were nnwilliog to oommit themselves by 
■R alluace with tbo Porta^MO. On hcAring bow nubtters atooa, 
Dhlbciquerqnc ordertid Fray Luis to return to Qoa. He opoDod 
Mgottations with Ismail Adi) Sbjth (irilO-1534), as his object waa 
to aam diimeaBiua anianft the native chiefs by offering each of thom 
EMScUiip and a moct^oly of tlic hoi-se trada Ab soon as the news 
oC the aooond capture of Goa {thUi Xuvetnber) reached Vijsyaoagar, 
the king apnt ambassadors to Ooa. Dalboqaerque refused to reooivo 
them asyiug that aa ho bod uo aosner to hie embaesr be could come 
to DO ienos. Hettring from his ambassadors that Dalboqaerque had 
OMKk friondlj offun to Bij&pur, Krishna at once sent a fresh embassy 
to Dm] boqaerqne with power to conclude a treaty of friendship and 
wratifio about the trade id horses. The ambnasadors brought word 
thai Fny Luiz had been killed by a Turk and it was reported tbat 
Adil ^bah had ordered big murder.* Balboquerque received the 
atobasaadtirs gracioosly aod concluded 5 tre&ty with Krishoa. 

la the fnllowing year (IBll). when the affuirs of Goa were in 
order, Dalboqnerqne sailed for Mwlftfcn, and on the 2.jth of Jaly 
I^IP captured tbnt fumous port, theo one of tbo chief centres 
of trade in the east. In l>all)oquonpie*a abscDco Ism&il Adil 
Sh&h attacked Malhdrrio, tho muoagor of the Oou lands, defeated 
kim, atid forced him and TimmayB to fly to Vijnyiknagnr, where 
thej were well receiTed. Timmaj-a soon after died, and Malhfirriio 
became chief of HouAvar and remained utauneh to the 
Fortnguciic.' Thf^ Bijflpur troope continaed to invest Goa till tbo 
JMh of 1512, when, on Dalboquerqne's retorn from Maliicca, 
thcT were driren o«t of tho Portagaeae territoiyJ While 
DnIbo(pieTmie was absent in Malacca (1511 -1512) an ambassador 
CTiino from Vijayanagar «-ith Ga.sp©r Chnnoca whom Dalboquerquo 
had !UPTi( thcrn just bofure le»vmg for Malacca. The arabaaaador, 
Sndicg Ualhoquurqtie had left, returned to Vijayanagar. At the 
dose of I.M2, when tbe affairs of Ooa were settled, Dalboquerquo 
once more sent Gasper to king Krisbiia and asked bim to grant a 

' Cftm. Dfcih. ra. 27. 

» Com. IXilK ?7 ■ 28, Uo w »*y W gorernw of Uw IfMnnbarei, ■ppMently of the 
Ktilnrtnn Af ftnMiBia Uiadtt* *ha in kiwtbvjUJngs (Dmlb. lU. 21) ore dtwirlbed u 
priaaily mnn and upUinn of Hiudui. Aooonfing to Fsrik (Kerr, VI. 136} Timnuya 
«rai oimI* jovvnuir aiul UAdliAvrao wm bt* deputy. 

»Omn D^lb. ITI-M. « Com. D»lb. la viIl ud 39. * Con. Dol^ lU 120, ISl 

• C<F«i. I)>It>. III. 16S. 

'Cora, EMb.UI.aH-«2H>dxtiiL: Fuis in Kwt, VI. 14«. 




1480- law. 

(Bombay Qm 



Sftptcr VII. 


Bouse in niiatlcal, pronjlsing in return to send to ViJAyanacnr 
horees tbttb camo to Goa,. Afoaso did not trust in tiic km^ 
VijaysuagAr, bnt lie had faith id th« cliief of Geniappa, and liad 
told by tho kiiig o£ Purtcgal to strire to keep oq good terms wij 
the Vijay&nagar kiog as he van a. Hindu.' Tbreo days later | 
embassy camo from v ongapur, that is BankjLjKir in DtiarwAr,': 
congratutnte Dalboqiierqne on his saccess at Cioa. The smbaasailc 
brought sixty beautifully tntpped horatis and asked that they mif 
have the tnaoagemeot of the lauds of Goa and that they migbt^' 
300 boraes a year. Dalbo(|uon|uo gare tbem the burses becao 
chief was a aseful ally as bis land was a safe rood to Vijnys 
and his people were skilful saddle-makers.' 

Aboat tho time when Portiigneso power was firmly cstnbHsl 
in Qoo, the Portuguese traveller Cuarte Barboaa gave the fuUowii 
ftcoonnt of KAtiara and of its ovor-lord the kins of Narainf^ 
He calls the coast of Yijayanagar the kingdom of IVIinat that 
TuIavnAd and describes it hs containing many rivers and sea-por 
with much trade and shipping and many rich merchants. I 
mentions four pinces on tho Kitnnra co&st^ Cintacola or Chitaki 
Mei-goo river or Mirj^n, Honor or Ilon&var, and Batecala or Bhatli 
Uhitakal was on the north of the river Aliga, that is 
K^inadi, which Hi<panite4l the kingdom of Deomi or Bijitpar 
the kingdom of Karsinga or V'ijajanngar, Chitakul tras a fortr 
at the mouth of the river an the top of a hilL It belonged to 
Zabayo that is Adil Sluih, and for the dcfenoo of tho conotry 
was always guarded by horse and foot soldiers. South of the Aliga 
in Vijayanagar or Narsinga's territory was tho very large river call 
"hSergeo, wnioh produced a great quantity of common rica Tfc 
Ualabl^ camo in their boats bringing coooanutp, oil, and palm soj 
and taking the cheap rice. Beyoud Mergeo, on another river, 
the sea, was tho gond town of Honor which tho MaUbdbrs callc 
Povarau.* Many Malab^rs oamo bringing cocoanuta, oil, and pala 
molasses, and wi uc, and took away tho cheap brown rice. Thirty mil* 
further, on aiiothor small rtvor near tho coast, was the l&r^ toi 
of Ilatecala, that is Dliatkal, of very great trade, inhabited by vt 
oommeroial Moors ojid Gentiles. Tho town stood on a lovol popolc 
coiintry and was without wails. Tlicre were many gardens round fi 
very good estates, with fresh picntifnl water. The town paid a yearl 
tributo to the king of Portugal, lite governor, named Damaqact 

Erobablv Dharmakirti, was rich in money and jewels. He ciUlo 
imself king but ho i-ulcd in obedience to liis uncle the king of Norsing* 
Many ships gailierod from Ormuz to load very good white rioo, sugar 
in powder of which there w&s much, nmch iron, and seme spices and 
di-iigs, of which myrobalana wery the chief. Formerly many hon 
aadjpearls camo to BatikaU bnt they now went to Goa. In spito . 
tho Portuguese some ships went to Aden. The IhlaUb&rs brougl 
ooooanuts, palm-sugar, oil, and wine, and some drugs ; they took nc 

■ Con. Dalk in. 246-347. 

* BkokApor ia «ix milM Boutl>-«Mt of Shiggacm, tlie he»il-qvuten of tlw '. 
■nb-dlritton ofDhitwU. ' Cora. Dtilb. 111. a«. 

* Hut is Pouavar. B and R cliuis« ncc^rtltiog t« th9 wual K&nartM rule 

Jgmr, and iron. Tbpre wiw mup-h sale of coppor which wivb nsod m 
money and miuio into cntJnuis uati uth'_-r punu, iiuil tuach Hale of 
fpifcksUnr, vermillinn, ooml, nlmn, and ivory. Duelling waa very 
comuiun. On. a4:<;onnt of auj't.biug Ihcy ulmtlenKcd uQU another, 
and the king grnntcKl them anns and n field nnd tixod a timo fur 
IcUIing eaelt otber aud g»vo cuch a iivcoud tu l»Lck Uiti num. Thuy 
fouglit bare to tha waist and below the waist wmpped many fuIiLt 
of entt/>n cloths tijfhtly rotind them. Thwir arios wore swords, 
boriclcnt, jiiid daggprs, 'ITipy entered the lista with great plea»ure, 
fi«t Saving th«ir prnjora. In n few paues thoy killed each other 
in the prejiwico of the kinjf and many people, no one speaking except 
the Kconddj i>aeh of whom onoonragea hia own man.' 

Inland the (^reai range of hilU was fall of wild boarg, Urge dc<Dr, 
kopnrdfl, oaaces, lions, tigers, heara. aud ashy aniinal^ like horwa 
probably bine bnllH. In tho hilly piirts wore several good villageg 
ittth plenty of ivater and delicious fruit. The upland plain was 
fertile and abundantly Bnppiiedwitb many eitie», Tillagee, and forts. 
Hiero wna much CQltiratiuu of rieo and other vegetables and many 
cowB, baffalow, pigs, goats, sheep, afsos, and small ponies. All field 
Work and carrying was deue by bufiTalocs, oxen, asses, aud ponies. 
AlincMt oil Uio villages were of Gentiles with a few Moctrit, aa 
tt>ine of the lords were Jloora. Bijanaquer that is Vijayaoagar waa 
on level ground snrroanded by a very good wall on one aide, a river 
on a scoond side, and a monntain on a third side. It waa very 
Itrgo tUid very populous. There were many large and handsonio 
palaces and widt< streets and squares. The king, a (Tuuttlu uidlud 
RahL'ni, thnt ia U.nyalu, always lived in the city.* He iivixl vory 
tnxnrioualy and st-ljum left his palace. He waa nearly white, well- 
made, aou hud long smooth black hair. The attondanoo on tbo 
king- waa by women who all lived in the palaces. They sang uud 
played and amused the king in a thouBand wnye. Tlidy bathed 
daily and thu king went to see them Imthe aud sent to his chamber 
the on*? that ploAsed him moet, and iho firet son he hnd from any of 
them inberiteil the kingdom. Mauylittcn aud many horaeuicn stood 
at (bo door of the palace. The king kept V'OO (»l«phants each worth 
IiyOO to 2000 ducata and 20,000 horses worth 300 to 600 ducata and 
Home of the cboicost worth 1 000 ducats.' The king had more than 
100,000 men, honw and foot, and 5U00 women in bis pay. The 
women went with the army bat did not fight, but their lovers fought 
tot them very vigoronnly. When the king, which occasionally 
happonicd, went iu por&on to war ho camped at some distance 
frem the ciry and ordered all people to join him within a certain 
nnmber of daya. At the end of the days ho gave orders to burn tbo 
whole city except bis palnccs and aomo of the nnblee' pulaocia, that 
all might go to the war to die with him. Among his knigbU utaoy 

Chapter TIC 


rStanley'a Barimw, 78-81. 
~~ rvla ia the Triapt form ot tho Tamil lUynr, the faoDOtific pinni of BAy or 
II tcvna U> explain .Motor's rcnurk (Nurativc, 183) that tli« ctwtf of Anrgondi 

■ BvIhm'ii juoat ia probubly tho gQltt [ViIm or Pi«oO«. C^inpm Sklgir'B 
VanJiana, 115. 



IBomba; Ouctt 






had coinc from different pnrtH to take Hcrrico aod did not ceoso 
live iu their ovrn orueda. In times of p«u» the cit^ was filled wit 
an iDnonierable crowd of «11 UAtions. There wore ver; rich 
Gentilcii, many Uoorish nierchanta and tradera, and an ioE 
nHoiher uf others from all parts. Tlioy dwelt freeljr and eafdj 
what croed they chose, whether Moor, Chrisliaa, or Gontile. 
gOTeruors observed strict jnatioe and there was an ioliait* tr 
Great quantities of precious stones poured into Tijayanaear, jevi 
from Pegu, diamonds from bhe Peccas and also Erom a VijaTMiatf 
mine, and pearls h'om Ormux and from Catil in South India. Sr 
and brocades wore brought from China and Alexandria and mi 
scarlet doth from Europe, and there was a great import of cot 
ooppcr, quicksilver, vormillion, aafiron, rose-water, pepper, opind 
Baudal and aloewood, camphor, and mosk. The Gontilee of the ui 
like the kinff were fair, well-pruportioued, with good Portugoe 
like features and long smooth black hair. Among the rich, the 
wore a eap of silk or brocade, cloakit of cotton etull or xilk, a she 
shirt of eoltoQ ailk or brooodej a tight wnistctutb of maoj folds, 
aandats. Their bodies were anointed with white sanda}, alocwc 
camphor, musk, and saffron ; thoir oars, necks, wrists, and fine 
wore covered with jewels ; and tbcj wu-ro followed by two 
one carrying a sword, tho other an umbrella of silk with _ 
jewelled fringes. The women, who wcru pn-tty aud of a 

Sreeenoe, wore a robe girt ronad the waiat and tho upper 
rawn over the ehouldcr onJ breajtt Icaring one arm aud shonU 
bare. The head was bar» and uii thuir feet wero wcU-woi 
leaihor BBodidH. Thuir hair was combed »tid plaited uud io it 
many Sowers aud Bcents.. They had nuiubeia of ji>w«ls in the nc 
and cars, and rouud thu nock, onus, fingure, aud waist.* 

When Portuguese power was Brmly CHtfiblished a tribufo in 
was yearly levied from tho small coaslchiefs. The river of Cbiti 
paid 400 to 500 bal«« of rice ; the port of Agrakoua two miles doi 
of Gnkam, 300 bales ; the river of Ankola, 700 bales ; the ril 
of Mirzi, 500 bak-s; the river of Kombatem that is Kumta, 2( 
bales ; tlic chief of lloniivar, 2000 bales, aud thu queen of Bati) 
2000 bulea.* For some years before J*40 tho Gersappa qacen bc 
to have withheld her tribute oh on the 2nd of November of that y* 
tho viceroy Don K«tAvaij (in Gama made a treaty with tho queen w^ 
agreed to pay 2O0O Iwilea of rice a year and 8000 bu)c« for 
tribute. Slie also bound herself uol to export popper.' Two ye 
lat*r (16+2), the queen of Bhatkal withheld hor tribute and 
viceroy De Souza [1542 -1^45] wasted lier territory with lira ai 
eword.* Oo Krishna's death in ldl2 Roma lUja of Vijayauo 
proliably the sou of Timmarija Krishua's miuialer (1608- ISi™,, 
aasiimctl control of the kingdom, though he continued to carry on 
affairs in the name of Sadfiahivu RdyH, Krishna's son or nephew, 
whom he kept in continetnont. KAm Ititju was a strong anil nbla 
mler, whose anxiety to reduce tho power of Bij&pur led him : 


■ Subsi<ri(M Vtn » Hiitoria da India PortuniKHi : TitVm. 1868, P. It «6- 
•Suhmiliot. 11, 237-258. •Mickle'a Lo»Im1, I. clii. 



1517 In ppoposo ftnalliauco with tlie PortugTiese. The great Dom 
Jc4o tU Castro, who was thon Ticcroy, oq the 17th Septomber 
IM7, received the Vijayaaagar ambassador Fmraio^ pcrhnps 
hrabotam, with mtich ceremony and an ftllinnco was oonclnded 
between the ricemy and Sadiahirrfio king of VijayBDagar.' The 
prti\'isioiisof tliiK treaty wore that the Portugnese should soud Persian 
and Aral" hur^t'S to Vij^ynnogar and shuuld not lot horses go to 
BijApar ; timt the king of V'ij»yaQBgar should not allow grain to paaa 
fh>ui hiskingdom or from thu kingdom oEBungnnpnr that iaBiinkApor 
tQ Ubiir^Tar to the couutry uf Ailil ShAh, but that ull grain that came 
for export to Blladn, now in S^rantridi, should be i<&Dt to Uoudvnr 
and AJikola, whero weru Portugaeeo faoton, siid shodd be sohl to 
to 006 hut to Portngueao traders; that tho king of Vijnyanagtvr 
ahi»ald pn-rent saltpotre and iron passitij^ through Obely Itukt in 
Hobli to thtt Bijipur country, and send it to tho Portngiieso factor* 
at Hond»Br aud Ankola ; Umt tho king of VijayauBgar should order 
that all tb^ cloth iLut now came from his country to Bdnda for 
export ehuald be broaght to tho I'ortugaette foctore at HonAvor and 
Ankola, aud nhoiitd there be exchanged witli copper, tin, coral, 
Ti ! mercury, and Bilk from China and Onnil/., and with other 

B". .:-i- from PiirtugsU; that if any Turkish ship camo to any 

Viiftyanagar port sbeltor ehonid he refused, and that if any ship 
entered il ahonid be captured and made over to the Port*igiie80 ; 
that tho PortngQcso and the Vi)a^yaa«gar king shoold togethor 
dccloru war on AdiL Shib ; (hat if land wax taken between the 
Sahy.idrb and the sea, and between Udnda and tho river Chitakul 
or buutakors, it shoald be given to the Portuguese bocnuBe this 
terriioiy foruiprly boloiiged to (ioa ; and that al] otlior htnd that 
might bo captnrod itfaould bo given to Vijayanogar.* 

OF thiit SadlUhirniv, tho auccesiiOT of Kri«hnar£ya, no gnmta are 
ncorded from KKnara, Bnt Bnchannn found at Gokarn, dated 
1&4S> (S. 1472) by Snlva Krishna Deviirasn Wodpyar, thi* son of 
SediWvtt RAya^audkingof Vijayanngar, Hnira, Tulav.atid Koiikana, 
the gimnt to a Qokum tomple of land in the Gua priuoipnlity, in the 
Aahtagr^m of Sashisti.' Ho also records in a U->nipIe at BanavAsi 
so inscription in the reign of Venkatidri Dev MahArdya dated 1551 
(S. l*7-iV and in a temple of DhAioshvor near HonAvar a grani 
dated 1567 (S. 1181) of Solva Kriahoa Devarasu.* After the death 
of Kriahna lUya {1542) (hn power of Vijayanagar rapidly declined. 
Badifibiva, th(>8nn either of Kriahna IWy or of hiH colleague Achyula, 
and hia descendants continued nominally to roign till 1573. But 
they were nndor the power of Rfima R&ja, who is aupwsod to liavo 
boon the aon of Kriahna lUy's Brdhman ministor, Tiaima IWjn. 
At Vijayanagar there was bitter rivalry between HAm Rtija and 
TimmoJa lUja, tho nncio of Sad&shiTo. At laat Tirnmafa was 
defeated and committed suicide^ and It^m R^Ja neizud the sopromo 

Chapter Til 



Da Ctutro, 

' 0» nortnpwwa, VI. (I850f, 28-2(1. » Swh»di<ia, H. 286, W7. 

* Mysore, n t. 171). A>]itagrim i« Aahtamr, Obo oI lh» fivo Portu^cw diviiiana 
or ftack MahOh. Il tici Ui clw MUth of Sauotta aod wm emqicriMl in 17413 by tbB 
rwlncMao vio«n>y Manuel <bi HaKUobA if Alhiiqitrnni* frois th<! Hati>lft chief navOi 
bwdiSMLUliiv. Di. G. ba Cuahk. ' Mraum, UL2»i « Mjwro, UL IM. 



laptor VII. 






power. Ke was aa alile ruler, but big arrognnce brought oa 
the uiiit&d strijuetli of t)io four Mnsitlaidti powers of Bijiipu 
Golkonda, Ahtaaduugar, uud Uedor. Tbis (.-ndcd iu J5fi5 m '" 
complete overthrow of Kiim Kiija nt 1'nlikot, t«n milc-s fi(->iit<h of 
Krixhna hcxlv It&icliur, wliich wus followed by tliu capturt- untl at 
of V ijajanflpir, wlioii booty was obtained t-iiUioiciit to puri«b e*< 
mftn in the ^-ii-Uiriuiis ariny.' Tbougli thu uvcrtbruw uf thy poi 
of VijayaDiigar was comploto, tho jealousy of the two Icndii 
Mu»»]m&n cuufoderuted, tliu Bijiipur nml tbo Alimadiuifn^r knif 
prevented oitber of Iheni from annexing any pHi-t of tlie coDrji 
territory. A yiw after tbe bfttlle, TiniiuiiliL Aiija, Uio brotbor 
lUm Rfija, returned to tho capital, lint failing to rcntnrd it, 
retired to IVnubondn. about 140 milea to thosoutb-east.* Vonlti 
the otbor brolber esUibltHbeiL bitiiflelf at Cbnndragiri iu ibe east 
MndmH Kumitak. A-i late as 1570 grauta continaed to bo issued'^ 
tbe uanie of the nominal Hovopeign of Vijayauagar.* 

Iu 1367, two yenm aftier its sack by tbe four Musalmfln 
of tbo Dcccan, Abinadnaf^r, Bednr, Golkonilii, and Bijiipur, 
Venotiau traveller Ca'sar Frederick *iailtd Vijuyaua^r with aat 
borxo njcTi'lianls from Goa. Accordiug to FVedoriok, tKo count 
for thirty yours before it!) coii(juet»t by tbo MusolmilinR, bad 
governed l>y three tyrant brother.'' lUmnij, Timniariij,iindVenkat 
They bad been cnptaina of the former kinj; Krishna (1508-154^ 
and kept bis -son tho rightful king (SadAsbiv Riiy) in priB _ 
showing him to tho popple once a year. Of tbo tbi-eo bri."<thera 
Ritmi'aj Hat on the throne and waH king, Timmariij vias the 
(joveruor, and Venkati-dv was the chief raptain. At tho battle 
I'alikot in ISGa lliirarilj and Vcnkatrdv were slain, and Timi 
escaped with tbe loss of au eye. Tho wives and children of 
throe brothore, with tbe pricouer king, fled from Vijajanagar bofj 
tho Mukaliurtufi arrived. Tho Moors slnvod in Vijayanagar for 
months, searching under bouses and in all places for inoDcy.* 
tbe Musalm^us wore gone, Timmnrfij camo back and began to ' 

>Rini M\-8cni. 1. 233. 

' Wilkn' Alywre. 1. 61, P«Ugonda is ilMctibed bjr the !t«liiuttnLretlcrK{«otoC 
in 1430, M n very noblv city vl^ht Any* tram Vij^yuui^iir. Unjor'a IniUft in X 
Century. 11. 7. 

* Iticc'a Mrvors, L 233. SadAvhirk wiw saocMtlnl l>r tii* «i>n Sri RMu[a. 
«C4itfna««l U> rale lor wght ■ucOMajgna, when tliigr fieit boforo the Mafclioui* 
niAtiaBi »t Ctuutdm^ri. 8iaye*nUUr, uCliuidrA^n «rHt*k«n by tli« Golkoi 
nniiy. liu lleil to Sira[iiin Nnyftli r>f Rcdimr who Rave hhn ib« gaTcranumt 
S.ikrii,viiutiia. Am-llier mp.inln.r of tJip family iMttiliouial to rule at ABCStiiiili, aci 
tbu rivur (rmn Viinvajinpir, till they weru t!<atro>«i by Tipu fu ITTIi Kii 
iljeore. 1. 234. Mo.*- in 1790 (Nurrativo, 183) n«tieeii that lhc« wu aUl 
souliitivo dF tliv old fwuily at AncgiiDili. i?tw bulutr p. lift. 

*Uftil« «ff««t of thfi battle of Tivliki-it tho P<jrtu)[u««« bistonui Pari»-7-Suxa (K« 
VI. 423) WiftM! 'riui lnul« af lruM% in I.V>fi wu r«<Jiio«<l to a. very lovebb tijr I 
daoUttug mc batween Vi^nyjknatinr xni\ the MaMklinAn kiu^ of tbu Dcwcao. 1_ 
V!jayiuutg>r kins, whowMthi-n tiiiK'ty-nix yran old wuftt lint «iicc«uful, favtj 
theeuil wu ilo'sated uitl alaiii, Th« MuMlniius HfKottive moiillifl iu plnnderli 
ViJAyoiMigmr, ttioush tlic natiroa hml proviniulr curriril nwkv ISIO cl<i[iliiuil-l'-«(] 
of tnotxif fuid jewoU, worth Al>av««iiuii<lr«d mtlltdtia of gi>14, b««ide« lb* royal ili»ic 
whkli wu of inestiiaable valun In bii nbftrt of tb* plnndw Adil Sh&h got k dijw '^ 
u Iv^niH an ordinary «^ with uiuthnr of «YtrtordiD>ry tlz9 Uioagii MnAlLir 
other jcircl« of prodiglotift viilu«. Tfa« TJctvn partiUoiwd Che domtoMnu ol tlu 
fctng among hi* rnu luiii aopbuvrs. 



people Uiecit;, tomptinfi; mercliaals by the promiRO oE great prices, 
fredorick'g liusino^s in Vijs^nngar van over in one monlh, but ho hud 
Id Slav eoreu months (December to Jul;], bocause tlid couulry ffas 
fell ui tbiOTfis who ranged np ftod down. Tha son of TimmarAj 
bad pai to dc&tli tho prisoner kiag, and tlio barons vroald not 
adtnowlwlge liim, so the coimtr}' wns diWtlod and lawless. Tim- 
IHrij's K'n bad retired to the caatle of Penegondc, eight days 
tnlmcd from Vijayanagar. Vijayanagnr thnngh empty was not 
<1..»tp,-,vod. Tho otpcnit of tht> city ws3 twenty-four miles nnij 
the walla were certnin moentains. Tho houses were stnnding, 
tiiE m pvta of the city thtire was nothing but tigers and other wild 
bc-Bi'iii. Most of tho houflcs were pUia with mod wsUs, bat the 
loniplefi and paiaces wero of lime iind fine marble. Of all tho 
kiogft' ooarts Frederick had seva, tho \'ijaTluiagivr palace was tho 
fitiMt. There were live grvut uult<r aud four aioull inner giit<?3, the 
paUco was well fpiardedaii d tho city safe from thieTOe> the Porta^eae 
mercliauta slt^eprng in the ntrcetfl for tho great heats and never 
(T:"' ■ _- rharm. In July, Frederick and two I'ortognceo merchtwuts 
d 'I to iitart for Cloa. llio mcrohants n-oro in palanquinn 

or IiUit: Utl^ri oiirried by eight bc'flrora, aa tho Vcnetiatia carry 
barrows, Kn?(]rrivk was on an ox o£ ouuuauUious puce, aad bo kaa 
a ipcond ox for his riotuals and baggage. As it was winter (July) it 
t«ok tbem £ftcoa days to get to tiiiDCoaat> and the plaoo they reached 
WAS not Ooa bat Ankola in K^laura. iWore ho had cone much 
teiit« than half way, Fi-cdorick lost both his bullocks. 'Xlio victual 
baRook was weak and could not go; tho riding bullock whon 
awiuifuitig across a river loand an iaiand with grass in tho n^iddlOj 
and remuined thvrv and in no wiho ctiutd Fredurlck come at him. 
So in heavy rain ho had to travel eevon days on foot, fortunately 
finding pmpio to carry his baggage. Tho journey was fall of 
troable. Ev(>ry day they wore taken prisoners by reason of tho 
grcei dissension in the kingdom, and uvcry rooming thoy had to 
pay ft noBom before thoy woi-o allowed to leave. Another not 1cm 

EicTons tronblo wa« that when they passod into a new goveruor'a 
id*, which tht*y did overy day, they had to get new money, as 
each local governor thoo^h tributary to Vijayauagnr Btampe<( his 
own coin. Ac length they reached Aukoln on tho aca, a country 
of the queen of Gersnppa, tributary to Vijayanagar. One of hia 
cxunpanions, who had notiiing to lose, took » guide and went to Goa^ 
FrMcrick and hia other friend stayed at Ankoln where they were 
joined by another horse merchant, two PortiigueBe soldiers from 
Coyli'ii, (ind two Christian lett^jr-carriers. Tlie whole party arranged 
I' -;6lher for tioa, aud Frederick went with them in a very 

I" ' , -r|Din of oano with eight bearers. In one of the canu^ of 
lis putnoquin ho hid his jewels. At the mountain which divided 
Ankola from the Deccan, Frederick, who was behind tho ro&l, was 
attacked by eight thieves, Eonr with swords and tai^ets and foop 
witli bows and arrows, llis bearera lied and tho robbers nflcd his 
poUnqnin but did not find the jewels. When the robbers wcvo 
^Bo, tbu bearers camo back and in four days carried him to Gob.' 

Chapter Tit 


1 CMar Froduick In Uakluyf* Vo>'ise*< U. »8, 340. 







For about twontj ycors aiter Dom Joflo da Castro's treaty iQ II 
no reference has been traced to any unfriundltnoss between thf 
people f}i Kinain »d(] the Portuguese. la 1568 or H69 Dom Lai* 
Ataitle be»ieged aiid took Uou^lvar smA. buflt a fortress on the 
Ilondvar riror.' In 1569, itocordiD^ to Feriahts, tho qncon rf 
IIoD&var iiuulo & ttvaty with Bgiijiur and tried to take the Portuguese! 
fort but fftUod.* In I57i>. as part of the gpe»t Icagno of 
Ahmadnagar Bijfipur and Kalikat agaJoiit the PortngacHn, it was 
agreod that OijiipuT should got Go*, HotiAvnr, andBarknlnr . TJia qu««n 
oFGersappajoinedlheleaf^o and declared wnragaiDiittherortDguc:>o,' 
In the history of tho Fortognoso in India there are few mora 
britliaat and succei^Hful acbloveiiicuta than Mascarenbn's dcfcQcd of 
Chi>ul a.i>aii]Mt jShinadnn^ftr, and Dom Lniz de Ataide's defeoco i^( 
Uoa ii^inst llijnpur. Though so hard proased in Oca Dom LiiiK 
was able to Koiid succour to HonAvar and the attack faiUtd.* Id 
ibo foUowing year when the Bijdpur troops had withdrawn from 
Goa the viceroy brought a fleet tx> Hondrsr, destroyed tho Kaliknt 
and Bij&por ships, aad sackcU and reduced to ashes the town which 
was then rich a»id populona The fort after being* bombaniptl for 
fonr days capitulated, and George do Uoim was loft to garrison it 
with 400 men half of whom wcm-o Portuguoso.* During the aUiu:k 
on HoaAvnr, Dom Luiz, who was n man of dauntleaa ronrag©, 
sailed in a brigantine seated on a chair with a fojnous harper bcndo 
him. When tbe balls began to whistle pa«t his ears the harper 
stopped, and Dom Luis askt^ him to play ou as tlio njr was excellent 
One near liim prayed him to toko care of hinisolf. If he were slftin 
all would be lost. 'No such thing/ said the vicoroyj 'there aca 
men enough to succeed me.'° 

In a Portuguese ihap of about 1570, published ia tbe second 
Tolamo of the Commeutarca of Dalhoquerquc, tho only places marked 
iu the K^nara coast are Angediva, Onur, uud Batecalla, atid De 
^no's map, about 1360, ahowa ool^ Anchidira and Botecalk.' Uo 
Barroa describes K&nara as beginoiug at s river called the Aliga 
which mag west from tho SahyAdris, where was a fortress called 
Cbittykula or Sintakura wliicu jutted out opposite tho iainud of 
Anjidiv.* South of Chitakul do mentions Ankola, Egorapen 
(AgrakoDa), Mergen, the city of Hunitrar the head of the kinguom 
of Batokala, and Batekala." Those citioft wore subject to the king 
of Vijayanagar, & powerful king who next to BaluUluT of Gujar&b 
(I526-153(J), was the richest ruler in India. Abont 1584 there aro 
two rofcrcnccs to the pirates of the atid tho Alulubir coasts 
who with varying names seem under a succession of chiefs to hava 
eotttinuod to harass trade. In 15S-1 tho pirate chief of Soi^moshTBr 
iu Ratndgiri was so troublesome that BijApur and tho Portugaeiia 

* T««traMW>da Huqtm Alonuk, Mova Goo, I85R, 9, 10; Br^ggfi Penabia, IK, 
W>, 0X1. Aooording to Fariabta tbe I'nrtuffiicm luiil s fleet of 130 ml khi) aOOO 
EnnoMU twttdw nsilTeit =* UrigH* Furivbta, III. 620, S2I. 

•FiLfiaittKwT. Vt. 427. * Faria In Kerr, VI. ■137. * OBfurtnguoaWiVI. 

• fUri* ia Kerr, VL 45. ' Uobon Editiou of 1777. 
*DecadasdallainM,FintD«c. P. II. 903, Liabon 1777, Book IX. Cb«P«.lNid; 

■DMsdaa, U. 310. 



'lOBtriood ftgninst hint, Bijdptu* dostrojnng hU Intiil force ancl tlio 
Fbrtn^oae his Hoot of pirate vesspls.' On tbo MulnbAr ci>€i3t, iiaiier 
aUasiUinan csaptaln Kboja Ali. the Kayersdid the Portagaase maoh 
iajury. Tb«y raoged all tbo coast from Ceylon to Ooa four or fire 
bOBU together each wtUi Gfty or rixty men.^ 

Toward? the cliitio of the sixteenlB century (1590) Jean Hticjlioa 
de Liowjhut mfutions a Portagneso fort at Houiivar.' It yioldod 
nuirh pepper, 7000 or 8000 Portaffuo&a quiiitAuz a year, which 
WM hold to b« the beet pepper in India. Too ralcr of the country 
««« the qaeen of Batikala. She arranged nith the factor who 
lirad »t Uoo^rar, but the pepper had alwnys to bo paid six 
anntha in adraoce. liice also grew in abondaace. For the rest 
BoaAvKT WM seldom Tisitixl except when the shipB were lading. 
The inde was formerly isinaJI hot of lato had increoaed. Id 15^ 
Police iirevile, in tha jfetnoir which 8Hpplie<l the inforinnlion on 
which tha meAsores nf the first Kng'licsh Eiasb India Company wcro 
InMd, raoQttons the queen of Batikala selling great store of pepper 
lo Ibu Portagueae at a town called Ouor which thoy hold in har 

Tho graat leagnf at^nst the Portuguese in 1570 shows that 
Abmadtiagar and Bij^pur wore ablo to overcome tho riralry 
which bofl saved the \^ijayaDBgaj' dyuiuity from entire destruction 
after tbo battle of Talikot. In 1573 their advance towards friend- 
&MB w«nt further, and ihoy ugrccd that Ahraadoagur t^hould 
•Ofiqiurrnutwardsaad Bij&par southwards.^ Rijiipnr captured Adoni 
near BellAri and its supremacy ia said to have been ackuowlodged 
along the west coast from Gua to Barkalnr in 8onth KAnara." This 
i« supported by the agrcumont already noticed between Ilijilpur 
and the qnean of Qersappa. But though they may have received 
tiibale, the local evidcucu kcciiis to muke it doubtful that Bijdpur 
troopfl actually overran aud held the coast distrintH of Kiinara 
bebiro the beginning of tbo aovontconth century. The local Hindu 
chiefn continued for a time to acknowledge ihc supremacy of the 
Vnayanogar kinga, By dcgroca those of power and energy 6ot 
mile the shadow of control and declared themaolves iudepenaent.* 


) F«ria in K«rr, VI. 46.1 

* fUXah rit«h in H.-iklnyfa VuyAgos, It. 3^ Pynud Ad L«v>1 » fcv yean lutar 
wtatK pGDO) : Dttrintc tlie nix )URiinur nuutlw the UaUhlit pjrata ccnoo not U) ruam 
atteekim; l'orbi|pia»e ain't ln<liMi iHwita^ Thvy aro great fiirhtcra unl buftt Uia 
Bgnxuptrae oftvncr Ut&a the FortuguMo be>t tti«m. Voj^jftm, 323. 

* tiaritBtion. 21. Th« (iueoub ^glish cnM&in Davis ftboot the sune tinie (UOO) 
■utttioo* Uuntrar m » ohlef [itave of Lrade. Vo)->g«a, 130. 

• Uruce's Anoali at the Kut Inilik Compiuiy, I. 12,1. 

■ Briiup' F«ruhta. ITI. \7ir: • Kiuo'b Mnorc I. ?3R. 

' ^cbMan (MyBurv.lII. I'JAI notiooa tliat thu lluidiiE p1m:« Ihv fall ot Vijayo- 
DA^U twentf y«Ar« Ut4;r th«n th« Ma*klinlin>, that in nboiit 1.'>SI. A VijAyuiuptr 
riMruy ouatmaeil si 8uritiva|iatkin Ull lUlO (P.ioe'M Nfyton^ I. 3S4), and tti« Ikkarfnr 
Vmiam diiela irent on (tyliiig IbMnnlvei unilcr-lorib of Vljmynaiig^r till iLtmut 16S0 
IDitfa^ 343). A rejmaeDtativeoif tlicokl ViJayiuuKBr ViiiKS uouIiuuihI tu hulit a Htnill 
ierntort rvunil Anejiuoili till iiu«r tlio cluiw at iIm «>KKtBUiith oenturr. H« vaa 
(cucraUy kaown ia the Ducosii 1^ tbu tillv of Rnj'il. Tlitj biul « miut at Auegnudi 
•ad » ^enrly ilKsame «f «bo«ii CiSfiOO (Ra. tl.&Q.UHl). TImt won said to pontM a 
Rgut<r of tlie rei-t-Iuticrnn wliieb liad hn]>pon«d within tM UiniU of th«ir fonnar 
■nplra. %!aor'« Nuratlv*, 183. Uudei tlie luiaie »( Atpatoii, ajipari'iitlr tho tritf . 

[Bombay I 





1000 - leio. 


Of tlie local families which ro90 to povcr in K^nars, one, 
Soudft or Sudhn nliiefs, were in the oorthof the dietrict, and two, t( 
Jain chiof of Bbntkal and the LingiLyat chiuf of Ibkeri, iroro in. 
south. Frohnhly from about 1270 the EJonda or tjadha chiefs 
tribnto to Bijilpur.' Buchanaa gives on account of the faniily of t| 
Sudha or Sonda chief, which ho received, from the prieab of 
Sonda family. Ui; correctly duacribes it as true but ioaooc 
According to the tnieiBt of tho t^udha chie^," in the time of 
Vijaynaa^nr tiof^ Krishna }t4yara (t50S -1542), upland Kfti 
belonged to local chioftaina of the Kadamba family who were Ji 
by religion. Krishna'x fathE-r, who was long chililless, pnimiited 
enoccssionto his sister's son Arsappa Naik, Aftorwards, when sol 
were bom, Krishna ninde Anmppa rulur of Sonda.* Ho ruled 
1555 to 1508, contiauiug to pay allugiauco lo the dofeated prii 
of Vijuynnagnr. lie is dvsoribod aa driving out tho Joins 
bringing Havi^ Briihmans, frooa belovr tho bahyAdrie, to occui 
waste tanda. Buchanan rocorils two gninta of thia chic! : One i 
ft slono found at BanavfUi, datod 157S (S. 1601), iu the reign 
Imodi Arsappa Naika uf Sudha j'* the second on a etouo 
the Terihidi monastury at Souda, dated 1592 (S. 1515) sty 
Arsappa KAja of Sudha by tho appointment of Sri Vira Pr 
Venkatappnii, who is givon all thq tith-x of the Viiayunagar aoi 
reiffne,' For thrco more succcs.sionB tho SndhA faniily cootinned 
bold 09 feudatories or N&ika, probably of Bijikpur rather ihAn 

Anegnndi ma Aevcrihtd by lunmttt about 1790 u a iiain)>«r of ragged hilli m*< 
with tompUn. It had bovu DDclruMH] bv n wall KboQt «iglit mile* ta ciirumteret- 
Sereral atraota thirty tolurty-liTe ]r«nfn undn cnuld lie tniow), aomoof Utemgnwj 
ri«o. There vrcmaDutiilMi or atreanuthcrcnuiiiiaololdosBala. BmntiUalnw 
(nitdde of tho line of wnlU a pav«<l rood, * gateway, and t«ui]>l«-crowatd 
TbMM nnuuiu in R«iiii<ira oi>iiu«D iaa.y hx\o 1>oon part of Cbo tkniTiiint city wjaA 
ntcwaynay haro bduugnl to lb<! uutmoatnog »( oal] which scc>or<)iagl» Pr»bir 
bad a circuit of twcnty-fuur milri. Mour'i Nurativo, I8A, IM. 

> Major Mnnru't letter to ttie Miulru Buaid uf Itcveuoe, Slat Ma; I8U0. 

• Myw.n!, in. 215. 
' Tim Souda or ffodha family tree !• ; 

Imodi AroMippa KiUk 


Buoa&tk Nitk 

Midliu Liiif.'a Kiik 

SadiahiT Riya 

BMwa Llagn Ildja 

luodi Sadilahiv Kaya 

* WIlMin (Mockctucio CullDction. New EiUtioii, <I-^j refer* to tbo Sonda chlvTa . 
tmncliof tli« VijayiLiiai^ar kiuga wlig ivttlad at S<iDila ait«r lb* dDWufall of 
ViiayanagBr king* about ISSa • Buchtuian'v Mytorc. Ul. 234. 

•MyiQra, 111. 210. Tbis tfnm with Mr. Bicu'ti bat of tli« Vijayaauu- kin 
(MyMTV, I. 334) in wbi«k VcnkBtnpiwti Bncvi^ods iu 13b7. 




Vtjftjiiuuzar. It wan nob ttll the decay of BijApur powur io 1674 

Ifel :Bftcii&Kiv changed the de|>eudaDt title of Naik into IMja' 

it vudoria^ tba rule of Anappn, tho firsb iaudbu chief, tltal, lu 

bM Voa noticed, in cnosoqnencN) of ao agroomoat Trith AhinJulns^^r, 

Bi}ipor cBptared Adoiii ncftr BelUri and tnruiag iruttt aprrad their 

fvwnf olottff tfao ooiut irtiui (job to Bftrkulur iu f^ouCh K&oara, 

'■n^ the prorincee of SAvnonr, Hnada, nnd North Kioarft.' 

' Sonda chiek, whoiiQ lauds lay "iitirely aburu the Sahy&lns, 

■nttiUy ounliniiei] to pay tribute ; but tho soatbem chiefs ftORin to 

^nro ■cioom?d(.'d in iivoidicg tribute, tn thu soiith of the disLrict 

ro rival familiea, the Dyrasa Wodoyara of Karkala in Soubb 

li the Keladi, Ikkeri, or Dcdnur chiefs of Went MaLsur. 

o noohaoao, the Byraau Wodeyare of Karkala repre- 

iiulliLhi kiagH;' according to Mr. Uioo thc^y holonged Co 

iidyoMty;' and, a<;cordiD>(U.>U>cal tradition the fuandor 

vi lixB family was a dnnciog'-girl, who so ploJiAcd one of the 

Ki^-TTiija Itinga that ho granted her the land between KiirwrAr 

:i.-uidAviu- to tho north of HonAvar. According Co a fourth 

Koxinc tbey warv dosnandod fmm Jenaditlu, a North Indian 

nbgeo or ineudicanL^ The traditions, thoogh thoy differ as to 

Aeir origin, }u>roo that the last of tho family bad Ruven daughters 

atcb rf whom was collod Buira Deri. When the chief died hta 

iT vna dirided among his sovon d!i.ught(>nt, and Krishna 

Vijayanagar (IJU8-15'i2) in &aid to have remitted thoir 

becaoma they wora ladiee. On the defeat of Udm [^ja of 

Ty^yctoagiLr tho Byrnaa Wodcyars aeom to have at once thronrn off 

Hmr allegiaDoe, a^ Buchttii&u records From Hhntknl an inscription, 

dMod ISW (S. 1479), in which Baira Devi acUnowludgen no superior." 

Tlk> eldest daagbter lived at Bbntkal in the extrenio south of 

North Kinara ; the Rocond married a doscnndnnt of Itchappft tho 

Wodeyor of liersapna, who scents bo bare beeo the tribntary chief of 

^Haiga. This mamago produced only ono dnogbter^and sa the other 

'"' were all childlusa, tho daughter of the Geraappa chief 

irae heir to tho wholo poaBOaaions of the Karkala family. To 

abo added ilaiga, and during tho btter part of tho sixtccntli 

rnled from Kuinta to Barkur in Sooth Kinara without 

•ckaowlodgiog any superior.^ 

Tho rirala and tho du«troyers of the Bbatkal Jains were the 
chi«^ of Koladi in north-west Maiaar about twenty miles soath of 
iBuisv&n. About l^CO they moved U--a miles further soath to 
[Ikkort, and again in 1*331), as their power inorcosod, they went 
labaoV twenty miloa further iwulh lo Uidura HaUi» tho Baiiibcio 
iTiUage, also called BiJanur or Bedaur, on the border of South 
~ well plaoxl for trade near the Hosaugodi pass." Tho 

Chapter 711 

tS<fO-IS09. ^ 

Ontmr Chi 

< Itauhutta, 111. 217. Mr. Hoot (Ind. Ant V. 2(K4) nutiuoa & gnnt of a Sadliipnr 
ttj^hn, wbidb hit tdnatifie* witb lluondith NAynk who govarnail fSBdh&pura 
ndv VijayuMgar in tftl6- IG38<fi.lMl-lASt). Vijayanimar ntoat nMu BijApor. 
I W.lV.-itoutliof Indw, I. 40. 'Mywrc.ill. IW. * Mywre, H. 3M -373. 

IL 353-37n. « llvi»>nt, I[J. 134- * Ititfhiuun'* Myu>tx. I]f. 132-166. 
Mti.tti.'. II. 3&3. fkilniir hail Ir>iig boen n p\xc« ot imjiarUnM. AImI-m- 
. til .-iibwDMiliir, (InacribM Btnluur in 1444 u a city with hottMs lika 

. t«i' <k« liourw. It liada teinpletrith woD'loifiil (ciilptoTH. KUiot 

I DD*arii>, I V . l\H. 

■ 8IG— 16 


Cliapter VII. 

, JBedamr Chi^t, 

fcMuder of the Kelad! &imity is said to have been a Malava Gt 
callod BIin<lr«iT'a, who dUcorcrod a trufuore, sacriticod two 
his aluTCit, aud buill u furt.' la ISliU Malarti Gnuda went 
Vijnyaot^r and gained from Sadiishiva Ki^ya tho title of Sad' 
Naik and the ^raut uf Barkur, Maugalor, iind Chandragutti 
nortb-wost Maisiir.* Soon after 10(K), SadA^Uiva'a succeaaor 
bis capital to lUkuri. For a time botL in 8oath and in Nc 
Kfioara tbo locftl Jam chiefs vrere ablo to 'bold tbeir own. 
last, uppuiinitly in the oarlr yeans of Ibu neTuutuuiith oentt.. 
Vuukatuppa XAik, who ia said to hare biMu ht'lped by a revcdt 
the Ualc]MukH, attacked and dufoated iiaira Duvi uf Bbutkai i 
Gersappa. Almost all the Jainn of Haiga uro 8uid to 
perished." Accordia^ to local accounts, in 1G08, hnmodHi 
afbor thu defeat of Buira Devi, Venkatnppa Tfas attacked hy\ 
BijApoT force, which ho ib said to t»ve defeated, and by 
Cbanddvar iu the north uf Hoiiirar, prcvuuted from paasing 
of Mirjiiu nbcro they built a titruug costlo.* Thoro is a local Bt 
that the i^luHulmdus were led by one Harpnnmulik or Iho Snuke 
a fated child who gut his tiame bocMiuHO be was unce found ask 
in the forask guarded by a cobra. Thta fnvuurite isi^ of fut 
greatntiSB seems to have bt«u applied to the Dijiipur general, wl: 
title>Sherif-ul-MulkleQtitRu1f to liti twisted iutoSarpanuialik. Ve 
Bp]ia of Ikkeri coutiuued to style hiuiMulf the uuder-lord of 
Vijayaoagar kingn long after the decay of their power. In 16H 
[iroteeted the Vijayauagar viceroy who was driveD out of Serioi 

S&tatD." In miH entries in the Kiinara aoconote show Shivnf 
l^k adding- a tax uf ttt'ly per cent to tlic furmer If 
Id ItiSU Vcnkatappa removed biF> capital to licduiir' and at 
iha Bame time declared himaolf inde^wodeiit.^ At lUia time 
management of the state was in the hands of Shiva]^, 
man uf gruub talent, who ttuceoedod to tho clui>£»hip in l&w t 
coutiuued to ^veru till l(i70/ Boforu thtii cluso of his reign he! 
added to bis dominions the whole of Soath Kanuni and Noi 
Kitmra up to tbo Gaugavali rivoi", the castle of Mirj.-tu having 
fiuri-oudcred by tho treachery of it« Moor governor. '" Ho waa 
diatiDgtiiabed for the exetillent ivvouue rogulutiutiii which he int 
duced." During tho greater part of the sevontt'cnth century till 
decay of Bijiipur power, tho lowlands of KAuara, between 1608 aud 

* Rii-o'ii My»ore, ] I. 355. Acoonlins t* itnotli«r aooount Ui«ra vnv tw» brott 
Cluvita ll»i)i]» snit Hhndnt Gani)& who Tound a liug in mi niit'i niMt. nn okl tvr^ 
nnd ■ trMwurn. Kico, IL 379. J»in account* make tho (Qimdvr « aciottof 
Uniaolift fiiuiily. Ril-o, II, 3AS. 

■ Kioc, U. 3£^5. BudiwiMi (Mytw*. Ul. !U4) aud WUk> [^uthof ladU, I. 40) | 
1499 pj. \\^\ M tbo dAte of tli4 Touuiivr o£ tho f*niity. Uuiirv, Uttar to Board, 
MBylSOO.mrk. 8.gin)alOS;MthS(Ue«(>fSaaA>hirIU/ignuitof KAn&n. Aocor 
to Wjlki (1. 3>i) the foauder naa « rich (aimot who was mad* gorgniDr oE fivdnnr in 
1600 «n>i threw olThia aiicvmnuu. 

* Buchanan. III. 13-1, liiti&ud ll.t; Mauroto Board, 3lBt May 1300, )»n. 8. 
*BuchaoAB,I|[. 173. ■ Kici:. II. X>b. ' VVdks' South of Lndia, 1. 1 
'^lliflc, lL»7ei \Villw(ifoutht.|iiwli*,I.a7l tn«k.«U.ia llHOi Buch*i>wi (Uy>».,,s-| 

nt. 25t}givca lOU |». 156i»>. Ckiina >tr«ck at Bodunr uatlmMd to b« cftU«<l ikk«ri 

* Rioe'a Myiura. I. 'i43. * Itudiiumii, III. I'.'T and 134 : Rioi>, I. 497.* 
■* Buobuuiii, UL l:£7 ; t'oer'i tut ludiu uJ remu. XHi. " Kioc. L 487. 


1C50u {or ftoatb aa Aliijf^, and betirccti IGoO and 1G73 as far aoath 

ta (lie fTritiLTlTiili rivur, Beem to hava bt'cn iin^r Bijjipop ralp. 

'■■'• a ILmdu cbmnicle fouml by Bucbanan m a rillftge 

i.ii'srwords.Sherif-Dl-Mulk, the BijAporf^orproorof Phonda, 

tied BijiipBrpower as £ar aoath iis tie Mirjan river and thoro 

Imut * JtKiD^ furt. Acccrding to this nccoant tlio Musalmiina bt'ld 

An nvrih of Kioara for aeventy-two ycaps.' BuchaTiac tKiticcs 

t^ ihv land rates which were in fbrco near Kiirwiir, whoQ 

t}t<i ri;glis}i took possession in )800, bod b<.^cn introduced hy 

</l-ifuik tbe governor of Phonda.' AboQb]650 (H. 1044) the 

1' - are said lo have iotrndaccd a revenue settlement in tho 

: Mirj^i, Ankola, Phonda, KArw6r, and Sivesbvar, 

in force in 1S(-H) luid K&rw&r is said to have been 

-rt ID tbe Bijilpiir kingdom.' During tbe ecvoutconlh 

wuitiirj- wliild the SfiiMiliDdns held the north coast districts of 

Kifism the tribalary chie-ta of Sonda se*in to have been ntlowcd to 

■ iiatHrbod iibovfl the Sahyrtdrin. Ariappa, the founder of the 

<>ij, was succeeded by hia eon Rumchandra XiUk in 1598. On 

doath in 1018 (8.1541) Ritmchandra uus succeeded by his boq 

oitb, and ho in 1038 (8.1&01) by hi«sonM^hav Linga K&ikj 

bccnmo a Lingdyac or Shiviiblii.kta, and governed till U174 

1S97). Doring the first half of tho soventeentli rcntury Kilaam 

lareouthas Mir^i^D continued under Uijupiir, inaDoged partly 

utly partly through hereditary rai^&ida culled (iatdift, of whom tho 

i»» of Sondft and vf Kilmnir weru Ihu chief.* lu 1687, after the 

of Abmndnngar and tho favouroblo treaty with the Moghala. 

-3od iia coni|ucBt8 soath, and cbieily by the vigour and 

.ihji, Shiv&ji'a father, overran the east of Mai^ur and 

It into a provioco.* 

1<!^3 Kanara was vitiite<l by the Italian trarcllor Dola Vallc. 

var waa a tiuiall place more of huta than huuNos. The fort ou 
■ rock was held by tbo I'ortuguese. Insido tho fort wore botsefl, 
gard(.'u«, and well arranged quarters, and there were Sue atroets 
with s lai-ge squ&ro whore tho pooplo of tho town took shelter daring 
times of aioge. There were two churches, one to St. Catherine tho 
other to St. Antony,* There was another big city of the Bnibmana 
within ganahot of UonAvar.^ !n 1023 tho ruler of llonfivar was 
VcDkatapi« NAik. Ho bad been a noblo of tho Vijajaaogar 
kingdom and vtas now indeponduutv Hu had subdued many otnor 
Xdiks and even defeated the Porlugueiu). So powerful was ho that 
Ihs Pontugnese determine*! to send liiui an embassy. The erabmsay 
•lart«d OD the 14th of October IG23 and was* accomimnied by Dela 
Tftllf. A« tho Portuguese were oti bod terms with Adil Shfih, whose 
knd Uy between them and Venkatappa's territory, the ombasay 

* TIm ittrUu]! of the Mventf -two yonn nM, Uurty-fi»c ytmn of hamtiUrs, UiMy 
ymnnl mtUitHmobiMt, una year uid « bulf of a Miiiu/J r. aud tluirt [wdoibot teadcm 
who *r« nwiiticmeJ by niune. nacliBnun'ii M)-aciro, lU. \7$. 

>>|yM»v, III. IN) ; ■.■omrarc in. -211. 

■Mtkmv, ni. IT-t- DnchAiuui nt>ti««t tl)*t Jlaiciar nnuinuilonv-lHUf «f diwgnuitw 
Mm laaila. au<1 Xhal Tipu •uimxl on tJi« rv«t. Ditto. 

* Oraid'a tliwlorivAl Fi-Agiii*nfai, 3!', 37. 

* KtoeSi Myaon, I. SST • Dclk ViiU«'i 

I I.«tt«a.Ill. IS3. ~ IMx ViJk. IU.IS6. 

Chapter TX£' 






i&pt«r vn. 



/Md VaUf, 


vri?iit by ma iu fr^ikt«fl. Tbt-y took somo lipnM witL them 
wila' They Uiided nb the mouth uf the GenapfM river, and 
sai) and onr p(v«so<I nme miloa to (jcrenppa. This hod ouco 
faraoiia city, the seat of a qoeeu, the mulrojMiliB of a provioce. 
lost queen had rnnrncd n foreignor of low birtb, who was ungTuif 
enough to ttilco i\xv. kin^um to hiouivlf. Tho qucon sou^tt he 
from tho l'ortii|^icee, bat they did not help lier. Tbo hii»l 
ca1k*i) ju \'L>ukniup]Hi who wi/x-d the kingdoin. The city and \v 
hud fallen to ruin, and were overgrown with troc«; uothiiiji^ wns U 
but aotnc peasiwtii' Imts. Nine miles boyond Gursapin the i 
wiw most pleA&ajit, waving land covered with leafy forests, 
by bcuutiful iitreams, whoee shady bankti wora grooa with haml 
and Day with flowers und croopers. H was the must boatitiful ni 
Dola Vallo hud over seen.* 80 famoad was the country for ita pcpf 
that the Purtiiguew called tho quoon of Creriappa Rainiia da Piiueul 
tho Pepper Quocn." The ascent of tho Sahyidris was fairly ca 
throDgti bcantiful (hick foi-eitt with Ktrcnmn, Lorbagtt, and Hoi 
At tho top of tho liill was a aiurow door and a fortrestt with baati^ 
and curtuius. It wiui once calleil UarckotA and was now kiiown 
Gontndanugar.' It was tn the charge of a Muaalman officer 
V«iikat«ppa'n, who as a great favour liad l»eon allowed to build'J 
mosque.^ The emba.-i.ty rcnclu'd Ikkori, then Venkulappu'ti bi<u 
^Darters, about twenty-live milessoHth-cosb of Gorsapgia. liut 1 ~ 

CQcy was frailluiui, ar tho chief refused to reoeive tltu auiba 
Qsctbo lAfrtnguese liml not t^^iit ^bipH to buy popper." Tl 
their ciiihatMy wan refiisod in \Gfi. the rorlugnesewereiublo to ol 
a treaty iu March IG31, under which, bcsidus the grant of the isljiad 
Kamlwli and the fort of iWknbir in South Kliriara, the llodiiur 
KSnara king allowed the felling of timber, took ofFdiitioa at UoiuV? 
and on the export of pepper, and agreed to pay Iho I'ortugucso 
bales of rico wwy yeiir.' 

In 1038 the English, who bad boen established in Sumt 
1(j12, npcno<l factories at Kirw£r und at Bhntkal. Tb( 
factories were founded by Woddol of Sir William Coartci 
oompauy.* lu ItilG Cuui'Iou'k agent at Kiinv&r offered to M 
tlie factory to tho president of the London Company at Surat, h\ 
Iho oUvr was docJined.** About 1650, ScbulLxcn, a Dutch writa 
deBcribea Honivar as oneo cclobratod for ti-ndo and shipping, bi 
now mnch weakened as the Portu>;uetni had drawn all the trade >ij 
the coQ-st to Ooa.'* 'Hie I'orliigucsu power in Tlonavar hiul fallea 
off aincB tho arriral of tho Uutch about ItiOO. 1'hey bad st 

* DcU V«nr, Itr. 174. * DpIs Valk, III. IM. * DeU Valle, ITL IML 

• IM* Vallr. III. 200. ' P.l» Viillc. III. 203. 
"iMk VaIIo, 111. IHX VdAVnlkdcMribn Ikkori uiB*l»MitiltiIi>LuiivtbhUii _ 

fortifiwlMtaiUKlthrea <litclH», TlKrv wm ii« fitter widl, ciily ft 4«i>»« bwrqlmo 
(«Dc«. iBBido ti-iu ft abaaa m>II hut wvolt. Tlia ptla«o wu MiU to luvu MMnda 
fortafications. lite town wu vary larga but luul not nuny b<iuM« It waa laid ont 
ia broad ahady atraeta, and them vara nuny poola o( mtor and a few imsnM. 
Ditto, 29a ' ' • 

' Inatnwoao, p. S. < Itiuco'a AniuJa nf the Eaal Iwtia Conpauy, I. 357. 367. 

■ ItrtKw't AmiaIa of tli« Raft India Coaipaay. L 41tf. 

» SoholtMdt Voyagea, AawtcrUAW. irfe, 160, ICL 



08, one (Icilinotcil to Sb. AntoDid >iu() tlio atlit^r to St. 

ic. Many Portu^ui-ae eajmudvt *.>r ikiUlvra, litL'mlly married 

ivtitl elirra ill grutU luxury. The tovrii cooHistccJ luorPuf biil^ttiau 

H,.K.«. « 'rticaainu vrrilcrdoacriboUBiitikaiuor-BJiatkiUasfoPmurly 

it bul made tributary by tbe Portugaeso.' "Be itolicoa 

hirj^u oombcrs of the KAnarose nlon^ tbc cooBl bAd nllawcd 

ri« m Im; btkp(.i»od uud instructed Ju CliriKtiun dcK'triuv, aud 

muny cliurcliosand (Niiivcnf*," In 1 1!53, tho Itodnnr 

:i'.'lp fif ib« DiiUb. drove tliL* Portii^^iieao out of tbo 

ivftr furt,^ 111 l()i>0, nocordiu^ to Huldiuus, Kituara waa rich in 

tad othtr pruiluot' luid hud u bouUby ittruu^ jiuoplc t-apabto of 

ty Iciod (if work.* Tho boundary butwuou Bijapur uud Shivappa 

ik of Kiiunrih was tbu Mirj&u rivur. Uu notices Cintapur ur 

kul a«:L flijitjiur town do«» to tbo sea; bu deet-ribos Aiyidivaa 

of wuuds iind buab aud uxtraordluurily rich in &eh ; iionavar 

Bliatkal wvru the otily Uiwus uf imjKtrtaucc-.' 

In 10>53 KjLrw&r appears in the list of the London Company'^ 

j' and before ItifiOtbo KArwdr ftictorybndgrewtly prospered. 

fiowt muslins in Western ltidi:t were exporlnd from Karwitr. Ttio 

country waa ioliuid to tho east of tho Sahyadris at Uubli in 

and &i. other cecitntn where the rompany \vmI a;fl^ntA and 

«d as many as 60,000 woavers.' Between 16G3 and 11304 tbo 

of Anjidiv was held by tbu .ttroiig Kngtisb force which had 

•ent to receive Bombay From tlie I'urCafipese. As the Portufpnesii 

to give on Bombay the Koglinh were Foiled to retire to 

anil there in alwnt Iwn years (14UJ2>lt>r»l) the unUenlthincBS 

cliinato reduced their numbers from 500 to 1 ID,* 

LD itiGO, under Uiair great leader Shivfiji (1637-1680), tbo 
llhia apponrcd devnHtntiiig in Ki&nnra. After making a raid 
eaoa Borkalur iu South Xitimra, SbivAji dismiuiied tho greater 
fif bis Heel: at Gokarn, sciujred tho country, mid exacted a 
ri from Krtrwiir, U>wartl« which the Eiij^IiMh factory pnid 
El did not I hen take posnessiou of any pai-l of tho dislrict.'* 

Aftor tibiviji's raid tbu factory at Kllrw&r lieeuia U> hairu boon closed 
ii is mentioned ns being re-entabbsbed in 1006.^' In 1070 the 
^olo t>i the Kagli.'ih Eactory at Bhatkal, wldch Had been started ooly 
tltf66, wilb a strength of eighteen Kngiishmcn, were attacked and 



Cm buy. 



> HctmlLMu'M VoyaftM, AmaUnlam, 167(1, IM. 
"^Isi^iiiltteu's Vi>>iiuiw. AiiiHUrnUfli, ISVA, tW. 
■ Wyor'n Kut liitlM and I'mwU. 07. iMtraocoo do Mjiraim Alarns, NoVftCoa, 
,9, lOi ThovcucX (Voyagai,V.3i{9)Mr«: There araBwnyPortugiUMentlloutvar;. 
lort la fflooli bettor thu Iho town. Thin m >aininrliikt difficult to oxplun m 
FrHMH^dateilssaDcnlly twlMO^to *b«ut )GW. UIm ScliulfcNii ho ni*y ref«r to 
I PortvgnAM huioholdtfTii who r«inAiii«d after tlio I'ortiigticia had Io*t the fort. 
(JiakbU ua CorompntM Vxioat, AuMerdtta, 1672, 68. 

> MAbUtT aitii rnrnmandat CoMt, Aaut«Tda]n, 16T2, 98 ; BaldatuB iit CbarchiH'a 
«-asM. III. tcr,. M8, 

' tinwe'* liidiAn Xiivv, I. 34. It lud bocn doHwl in tli« praviooa year. 
rBwalUca'* New Aceooat, L 267. Hamilton (Ditto) am tbat about IfiCO 
wM |>UlAt;v<l <ui<l tbc ««»vmg enuntry UUl wa«t« by a Miwfaal army. Tbia 
Shiviji^ raid on Unbli in tS72. See telow p. laQ. 

I to be a c<onnun'>n M-itb 
f* IMslla nt* i^ven iindvr Aiijiilir 
' Uiaat Duir% KUrktluu, 90. HI. 

* flnuit DuO'a ManitbAa, 91 nMc. 
uiInic«-«Auaab, U.202. 


(Bombftjr Qazett 



IChapter VII. 



1066- tars. 

kiUoil by tlio people who wero enraged beoaa«ea bnli-dog belongu 
to one ufthufocturs bud killed aeocrcd cotr.' Ob April 20th 1671, tJ 
Porlojjuese cxjocludeJ atrwity witli tbe Beduorchiel miderwhieh the 
were allowed t^ establish factoricd at Uon^rar, at Barkalai- in Soul 
K&nara about tvre-olj'five miles nuiitb of Honiviir, and at ^langaU 
on tbe MalabtUr coast. The chief also ng'i^od to pay a yuar^ 
tribute of 1500 bales of rico.* Under a further treaty on tliti I3t 
of December 1678 the PortagooBO were ollowod to build factor 
and charchcH at Mirjila, Chauddvar, Uouitvar, and Bliatkol, nnd 
KalvAnpup in South KAna.n».' In IC72 Ali Adi! SliAh of Bijapt 
died leaving no heir but a child named Shik&ndur. Taking' ivdvantAj 
of tho discord at Bijdpur, ShivAji sout au army into the ric 
mannfactiariQg districts of Uhilrwar, sacked Uubli, and laid 
country waste, deKtroying everytliing which be could not 
away.* Shivdjt aim iucitud all the dcpondanCs of Bij&par to rel 
In July lll73 the Phaujilarorjfovernorof KiSi-wArrHTolted, seised i_ 
Gubordinate ofiicci-d who were loyal to Bijapar, attacked the Viwi 
who would not join luui, and laid uie^- to the English factor 
because the factors would not supply him with ammanition.*^ 

About tbe end of NoTomber 1G73 the well known EwU^ 
traveller Fryer visited tlie KAnara coast on bis way to Bombni 
Between two ialaods near Bhatkal in the south, he saw st 
skulk-iuu; MalaUAr prows waiting their booty." Honiirsr, in hil 
barren land, vm divided between the Dutch and the Portnguc 
lb had a castle wJtbonb sotdiera and a borm with poor baildini 
The castle had boon built by the Portuguese and seized by tk 
K&naroens with the help of the Dutch netween wliom and 
Portiignls tho tx>wu was divided, llie Naers had no footing 
Hon^rarand tbe Moors not much. Many of the people bad receive _ 
the Christian faith ; those who hatl not were tne most impionslj 
religious of any of tJie Indiaus, being marrellooaly coaversaiit wit 
the devil. The people hml good law.s and obeyed tliem, and trarellt 
without goidefl on broad roads not along bye-paths as in MalabtoJ 
Fryer went up tho MirjAn river in a vessel rigged like a brigantinc 
Mirjdn was in tho iitamo dominions as Honilvar bnt wa« only the 
fragmcDtsof a town. On landing Fryer was welcomed by one oE 
tho Gentile priuee.1 of Mirjilu, who, likt^ an Italian prince, was not 
ashamed bo be a merchant, tie was seated under a shady tree on 
a carpet spread on tbe sand with but retinue standing around him. 
Ho was waiting for the protector of Kdnara, for tho IlAja of l^dnur 
was then a mmor. llie protector came anon with lorda ant* 

'Brucc'a Aitnalii. tl.202; H&milUin'aKfW Account, I.S«7,2S3. 
' [o>tnici;&<), ji, 3. * IiiHtrucciu), p. S. 

* Fn'or'a Eftat India and Persia, C3 ; Orioe's Uiitorival Fraina«itt*i 34 ) Blpliiaai 
644 ; Grant Dura MaritliiU, I. I8S. 

* OrmvH Ilutorioal FrAgmtiita, 36-3S, 40. 

* EmC Indik luid Penut, &7. Tliu MtlnUrjiinttM, Iiasafi,atetlwirMttPtcki 
OttthiacoMstaoioslu fleets. Thoy- an tet «ut by Ui« ]»«■£ nun Wlun. (IMtt 
AtMa near Ooft rWer waa alUclceil by n lar„-v liotit dt MalaUrpmlM with a' 
aixtv Rghtiug tn«B M«id«« ruwm who tlircw »tiiik pots and pGed oluutiWra 
na*ll that, fiDiij stouM, Mul dttrtvd luuti Uuo«a, and were with dilSoulty drivuti 
(PitCo. ISI, 103). 'Ftytr, hj. 

nrds arme<l with swords and ^nntlote, p&rti^ans adorned with 
ji »nd featbers, ba also wt>re tlm horse* thai carritMl his Iomuttij 
oturmy with aach trsppiugs as tho fineet tram hor»O0 ia KnglAnd 
thrn wore. The [irotticuir.rciwud by a gang of thirtj'Stx in ^jreal pomp, 
tmtured off to evo tho EuglJeh shipa. ilis tnasic was loud ana with 
kettledmnift mi) ! ■ not unliki> Kiiglinh cwipt'rs driviiiy homu 

lloopB on iheir t Ho wont abcMrd twu or ihivo ships who 

4ttUrrtAini;d him tvuh tbeir guns and chucrs ptvsi->Dting hiui with 
■BoHet etoth.' At Mirjan, poppt-r, saltiKilPO, and ijottJuut were 
takcro u) for t^unit. After h-uviog Mirjau t^ryorV fluct met Iha 

^ ":,t!, au Euplisb mau-of-wjir piukj with tweuty-two guna and 

-V add incn, comtntitsioucd from tho Proeiduat at Bumbay to 
■oior the «,v\ih f'jr piralea. A littlo furlbt-r wuk Anjidiv, au island 
fiuaed fur tho buriiil of Bomc hundred Kugltohmeu. Kurw^r, with & 
UUt and indiffereul woody shoru, with isleta ticattered to and again, 
kid l.^en the chief port of Bijapnr, a perfect monarch who burdly 
ibott) to the Sloghal. Lilcly agrand traitor Shivdji, carrjHnjr 
<*■'< •-.ijK him like a mighty torrent, had become master of it and 
rfall the country totiiijanit. Sbiv^ji hud well nigh forced the 
KogUsh factory »t Karwitr and hud done other outrages on Ihu 
Et^^hsh. lie was cvcrywhtTu named with tt-mtr. Tho pcoplu wero 
\^.\n]y Moors partly tientoos. 

.■'(KvAji continocdluHBttooVson tho BiiApnr territories in Kiinara, 

if - I'Tit ailfiiiptou the imiMrtant hill -fort of Phonda failed.* A 

-(•■f;.f ns^ult was ninro siicoesiaful, and by ]ti75 he had gniood 

r>-'.-r-_.-aiuu of Axikola, IVndit that Is Phonda, Caderab or Kfldra, and 

Bemusar or Shiveshrar. In tho Kioio year tho town of Kjipwdr was 

burnt because tfae castle nua uot suiTeudered; the t)iigli»h factory 

WBB taken hot on violoneo was done to the factors ; and the country 

A» far an the Gang^rali river became subject to ShiviLji.' Tho 

ijaeen of Kin&ra, that is of Rednur, sent gifta to Shivflji, pniycd 

u>r his prorectiun, ftgrood to pay a yearly tribnte, and alLowed an 

a^|vnt or V'lLil of ShirAji's to bve at her conn,'' It was balierecl 

ia li$7~ that Shiviiji intended to tidce Bodntir and add Kilnarato his 

ouaqnesta but the intention woa nerer carried out.'* 

In October 1075 Pryor paid a aecond visit to Krionra. He camo 
ffvrii) Bombay with tho chief of tho Kitrwar factory. On the way, 
near tUjdipur iu iiatniigtri, tbcy parsed i^liivAJi'a uuvy thirty t>mal] 
DfaipA and T&s^?, tho admiral wenring a white flag aloft. At K^rwiir 
Ibt; chiui o£ the ^tory und ii'ryer were met ou tho rirer by tho 



> Fr>"w'» TntvcU. 57. B8. 

- ''' '- "■' tbo L1wn(lApaMiiit}i9ioDth-«Ht v«nicT o( Ratadgtri oacamuida ona 

at - 'itMtRtoNortli K.-uunt. Sbivaji ktUobcd it in UnrchfKT5Mi<iftft«rgrMl 

ki< ' '.heeaddf A[iril, wbotlwr by ticacBftij*, kaMu1t,or>[itru<uI«r ianntknawn. 

Onu«( lluunricxl Fntfniciita. 52. Ia lfiS3 it iru >tt.-»i:k<.xl lunl su iimrl];' taken 
by D'tm Krnncis d«T»vnn, th»Portii|[aeM Vloirajr, that Stun bhlji had tho wile moved 
twj raila to tli« soDth to a hill Mmol Uadan&iMl, OniM'a Hivtorioal FVajmcuta, 
lU i Uoiadli Cwrvri (lGf») m C-hurchill, )V. ilST 

I I ,-.'... i-fi Urvko (tliatonual tVagBiaoti, 52) ny* Mirjitn, but the Bcdnur chief 

h^ ..i|Di;r«il up t« tlMUaR){iviU. 

1.!, Ll»j. • Ormc'i UiitarUal FVafOMPli, SM. 









govpnior with two har^ps. and on landing* wore welcomed by t 
ordDaoce of the English Uouso. The Knj^ljeb Honec v&n on lui ar 
of the river nbout three luiliat from its nmuth,' min'oyin^ o iileasnnt' 
island stocked with gaino. )t was in n doheato nioad (ho litnd «^f 
Catteen Esqiiirr, t« whom it. hml Innjf before tcuu ffivu'n by the kiog 
of BijUpup.- The house had oidy lately buon built. It was a. slatoly^^ 
mansion, four scjuaroj and gnardud by btdnarks at tho cummnndini^^H 
coniurii. Two yeara beforo whou Shivaji attacked tho placo tho^^ 
house vfos not fini»htxl, bol, though the town was burat t^o 
Victors wore able to defend thotoselveii with the h^lp of a Boiall 
pink or gunboat. Since Fryer had been at K4rw4rLU 1673 Shiviiji'* 
power bad greatly increased. Besides the Kdrwflr castle, about three 
miles up the river from the Kngli&h Uonse, he had taken Aukota, 
Pandit that is Thonda tbu chiof place of Bijapur power, Cuderali 
that is Kadra on the Kalinadi about aisteen mUos east of KArn&r, 
and Scmisaar or Shiveshvar acroBa tho riTOP from Kirwir, all vury 
gtrrjcg places.^ Shiviiji bad a goTernor of (ho town of Kiirwrir and 
a commandant of tho caatle^ and over thom thu Bupt-Tiutuudeut 
of a flying army. AlmoaL all the places of tru^t wore in tho 
haodjB of Brdhmaas who acted neither for tho public good no^^j 
for common buuesty but for their private iutervat only. ^Hiej^H 
ftekod merchants to come and &ettlo only t<i rob tliem, or^^ 
turmoil them on account of ciiHtoms. 0[)eiily tbey were mighty 
aealous for their moeter'a dues, but, in the comer, tho; took more for 
themselves than for thuir miuiUir. It was a grieroua los3 that ao 
much of the coast had fallen into iShivAji's power; where ShivAji 
had anything to do trade was not likoly k> svttlo. Taxation had 
boon much milder and tho people far more comfortable under tho 
king of Bijapur. The Bij&pnr regent bnd lately been aSEamuQatet' 
and as both Bhiv4ji and the Moghala were bidding for Ui« 
kingdom miiltcrs wero Hkcly to fall from biu3 to worno. Shiniii 
had bei>a aided in the conquest of North Kitnani by the ihilvi ot, 
licutcuaut ot tho dtadi yrho had been the local llii^pur governor. 
"When Fryer reached KArwir, the dalvi disgualed with Sbivfiji's 
treatment of }iim, wasmoving about the country with a force doolaring 
he would restore his former master. Ue attaoked Shiviljl'» guard 
in KarwAr town and forced them to rctiro into the castle. On both 
tjidets tlio fighting men wero luiaorablo bouIs for soldiers, like old 
Britoua half-naked and very fierce. They marebod wilhont order, 
with a loud umtm uf music and o tumultuous throng. The p«opli 
men women and children, with what littlo Gubstauoe they had, He 
before them and sopght ehcltor under the guns of tho Euglis 
Houw. It was uitialilo to ht-ar what the people suffered under 
Bhivfiji's rule. Tuu dcvtiiA badlands inipoiwd on thew at double 
the formt^r ratee.and, if they rafosed to tAo them, they were carried 
to prifiou, fomished almost to death, and most inhnmanly raoko d ,i 

— _____ ^ _^ — ___ 1^ 

^ Hamiltao'i Kcv Aoconat, T. iS&. 

* I'r^er prohkUv rshra to Sir WiUiua Caurtca bj whoM Compiuij tbe Uetarj 
«->■ faatitlod to 1«3S. i^M aLovo p. 124. 

■ 1b uiotbttr pMMgtt (p. IM) Vijat Mya Pmdit i« the ckiet itMn^ oj Biji^rar. 
On ita aunvodcr tbe ooBqaoat of toe low oountr}- Imyond HUrvrir foUowvL 






tnd tortarod till the; couFoascd wbero tli«ir woaltb was liid. Whoa 
Fryer was in K(irw4r ShivAJi's officers had several Itn-iLiuaax in limbo 
Triuim th->7 drubbed on tbe Blionldcrs to oxtromo anguisb a.nd tore 
their i]eah with red-hot pincers. The DesfLis in tunt did the Rama 
to the Combiea. The preat fish preyed on the tittle fiah both by 
land and by sea bringing theui and their ^onilies into etomu 

In February 1676 Fryer with on© of the Kirwir factors started 
on h trip to Uokam. Near Ankola hill, they experienced a 
lirely portraitnre of Hell, as the forcwt was on fire, apparently 
pnrposely bBmt, becanse it had Bheltored the rebel <tahL No food 
wae to be had. Tbroogh the iniquity of the daivi, the people of a 
tiAhing Tillage when) the travellorH hod meant to resb, were left 
vithout fish, lx>atB, rice, or netta. Fryvr and his friends s|>ent the 
uighi fuHting under a man^ tree and by daybreak made for 
Aokola. H«re they found tbe market half •burnt and the remaining 
sbopB tenantleEs. Shir^ji bad. not spared the town when he took 
tbe castle which wan a fine place and of good force comtnandin>^to 
th» river Gaag^rali, the utmost extent of Shiriji's power soutb- 
wanU. No provisiona were to be hadj but on tho strcu^h of somo 
game which they shot Frver and hiu friends walked to the Cian|;f&vaU 
river. TTioy woru fcrrJL-d over and siwut thi- night in Gonfrulo tnat is 
Qang&Tab. TLiti wiui thi^ Grat town iu thucountrj' then callodCaiiiiLic, 
though formerly the Konbkn ap tu tiujurAt bud boon so called, 
Tb« people looked cheerful and lived in peace under a quiet govern* 
aent. At Qokikm the party cbangea tbeir Bogltish dross for 
Mabammadan. They found a great featiral, immense crowds of 
peoplo, and rich offoria^. Tbo people annoyed Fryor by the 
cfljclessnesa of their behaviour, neither regarding the novelty nor tbe 
l^audinuss of his Moor's clotbog. From Gokara Fryer travelled over 
a rncky barren bill to Tudem thai is Tadn at the mouth of the Mirjin 
rivor. From Tudera they went iu the Company's barge or Imloon to 
Mirjiln where tbcir brisk Biiuyan, a yoang apendthrift whose father 
was luti'ly dead, treated tliem to dnnoirg wenches. From Miridn they 
returned by boat to Karwfir. At Karwar no beef was to be bought ; 
bnt game was abundant, and the English far t-ors went to the wocmJs, 
■om^mes for a week at a time. Tbey lired on fish, wator-fowl, 
peacocks, green pigeons. spotted deer, mmhnr, wild hogs, and snme- 
tiniBS wild cows. Tigers and leopards were common in the woods.' 
VrjvT spent the rains of 1678 at KiSrwfir. The chief products of 
Uie ooontry were, rice, naehni, millot, hemp, tarmeric, ginger, and 
potatoee. The soil was good, yielding two crept), one which ripened 
in Sept«!mber, tha other abwat March. Thw second crop was grown 
with groat pains, water being brought along gutters, i'hrough tlio 
iyiany of Hhiriiji three-quarters of the land was nntillud.* Thera 
was not much trade at Karwar and tbe factory was decaying, mcrcb&ata 
boiiig out of heart to bny and sell because of tbe embroils of tba 
cooDtry, The state of the people was wretched. The artieaaa 




• 816-17 

•ftygr, 17« 177. 

■Fkyw. I83L 

iBomtift/ 1 



ChsTter Vn. 




ooold hwtUy Vwo for tho Bdnian? who grotrnd their How \ 
HesAis groQti^ the ^ca nf the hasbanduien.' 

Souda wag {among for its pepper, the bmt and the dearest in the 
world. Tho chiuf livod at Souda, being tributary or nilher ffludato^l 
bound by i»lU'gi&Qce as well m purse to the princes of Bijj!pur. T 
Sonda RAjo's pcppcr-conntry was estimated to yield a roTcnae 
£1,000,000 (Pngodm 30 lakhs) o! which he had to my one-half 
Bijiipiir, Shiviiji somotimos sharing the tribute. The Sonda cl 
bad 3000 horse and 12,000 foot.^ In the sooth of the dtaii 
According to Fryer, the limits oE the Bednor power were aloofi the 
ahoro from the <7ang:ftTaH river to the Znmerhin's coaotry o( the 
Mftlahftrs, and inland up to the pepper moantains of Sonda and th« 
pruciacts of Siirji Kh^n, perhaps the Uuaalni&D goremoroE S^Taowr.' 
From Fryer*!* detailit it soeras that shortly after his acceaaion, Sbi 
ehankar or Soinasikara N^ik, Shiraripa's snooesaor, was rant ~ 
by his nobles.* He was snoceedea by bis son, a minor. 
Basvappa N^ik whose mother was managinj^ the state by and 
the antJiority of one 'Hmi or 'nmniava Ni^ik, ' who from a toddj 
had by hia cunning policy moro than true prowess and valour i 
himself to be general and protector.'* This Timi N'Aik, about 
made an agreement with Sarji Khiin, a Bijapur prince, to at 
Balil Khiin, the Uijapnr rogent. They advanoeu north, but wore i 
by Bala] Khfin, and defeated, and Timi was slain. The Beduur not 
confossod that this was a punishment for killing their lato cl 
They vovred allegfiance to the young prince, and transacted ull 
nifeira in hi» name.' 

In 1674, MaJha Ling:a Niifc, the chief o£ Sonda, died. Uo 
saocccdcd by his son Sad^ahir, who nilcd till 1697, Rada-shiv, 
was tho most vigorons ruler of his family, aoems by 1G79 to I 
Bproad his puwur to tbo sea, as in that year the K^rvrkv bnai 
complain of (ho exactions of the Sonda chief.^ He was snoo 
inhifl contests with Hambhiiji (1030*I600), and after 1685 
to have ceaeed to pay even uoniiual allegiaucre to the NfarfithAs, ' 
unlike his prodeceHaors to havo claimed the title of rftja or 
depondent prince. Ho di\*ided his territory into Upland or 
Gnat and Lowland or Paynn Gh&t Sonda.* 

In 1076 the Karwar factory suffered from the exactions of the 1 
chief.' In 1678, on account of the necessity of reductions, 
1670, bocuiuo of tho levies of the Portngneae and the Sonda chief, 
it was datenmned to withdraw the eatablishmenL^*' After Shiv^ji'a 

1 Vtyw, Xn. * Pryof, 163. > Pi7«r, !«. 

* Boohsnan (IIL 137) nunei hltn Somashikun ud osUb him ■ man oT tk« 

eJtUMter. H» wu killed in 1«70. 
" Fryer. !«£. • Fryer. 163. ' Bruoe'a AdobU, n. 421 -MS. 

* tltidcr (Into l&td, tut the patnifnttib In a nunKuory of Mvenl yean, tirtot DJ 
(MuJtUia, 172) uje tha JturU of KArwAc cntttiunol iudupcndHt uid m nmul 
•Boh cirouiTUrtMCM) Maumtwl tlia title o( rija. 

> Rruco* Aandi, IT 300 1 Ornit'a ilitt«ri«al Fni^entj, 909, 
" ttrace'a Aniulit. 11. 4-il anil 443. At t)iv j^ncni) T«xluGtl,>n in 1670 tlw 
Dirociurs raaolved that KikrwiU- tuicl R.-tjipur in KulnAjjiri ali^uM bo raftrawnt 
DAtive Agrata. Law't lodian Nary, I. Uj. ItMitnibtfu) U tbewonlon were 
oot C-wipuroBriKisII. 422.428,«2. 472, 

d^atb in 1680, hu ■on Sombh&ji (1C80-LG00) was oUo for atime Ut 
kiwp hU K^uara poaa«ssiou8. Iti 1032^ SiLinbli^ii quatxelled with 
tbo iV,rtuguc8c, ftncl JetermincHl to tnke the island of Anjidi?. Hub 
tiiu i*urtu^t*Htt viceroy ibrew Into tlie island a strong dL't^cLtueut of 
tnjopSf aod the Alanith&s were forced to withdraw.' 

I After the Gailiire of Sambhitji's ftttempL on Aujidi? the Sonda 
ohiof, though nominally a fuiidatorj oE Sambh&ji's, openly joineil 
the Porlugueee. Sambliaji tii pt-rwun led a detochmE-nt a^iant 
8andiv, but apparently without cfirct. In 1685 tho IWtng^iiese 
stirrvd ihu Desais of Sonda luid Karwir to revolt aud helped thum 
with traopa.' Sambb&ii vas too much occupied with tbo Einpei-or 
to take macfa notice of their proceedings, aud from that time nil 
L allegiance to ISambhaji scorns to have ooasod.' In 16S1 andl6t^2, 
I an part of ihu scheme to imprDve the positiou of the BngKsh Company. 
1^ Hit John Child, tbfi PresidcDt at Snrat, was ordered to rcetorg the 
n K^nrir factory on a larger scale than bwEora* In 1683 tho tnreRt- 
H aoats from K&rwfir wore consideruhlo.^ In tho following year tha 
p Bnglisb woro ucarly driven out of Kirwir. The orow of ono of two 
small vesBOls, the Mexico and the China, which had come to K£rw4r 
for cargoes of pepper, «tolo and killed a cow. Tfaey were mobbod 
by . thu poople, and firing in defRUce had the misfortune to kill two 
ohiidrun. The people seized the pepper and iQ spite of offers of 
repnratioii were »o enraged that the factors' Uvrs were in danger 
and tbo Honse B4;emed likely tw be doatroyed. Tho presonoo of tho 
Compnny'ii shipping prorented an attack.' In 1(187 IJij^par was 
taken by Anrnngxcb, and with the help of the S^vannr ctite£ tho 
Mnghals promptly established their p<iwor over the KSnarese country.' 
both the ohiefn o( Sonda and uf Bednur agreeing to pay tribute.' 
According to Wiika, in 1700 the Mogholfi hold tho Kamatak and all 
the Bala Qh&t or country above tlLO SaLyadri!) with S^vanur as 
ihoir capital' 

lu ll>95 tbo Italian traroUer QomolU Corori pasMd through some 
of ibe terriory uf the Sonda chief, whom he (jddly names Sondekirani- 
kartja. H$was lord of soma TiUagoa amoog the mountaiue, bai 


HrfO- I69t. 

Dti'a DiMoriml Ptrattmontl, 111. * Onno, 145. 

"*Onat DuCf, L 338, givM 1684 m tl>< dftte *A irhioh Suabbdil'i taprcmac/ ia 
aarlli Kinitt* i-Mit* to an viiil. * Bruoo'a AniuklN, IL i&3. 

■ DvOkiU BTo giroB taiAvt TnAt. Onva** Hiitorical Fragraenti, 30!t. 

• ruton W SmtH, ISth 8«pt«raber I6S4 ; Bruon'a AiuuU. II. MS. 
' Aaoanuns to Orm* (Ubtoriml FraRmcnta, 144) HvIUi in OhAmix mamaAtnA It 
UMriu) fofcc in less. 

* wakB* 8<Mtlk of ladu. I. 2I». Wilk* (1. 100) Doti««a that Annuii^Db putiiilitd 
Bvdour chioifor sittinuon « tknine, muI MUo<ihimeunini1tr«rlAudk>rti. Muuro 

Boanl of B«v«niic, :iUt 3Jk}' ISOO, 10 ■ aa The dktc kt which tho Bednur ctiiof 

in to My trihuta ««Q(Rt doubnnl. Wilk* in one pMwi^u (I. TiS) yivca ISS4 

InuiaUMr tl.t!llV) IflW. TboldMbali MUtiliabodthMnMliun id M»uur ImIwimoi 

1 ItitH (Wilk«. L IM]. iSieir hoatl-iiuttrt«ni were Rt Sira iu tlio nortli of th« 

, mkI 8ira oonlinoeil th«ir hckd'qtiarUri till it wtm Ivit ti> tttc M«rittito ia 

r.l->/<i Mywn, U. 113. 

J 1 -i. In im>^ the Itiliin tt*vellM- Gemelli Cftreri (ChiiToliiU'i TnTeb, IV. 

r.ilB furt in tbulAtiiiioI Mo^'tajLlii and thior country oomingolciMtoOaM, 

-ii() d— cri be» tlie Sulihauf Flmmta &• iliaiaing ttie poor cuuntry p«>1'In 

[|Bi'- >'ttw«t lonctiiiint yvf tlxuiaunda of rup«<a. tii the uitmcla (ktliiitt 

i-.-L...... > It. 12ff) oitho 9M yuar u[ AuruiKicVa rdgii, that is lAftlt, Bcdur ia 

i am ttw «v«ri«rd of ibc fiaiaiUk lUua. Tkis tDut Im Bsidur or Bedaiix. 

[Bombftr Oi 



lpt« TIL 



GemtlU Cartri, 


tribatAiy and subject to the Grant NTofflukl irlioni he was ohiiged-j 
Hcrvc in vrar.' The country wae exoeedtogly difficult to travel m : 
full of robbern.'' Tho chief lived at Samb^iii ftboot sovon miles itouif 
of Ualiyal. It had a goo«l market aad an earthen fort with walls 
seven !>piui» high. Thi- chief was nid to moke £30.000 (Ra. 3.00,000), 
out of thia one village, which, gaya Careri, ghcwg bow craolly Uio 
jdolatora and Musalmiuui oppicss tho people.* la 1690 tho KAnrAr 
factory seem to bave been prosperous. In this year a direct trade 
waa opened between Karwar oad Eogland, perhaps uwiug to the 
extreme deprewJon of Bombay in consequeoca of the failure of tlie 
Cbildfi' scbome to act indopcndcntly of the Mogbal Govomment.* Xa_ 
1600. Qviiigtou remarks tfiat in K^rwiir deer, aatolope, peeooekf : 
wild bulls nnd cows were almost tlie daily furnitnre of the f« 
table brought home by the meesengers withoat any farther expei 
than that of powder and shot.* In 1002 the chief of the Bngl 
&ctory was held in great respect by the leading people of I 
neigh boo rhood when with hin fnllownrs ho started to hunt. A pack 
twenty Gngliah dogs, good for game, was kept and each allowed two 
ponndb of rico a dny at tho Company's cost. One day witbiii tho 
■pace of two hoors more than twelve deer, two wild cowa with their 
(Wvee. and four or five hogs, were killed. At the close of the day the 
chief Tras led homo by the whole company, which included most |& 
the people of distinction in tbo ncigbbourhwKl with their vassdH 
and servants, who at the factory gaii) made him a oompliment aacr 
departed, Sn great wan the fame of K4rw:ir as a place for sport thai 
two yoQug men of hij-h family, a Gorman of the bouse of Lemboarg 
and a eon of Lord Glaring, ciimo out and stayed at KArwiLr." A 
few ye-j^rs later tho factors were better hosbands of their nMjney. 
Tboy discharged nit their dogs nnd other saperBoitiea. Only one old 
custom was kept, strangers from Europe ware treated with pret^ 
black female danoorg.' 

During tho last ten years of the eeventeenth century the Dutch 
made every effort to the English pepper trade at EllrwAr, 
and in 1697 the MarAtbiU I&id KtLrw^ waste." In 1 701 the tmde in 
white pepper was encouraged," and thoKdrwAr factory was continued 
as it appears in the list of plocee belongiiw' to the two East India 
<3()mp«inioa ut their union in 1707-8.'" In 1607 (August 17) the 
Portuguose made n ti-onty with the chief of Sonda, nnd^ which they 
wore ullowed to cut timber and to build a church." 

The history of Kfinum during the eighteenth century belongs 
to two main sections : Up to 17G3, during which tho north of the 
district as tax- us MirjAn was under Sonda and tho south wus tind«r 
Beduiir ; and after irO;3, when the whole district waa conquured by 
Huidur Ali {17(31 -I7b2j of Maisar. It continaod to bo held by his 
son Tipu tsultdu (1782.179d) nntil on Tipu'a overthrow in 1790 tho 

1 Ctmrabill. IV. 117. » Chorchill. IV. 21ft • Chvdini, IV. Sli. 

'SeeBomlivOagottcaa'. XIII. *m. * VoyagB to Siuat, Ml 

• BMDiHoB'a Svw Accoiiat, 1. 2M ; Anikraou's Wcst«ni IttAm, 13&-18fi. 
» Hkmilton'iNc* Ac«o)uit, I, SHi Aadcnou'i Woctora Iwli*. 1S5-136. 

• BniM'i ,1nnoJ«, lit. 2*0. • Bntc* AouJa, III. tW. 

•* Biticc'i AiuiAli, lU. UL " lastmccAo d« Mm^u** d« iUogM. 13-17. 




irtiold dtstrict passed to the Britifili. To tHe beginning of tho 
eiglitoeDUi century in the north of tho district, ItaHAva Linp^tho 
Sonda cbii-f, who hud sarceisded hia father 8«dishiv in 1697, con- 
tumed to rule till 1 74&. Uosava soetae to bavo further incroascd tho 
power of Sond& to which his father SodlUhir bad bo gnsatljr added. 
Tha declioe of the Mar^th^ and tho friendliness of tho Moghftls to 
wbom he paid tribute, end of tbu l*ortuguc<Ki with whom ho ivaa in 
oktw ikUiaace, combined to enable Basava to spread bis jKtwor ms far 
voatiias Miridn. According to a local nmuusc-nptliislunr', in 1715, the 
old forts of KiirwAr and Kadra, about sixteen milon east of Klirw&r 
were pnllcd down and in tbcir fhux new forts wcro built, Sad&- 
ahivgad called aft«r Bosava's father at Chitaknl on tho north or 
right bank of the river mouth, and Kur&mgad ou an island oS 
fjadAwbiTgnd.' In 1707 iho Portuguese made a ^eah treaty with the 
Bodnnr chief under which the leave granted to them of holding fao- 
t urk i a at Mitidn, Hoatlvar, Oband^rar, and Bbatkal waa conSrnied.^ 
In 3713 tho i'ortugnoso and the king of Bodnnr, who wag alwaya 
prond and tronbtesomo because K&nara was the gmnfiry of all his 
iMtgtiboarSj had a disagrocmcnt about a Bcdnnr vemel wbiob waa 
aeiaed by tho Portuguese for trading without a Portaguene paa& 
Tto yreeroj Bent a fleet of eleron paUas or galix-ats and 350 men 
nndsr Jose Pcrcira do Drito, a man of valour. The squadron loft 
Ooa on the loth of January 1 713, and on the 18th arrired at the riTer 
of Ciuuaia or Eumta, the first river in tho kingdom of Kanara. 
Setv eleven Bednur ships were captured and burnt. From Kumta 
tiie Beet went to Hon&var, and aftor doing nothing there passed on 
twen^-five luiles south to Barkator which thejr burned, capturing a 
fort and destroying ten ubipa and much merchandise, ^'rom 
Barkalor Ibey sailea to Kalydnpur in Motoh^r which also they 
destroyed.* These losses brought the Boduur chief to teruu. On 
the 1 9th Febroary 1714 KelaJi Basavappa NAik, king of K&nam, 
agreed to be a loyal luid faithful friend of the Portuguese ; to pay 
£1500 (Xs. 30,000] and dl&O bah» of rico towards the Portuguese 
war CDcpenses, and to oontinae to pay 2900 bales of rice a year of which 
4O0 baloe were to be white and clean. He premised not to allow 
Ax»b or other ships unfriendly to the Portagnese, to vi-sit hi» porta. 
He agreed that tho Portngncao eboald catablish a factory at Maugalor, 
and promised that their factor should be treated with respcrt, and 
that the factor and vicar would settle cases in which Christians were 
concerned. He allowed the Portngueae to build churches where 
there were Christians, and engaged that his oflScers would do the 
misaionanca no harm, that he would keep no Christian alaves, that 
be would not allow Christian men to marry Ilindu women, and 
tbat be would aend unchaste Christian laymen to the factor of 
Uangalor. The Portagoese in return agreed to hotp the king in any 
war in which bo might engage ; they promised that every year two 
KAnara huain tibould be allowed to go to OrmuK to fetch horses ; and 
engaged that their priosta vroatd foroe no one to become a ChriatiaiL* 







' OrutDufl'(llAnlttuU,t.igS)Mystli«t Sulilihivgw] wubailt hy Shlriii. Tho 
WQfki ISA/ k»ro bwD begun by him mxI tiaiahnl by tho SoodKoliibr, If 8«dtehlT 
awl not IUmvb was tliA lmild«r tj!i« fort mn*t lure tiW) liiitUiod befora 1997. 

■butnooao, S. * Oi rDrtu^B>ea,VII.I48- IM. 'OsPortngucMi, VU, 1^7 ■ 107, 





I BifllitMMtih 
\ Qmtmy. 

In October 1715, Ur. Stepben Stratt, the Deputy GoTeracrr 
of Botnlny, ires evut tn iaquiru into charges ot mismiiniigamcot 
wUicU had Ijoen brought agiuunt the KArwdr, TelUcliorri, Kalikat^* 
Bod Angcneo factum. Strutt reached Ktirwdrou thoSlabof Uclobot 
and fuund wree Portuguese vesneU cruizing at the mouth of th< 
liv-er to keep tho coust clear of piratos.' Ho loft a List of qac«tioDa^ 
to bo anawtircd bjr tho Kjtrwfir factors, and, on his return fruui 
tho eouth, seems to havo booo gatisfiod with tbcir replies, a», aulik^^H 
Aogongu, K4m-)Lrpu&8odthttiuijuiry withuatpuuisfament orceuiiure.^H 
A loug-staadiog digpiito wliicb it was hoped Mr. 8iratt would scttlo 
•WHS regarding the Kiiglish ship Muuaoou, which had been acised by 
Angria iu 1707, and immodiateljr aftor at tho renaest of the Engli^ 
recoTOrcd by tho Fortuguoaa Sinco 1707, the PorbuguMo kad 
persisted in refuging to give np the ship, and Mr. Strati's efforts met 
iritb as little BucoeftS as the previous negotiations.' 

In 1715 the romovul of tho &<iDdtt chief o fort from old K^rwArJ 
about throo milett abore tlie Eugli^h House, to SadAshivgad at the 
mouth of the rirer, sorioualj interfered with tho safety of thti 
filotory. It was nuw little more tliau a genteel pri^ua.* A.fter the 
Konda IWja's battery at tho mouth of tho river ■was completed,^ 
Mr. Taylor, who was then llio chief of the factory, was foolish euonghj 
to annoj Baaava Linga by fleizing a wroclc which camo nahors 
about four milea Erom the Factory.' Tho Sooda chief besieged the 
factory for two months during the rains. Two attempts to reliei 
the fawtory, from tho aturmiuess of the season and the inejficiencj 
of some of tho trooptt, were Httlo bettor than failnrea, nnd thonghj 
witb the help of a irieudly MotiidmiLn the aiege of the factory was^ 

■ Bosidea the HAlrans sod tke AuniM who ' T«iy inqiiuloiitJr' fired at Mr. StruM 
on but way ionii tfa« oooM, Aa 4lrab fflaai, luL-ludlug oiw alii|> vl M<oul)-fi>ar fpaa, 
Iwo of lixty, on* ot fitty, «ight««ti of tUirtytwD tu twvlv«, adJ »om« rov-Vmle «( 
•igtit Ut fonr gnns, lt«pt in &wo tha whol« oout ol W(«t«rn India. lIsmUkA (t'llQ] 
in LaVa Indiiui Navy, 1. VI. * Low's Indiui 'S.t.ry, I. 83. f 

' The ddUlla ■>( iho L'splara of th-a Manaoou, a vbaraoMrutic and in ita tima ai 
biuoui coae, axv thu> rocuided lu tbo BomlMiy Quarterl; Ituvien-. III. CA. In tli« 
kefpimiug of 1747 BaiLkul iioar KlrwOr was tbc ai^cnc of tlio uajitun; of an EuglJab 
ahi|i uaium] t3ib K4a»iM.-ii by tlic Girrvu aava^M, iLat ia tlw Sbiv&jU or Muritlila of 
t.htna in Rattuigiri. THv KuglinU (iiip Aai-angwb atartiiif; from KArwar to MaB^fiJar 
noticed that a llaot of foiu -J[i«Im and tbirty-livp galivats uador Niki Prabfan, tbe 
gcmoral ol Atiffria's flavt, lay in Bed oovv, thai i* to Baitkal. TlMy did not attack 
uc Aaraiu^th Off Aniidir the Annuigmb net tho abip MoDMom boviui nortli- 
wofda, Tbo cttptttin told tha ■upsroargov of tbo MonBoon iJiat k prate doet lay in 
waiting oS Kttrwilr and oEforod to cwiart bim to Caoe K&mn.. Xbo «a|N*««MM aud he 
did Dotfoar th«piratn and the .\uriLngMb Inft. Karly in thamnrning tb« Sbmljia came 
out aod sttaok«u Uto M<>Daciiiii whioh iinrMiiid«r«(l aftor tbrae bonn. The Monaooa 
waa brcughl to Kaitkul onveand tlu' Kurapnans w>rt sUowtH lo )^ to KArwAr faotniy. 
Iba chtei of tbe KirwAr fortory, icnt word totboQoa ric«my to waylay Afigria*B 
fleet and reooroT tho Monauon. Anf;i\tCjt f1ci:it after waiting fosr ilaya in Baitbul oov« 
atartel (or Gbtwiik Tbey had to beat nj.'iui>nt n >trong hoadwiod aud off CKm won 
kttaokod bv aomo Portngucae ahip> and liod bcfuto the wind baok ta Unttknl and 
nuD tbo Mumnon en abore. Tbe Portugiieae punned, droto oCT .\fi£ns'a vkmbI, 
listened the Monaooa, aiid nrried li«f to Ooa. TIib Bombay {iuvi^uuL-Bt fur 
setcn yean (J707- 1714) tviod to jicmudc tbe PurtngaeMtomtare tbeMociaiwa, but 
the negotiation* failed, * Hatnilttiu'a New Acoonot, I. 208-371. 

' The writer in tbu B-^nnbnv Qaartcrly Itcview, HI. fi7. oall* tbe rija tbo dceiL 
and Cai>tAin L4<;v iKut. Iml. Navy, L MJbM aupjiotudtbat tbe d«MUwaa tJiedeaii of 
.SAvaatvadi. ilatniiUNi (Kow Aeoooatt 1, 378} diatliietiy states that ^e ohie< ^ 
rAJa ol Souda. 

rmisi>d, BafATn continned 8o hostile that tlie Compnny ynro forced 
(orwnuve thti factory.' 

Of Ko-oara, about I7S0, Cnptun Alexander Hamilton has loft 
tbo follovring (lelaits : The uonhinoiat barboiir was Sevastwr, that 
\i ShiroBhvar, » bad port, with tho cover of a caAtlo nnd a few 
gnna. Tho nvxi wk^k Kkrvt^s with a ^ood hitrboar aud a river fit to 
reioeivo ressuls of yiO Urns, Tlic RjSja was tributary ti^ the Moghal. 
The wooda were fnll of wild beasts, but the valleya abouDdLtl in 
oom BJid grow tho host pepper in Todia.' Tn iho Sonda chiofa 
lonitoricH tAore wero three small barboart), Aakola, Cudderniadi 
or Kadiue, and MirjAn, whoso river euded his tt'rritories,' Deji^ond 
Utrjin beguD K&nara, which, according to Hamilton, wa&abott«r 
country than Soiida. Its two chief towns were Honor or IIonATar 
where wag an old caatlo, and Batakolaor Bhatkal where, abont fonr 
miles from tho sea, were the traces of an old vity. The Enjilish ofton 
eamoto B«takolafor pepper, but they had never settled thei-e siuoo 
the massacre of the eighteen fact'ors in 1 670. Of the rolor of K&nara 
Hamilton aajB : The governor is generally a Indy who lives at 
BnydosT or ^ednur, two days' jonmcy from the sea. Sho mny marry 
wfaoRi fihe pleoseii, but her huslHi-nd never getii tho title of Ritja tliouga 
if aho Imvu sous the oldest does. So Long as she lives neither huaband 
noraon hasanythinff to do with the govern aujot. The people are so 
woU-befaaved tbnt robbery or murder is hardly hoard of. A stranger 
lUT pass through tho country without being aslc<»d whero he is 
gonig or what butiioeee he ha». No mau except au officer of state 
may ride on an elophant, homo, or mulo, and. no man may have an 
nmbrella held over hiui, though if he chooseit ho may hold an 
oiiibrella himself. In all thingM oUc there is liberty and property. 
Wheo Hamilton knew Krtniira (1700-I32U), KAi-w^r seems to have 
beeu the only Knglish Irudu scttleuitint. Shurtly after Hamilton 
li'flj a umall factory siibordiuate to Tellicherri was opened at 
HcnAvar, the chief articlos which tempted a settlement being peppor 
and uaudalweod.* 

Tn 1720 the north partot lowland Kllaara seoms to have boon ceded 
to the Uar&thia by the court- of Delhi as part of the MarAthd's Own 
Boteor Soa-riij in tho Konkau> lu 172G the Pesbwa BAjirao's raid 
across the Karndtak to Soringnpatam causod much distress in tho 
aootb of thcdixtrict." At tlw Wginuing of 1727, tho Houilvar 





lUaaihon'tNew Accoant.I. 2l!2-293; Bombay Quarterly B«vlnr,III.8;aadrr. 
Ml * IlAaiihaD't Xow \cao\iat, I. 202. 

> nanOtou's N«w Account, I. 27a • HodAtv to TrlliuOterri. 9b)i Jaay. 1727. 

* limit l>«S'a liuitliia, 2(X). Of Ui« tfakrCcuu plux* meatiunsd in tbv (Cuukon 
th« ImC tlii«« Mw, Plion.U, Akolft *p|»T«ntl}' AtiJoU, 4ttd KuilAl in tl:lvuitT.'Ull. In 

iiUwp |<)uaue (Ditto, S-M) the KoUUpnr torritnnr tn th« Konkan ia i;S7 is wid to 
laail troDi &■! tn Xtovgad in Ratn^ri to Anknln. 

* fWn (inuit DuITb MartUuha, 2iS. Uf Uuao MAiiltha nids Willi) {South of India, 
,233) writoi: DvaoUtloo erefyvlwra mariu thucoarmof tfa«M; cniit uid ioutialila 
lUwn. A UftrAtha ia ilMUinc of IIm innwoaitr and boDcar nliidi Wlotig to a 
oM rol>b«r. H« otiinbiDM tb« plaiuililo and gentle muMrnn of a iwin'ltur, tltfl 

|a*xtatty o( a ]ii<ikpcMket^ kbA tlM n«anM« cf a peddler. In tbo inluul countrioa tli« 
rault « tlM MafUba mid* wa« that wban luwa ouo* to a dutriot of tho appruitvh 
of «n momy tba peojile buriod tlieir nropeity and &vA to tka wooda carryinu witb 
. wbtf gnio thoy could. Tiuajn flidita wtra M commou chat the apecuJ wunl 
I aip^oil to thorn. Wilka, I. m 


iBombay Oust 





Ceutnry. i 

factors in writing to Tellicherri complaio that their ti 
Itad long been at a litand on nccoant of the raragcs of BAj 
Sonda wns plaudered aud Itlsckmuil levied in the country rooiul 
So wideepread was tho tdarin that tho qoiot people of Bednar : 
Bilgi flea leaving their Seldit uncultivated. Both the Sonda 
the Bednar chie£a agreed to ^ay tho Mar&tha ehauth or oQc-fonrb 
Sonda is roeationed as Buffermg from ManUha raids, but Uedt 
seems not to have again beou dtatorbed though the I077 of 
Uardtha tribute cuosod tho people much misery.' The friendi 
between tho PortngoeM and tho Sends chief continued. In 173 
(DeceiDber4}. thu treaty which had boon pasftcd in 1G97 was rtniewc 
and the Portaguoso were nllowod to build a church at Sinvansor 1 
Shiveahrar and to carry timber.' In 1739 the Mariltha rocor 
mention that though the Bodnar chief remained neutral the Rfija 
Bonda and tho Des&i of KlLrtvur helped the Portaguoso in the 
stmggle with tho Mar^th^/ On Jime 4th, 1742, the treaty of 17£ 
between Sonda and Goa was ratified and the Portugneso were gt 
certain villages, and allowed to trade and tobuud churches. 
Sonda chief promised to let no otber Kuropcaas settle in his terri 
Bo long as the rule of Basava Linga H&ja continued the £t_ 
efforts to ro-open a fact<»ry at KfirwAr met with no stioccbs. I 
BuHava's death in I74o, he was succeeded by his eon Imodi Sadisl 
(17i5-17oy], whom Portuguese writers name Sadiehiv Vor 
and duscribo a^ a Qiao of weak mind with no turn for gon 

but a strong liking fur ease and luxury, lie was in the hooc 

favooritc named Anamanti Viraya." In 1747 the Portuguese, wl 
were anxious to take poHsoasion of the fort of Pir or Piro, at 
month of the K&Iinaui, tried to pick a auarrel with the Sonda due 
Sadisbir had sciuod cortiiiu vesatHs in wnich mcrcbaata of Surat unt 
Din were interested and tho PorLuguo&e preaaad him to restore them. 
He at firnt refused, but when tbu Portuguese fleet appeared off 
SadAshivgud the resseU wore banded to the commandant of Anjittii^ 
who, not ondoistanding the Ticoror's intention, took the Hhipa ai 
the chanceof securing the fort of Pir waa lost' Aboat 1750, Imc 
Sad^hir was atteckod by tho Mar4tb&8 and forced to pay tribst 
The five diatricta below the Sahvildria were given as a pledgu fc 
this tribute to onoOopiil RAm who rostorod thotn when tho tribute wi 
paid.* In his efforts to raise £10,000 (Ks. lOO.OlX)) which were duo to 
tho MaMLthfts Imodi turned for help to the English. They refused ' 
lend hiiu the money and he said be would call in tho French. Tl 
throat brought CharIe!iCromtne3in from Bombay with instructions 
obtain privileges and counteract the FreDoh. Crommelin did litt 
himself, but a sum of money left with a native agent was so jndicioi 
spent that a letter came from, the chief inviting the £nglu)h to o[ 

' FMtoiy to T«llichtrri, Plh J»iiiimt 17S7. 

■ Munro to Bcwrd of Kcvenue, SIM liky IbOO, p«n. la 

* Initruccwi du Moiuuce i1« Alngm, Nuvn (ron, 19SG, 10, 17. 

• Onuit t>utr* :iluitbi«. 251. • Gnnt Dur« MfLTttthAB. 231. 
ftpboni Indies, Part IV., Tiiib<m. 1718. 37-38. 

_■ Btiljwlic*. I'artlV., Liabon, 17 1**, 37 -(G. Tho fort rf Pir or Piro i 
tobeStxliithirndorCliitakuI. Oii UioChiUkul hill tboro iasfcUIa ptrVorMiiMb 
■aint'a tomb. Hot Pl&cei of lnt«T«Bt, SadAahirgMl, * Bnchwu'a AlyMtD, lU. Stl 



ttar fanAotj at KAntia. Ilobcrt Holford was aent to open a trada in 
nfwr. He was at first sQcce^ful, botafti'rwards.aDder Portugaefie 
nouooe, wu io conatoarl^ thw(irt«d Umt ho aalced to be remored. 
_Bceootinaed at KArwAr from DoceiuLer 1700 to Soptenober 1752, 
lanctimoencoani^liat anotbortiraerobulTcd. He was not allowed 
ireiau'r tha old fcctory or to (ortity his house, and was forced 
to tnko down a flnff-staff which he had sot up According to 
At last the Fortugacso, who weru loof^ng for an oxcaae to 
war with the Sonda chief, took ad%-aii(ago of the fact that a 
nit processtoQ had cot b«en i^uwcil U> pass a tutnplo and sent a 
__ ^»U' to Kifrwtlr, and on the 3rd of November 17.'52, after a alight 
:»aflict, cam'od Pir hill Dud greatly etrcDprtbctiod tho fort. The 
Bomhay Government knew that with. Pir hill iu Portiiffneso hnndii 
tii£ir agent could have nn chftnc« of trade and recoiled him, and he 
rsturned lo Bomhaj in a Portogueee ressel.' The English Devor 
Bgatn Attempted to open a fnotorr at KArwAr.* 

In 17>^1, tho English chiof of Tellicherri concluded a treaty with 
tho chief of Bodnur ander which the RAja agreed to lot thoin 
robaild tho factory at HondTar, pronji*cd not to seinj Briti«h wrccln, 
and engaged to give thorn oxcluHtvo trado privilogo^. Id rctam 
tilt' f-IntfluJi BOnt bim a fiold>pieco with four guiiners and promised to 
ar.; ■ 'i stores and munitions of war to help him io a contest 

wi .Id fiiltilmout of this proiuiBO Captain Mostyonttho 

bead oi a few Europcauii marched to toe fort of Osdrug whero tho 
KAoareae geDeral and hiii army were encamped. Their powder was 
exposed to (ho weather, they bad udther pickutit oor advaace guards, 
azKl in orery way were uofit to Gght the impotuous NAyers. Mostyn, 
finding it vain to nttempt to introdaco order and vigilaooo, rotamcd 
in disgust to TellichorrL' 

At this time, according to Sir Thomaa Mnnro, the Bodnur 
gorcmment, though very rich, had not oompIct« control over the local 
chiefs.*' Tho population waa dimiuiehed by froquunt revolts of putty 
ebj«fs and tho favourites and dopendoota of the Bodnur chiof wero 
allowed to raiu many of (he leading families by tho Icry of exorbitant 
&ncs.* Kxtra cessoa were iai]3osud umi iii«do ponnanRnt and were bo 
facdvy thai if all hud Iwtjn leyiod Uttle would liiive been left to tho 
tandbalders." Still tho whole was not levied and land was valuable, 
being occaaionaUy sold at twooty-Gvo or thirty years' purohaae.' 

On the 2.5th of ^fay 17-^4, tho year of one of the Mnnitha raids 
into tho Kariuituk iind Mninnr, the trenty oE 1742 botwocu tho 
pDrta^oese and the 8ouda chief was renewed. In November of tho 
EoUowmg year, on condition thnt they gave up the fort nf Pir, the 
Portuguoae wore grantod four villages and allowed to make a fort to 
the south of the R^inadi ncnr Baitokiila or Baitkiil. Id February 
17&6 this treaty was coufirmL-d with flight modificatioiiE.'* In 1756 


17m 11 


nM mi 

* Botatwy QiiBrt«ily Botmw, VL20Q-2IO; AnqasUl du Perroo'* Zond AvmU, 
IKaooan I'^limitukln, ocii. 

' aniWjr g»«rt«riy lUvjuw, VI, 210. • Bomlwy Qnartflrly Review. VT. 310. 
■ 1 I lhMnlfl(B«v«)uc,3li>t Miiy ISOO. para. 16. • To Boxnl of Itevenue. par*. l«. 
' Tu Ooard of Kinvnui', giani. 10. ' To Bcwnl of Beveuiw, p«rM. 17 uia 20. 

* ltiatncc»o,l6 17. 
a 810-19 




iapter TIL 

Dm PgtrWf 


Saidar AS, 

BMavappa Naik, tlie l&st chief of Bodnar, died. Ho left aa bdo| 
Bon, a yuutb ot serenteen, named Cluui BasaT&in, tinder tlio cl 
of his widow, an abandoned woman, who, on her hnsband's de 
liTod with n paramour named Nimbaia. Tlie young chief remoiiatn 
and uu the I7th oi July 1757 was mordorod by tbo ardor of 
adoptive rantber. Tlie people bi-oko into rovolt and in Ibe oonfo 
the Mur^th^ seized rhs fort of Mirjin.' 

Tho French Rcholnr Anqacti) du Perron, who passed north thronj 
the district in February 17i>d, found thai since tho murder of 
yoang chief the peoplo had riecn in rerott, and that the loTica ' 
were imposed to raise the tributo of £50,000 to £00,000 (Ra. 5 1 
Idlchs) duo to the Miu'titbfU, r&uaed lunch injury to tmde.- In 
north the Sonda chief was at war with the MaiBthis.' Ho 
formerly beea tributary to the fiitranur chief but now paid trtbi 
to the Mnnithiis.' Tho pUcK* which du Perron mentions in 
3<:>iimey northwards are, Ualokol or Ithatkal, a fort built on a 
with n riwr ;'■ luid Onor or HonAvar, with in EngliBh factory, wl 
did not show from the sea. Close to HonAvar were two furtifi 
jgUnds, Knludnrg and Rajnmnndnrg-, Komta or Komoutn hud] 
Christian church, a river, auJ u furt on a hill on the ecn. Mirj&D, i 
deep liver of tho same name had two forts one of which did not di( 
Beyond Mirjdn was the fort of KAgul. Next came Gohnm. a far 
temple; thou tho village and river of Gaugttvali ; then Mt 
the rivor that separated K&naru from Souda ; aod then Anl 
Tho next place was Anjidiv, belonging to the Portugup«e, 
fortilicd, and with tho be^tt cotton atockiuf^s to be bought oa 
coast. Then the Kdrw:&r liver where the Sonda chief had mat 
fort, but the Portnf^eso held tbo month of the river. CIom; to 
river month was [ioetakol or Baitkiil cove. 'J'ho Sonda territ 
extended to the Asolna atrenm, five miles north of Capo Rat 
On tho 24th of October 1 760, as the Portuguese dreaded a ManLtj 
attaok on Goii,' the treaty of 17oi3 betwooit the Portu^aeno and 
Sonda chief was renewed. And on the 12th of Scjptember I 762, 
PortugnoBO agreed to restore the iftland and fort of Shimpi (Ximpin) 
which they had held for aouiu montlis * 

The crimes of tho Hdui of Bcflnnr and tbo disordered state of Iter 
territory oiieucd the way to its conquest by the great Haidar Ali.* 

> WOka' SoDtb of luitu, E. 400 ; BomUy Quuttirly lUview, VI, SIO, 

* Zend Arcntsi, TUm:. Prelim, cxqt. cxovi rxcix. ' Zetul Avc«to.l>iH, Pivliln.4 
' In l7Sti tho Pa^WK dirootAil BaJvantrioto bMfwo Bcdunr^ «nd in Uw folle 

ywr, tliungb th«y did nut sa«oeed in nochinu Builnur, tbey innded k 
lirenl DulTo Mantth^, 'm. 2118. 

* ^aA AvtUa, Wiac. IVlim. cxciv. • Zmid Ave»t». Ili»a rirliro. cctU. 
'Onut I>uir. 294. T!ie rortuxnoe viucmy attMckcd I'hi.-iRU, but oitiag to 

lalMnndDti »( lu* ttvup* uns ilain. Msieur wni ln-va inviulvil try 'l(<|idl II»n Ja i 
pr«vi(Mt« j'oiir (17o!l). tlriuit Vatl, 51)3. * [natroMMt, IA-17. 

* lUtdiU' AH, who ruled Uiti-iir (rem 1760 to 178*. wa* bom in ITiS. H* wu 
grrat-unuxlxin o( Multuuiuiul Uiivlul. 4 rcti^uai em!gnuit from tho Puajib 1 
Mtiled tiL Kulbann. Hi* ton Muhammftd Ah wm a cnitOOlB nMMcnaar utd his 
iPatCvMiihamniiwi,naaiUr*i father, distmguialieJ hbiiMlf inila jrovth ny r««ov 
luit bftttic Mid row to bv PaajtUr with thi.' titloof l-Vt« Muh«jiiiii*d KbiU. 
antbor WM tb« daiiffhtcr o(«NavAiyat nx-rvluuil. H*id»r Alt &rat roM I 

ia 17i9 at thfi itaza of D«TMihalli where he fought w a vx>liuite«rim'lerfau1_ 

Bu QMlnew mkT courage attr»ctvd tlie att«ntum of hb genenl Saujn EtAJ^ 




tn 1 702, the year after he bad made bimeolf saprome in Mauur, 

triftiUtr coma to }£aidar who wm then in the aoiglibonrhoiKj of 

9tni iu north Muitjur, lold him tliat he waa the young chief u( 

Bedirtir whoso liEo tbc Ksasein had nparod, and asked his help 

ia recorerittg his territory. Huidar agreed and adranced towards 

Bnl&nr in iTuQaary 1 7i>3. Tho city of lUdDar lio3 id n budio encircled 

bjr hillfl thrw to ax mUca dintatit. The country round ia hilty and 

KM than 80 thickly covcwyi with timber and undorwood that the 

Unbunmadans had a eayiit^', * Yuu can \ydaii moat of the year at 

Inur witboatBOoioethcsDU.'* Uatdara<lvnnc(><), rejecting all t«rni8 

Kwcd by the RAni. At Kuinsi, tliirty luilt-s from Bodiiur, ho 

forttfo&to enough to find an imprisoned minister who andortook 

lo najtiftint bim with the rcsourcfs of the country and to guide him to 

Uk* city by a secret path. As the Maisur army drew nearer, the RiiQi 

Ihedtu buy Huidaruff with au offer of £576,000 (12 iakhtoipagoilai) 

fr^-Vh she afterwnrJs raisi'd to Jt3G4,000 (18 hil'hs of pagodas). 

, refnsed and the RAni Hod, leaving orders that on tho 

■ i danger the palace and treasury' abould bo buruod. Early 

oh llG'i Kaidar reoohod tho first nutn-ork of tho city. Ho 

irvuin a iioiay and feigned attack, and under cover of the confusi<»i 

Ifld a body of cboseo troops by a ujcrot path and entered the city in 

(aoatoquL-uchlbc- fin;^ which had been lighted by theRAui's^rrauts. 

Bvdnar had never li^fore ix?on attacked nud was full of wealth. 

Hio people tied to tho hills without even bidiug their treasure. 

The (moiuuse wealth of the richest town of the ea^t, eight miles in 

arcnrnforcnco and full of Hoh dwellings, was loft without a claimaat 

Baidar prevented hia troops frotn plundaring the city. He set hia 

Wftl on all tha ricbor buildings ana is «aid to haTo gained property 

which at a Tnost moderate estimate was worth at least twclrc million 

poftodB. Those riclios were tho foundation of Hnidar's f^reatncRa.' 

AdotiKJiment sent to tho coast took Honjtvar and the fortified i^^liLiid 

of Baavnrijdurg; a second detachment captured the Itani, and .ihe, 

ber pttroinour, her adopted eon, and the pretender, whom Haidar's 

CmopA had named Qbaibu Rija or the Cotnc-to-life chief, were 

i»iiBnc<l t'jgL-tbcr ill the hill-fort of ^udg^<ri.' Jiaidftr raised 

Bodntir to the rank of a city or n<iffar, and cullod il Ilaidamagar 

bi« I'Wn city. Be •letemiintid to mitk^ it bis heiAJ-fpiartcrs, struck 

ooitut in in mint, and at Hon;iTar and Mangalor on the west coast 

pivpared dockyard^ and naval arsenals.* 

jlial'tmtt yiii*ux. Hmidw wm pUeed m comioaiicl of fiftv bona u>i\ 300 loot, uul was 

tbntm oi VnvuAiMUi. a fniutier tartrvmi. In 17&5 lie fttnrieil tliv iiuoUui u( hi* 

' by pluiulcriii4{ TridiiuupvU. Iu 1730 lie took. • loiuling imrt iu w.ttliu|f the 

■^ «( ill* wBtaaoua M«uiir troopa. In 17rr{) lio wm cIimoii to uubuuhuI * furc* 

t0 akDOt » event Unnlttik utro«4, wm luccaMfnl. uti roturnud in triumph. 

4 aaw tha iMding num in MAi«ir : but ho toon aftfr loit «ll bin power wbicb wu 

.„ liy tiM! Himlu miaMtor KliUMlerio. Haid&r ntu itErfnatod and hw) to fly. 

Bui wtib pT««t itkitl aud. with tJi« belp of Mm old minister Nftdje ttiJA, bo def««te>I 
K'"' ' 1 1 bcveioe auurcaie. Kico'i Mraont, I. 'iM-ifiO- 

ii4 of Indb. I. H9. ' Wilk.. 1. 150-W3. 

' V. -^r, .. 1^3, Tbvy vrrnr reltwi-I by tK" MarAIIiia in IJA?. Uitto. 
•WUk*. 1, 4A4; RkoiiMjB.ffd.1,960-26-2. to Ki>rl«lOr, Uob, IV. JW) 
UnttinT Alit utuy iiwludcil bU.OUtf camlrj- and iufuitry, 30O Btat« ul«pli«ul0. ■ body 
at rnnok ttoofM, 4uil loiuy Ki'«ncli offlcun. 


JlnuUr AH, 

f Bombay Gasett 


diapt«r VII. 


ffaidiir Alt. 



When news reacbed tho English factory at nonAvar that Hak 
waa in Bednur and vr&s lord of Kdnara, Stroccj, tba Briti^ 
roiiiident, slup])ed bis gold bo Bombay nnil with bis two nssiat 
trarcllml to Bodnnr, and presenting ibcmsclves to Ilaidar, vrc 
allowed to contiuue to trade at UonAvar.' 

After tbo &U1 of Bednur, in December 1763, a force anioT Hail 
Jong, better known as Kauai Ulla Khiin, was sent againHt tho 
couutjy of Sonda,' SnvAi Tmodi Snd^tbiv, the Sonda chief, beg 
thu Portuguese to help him, and after a feeble rosiatanco, flee 
SluTosbvriT on the coast, about eight miles north of KiirwAr. 
vicuruy Monaol do Saldanha do Alboqnorqtie sent troops to 
PhoDi]a, Zanibanlim or JaboH, Kanacona and Caiw Itdmafi. ITiuI 
Jang overran all the Sonda territory except the ])nr1» bold by tl 
Vortuguofte. He took the forts of Sbiveshrar, Sadasbivyad, ai 
Anlcola,^ and was layinif siege to Kol^d when he was rt>called 
meet the advance oE tlio Manith&3. Sfivai Imodi Sad&shiT witbdi 
with his family and treasure U) Gua, where be reooived a pei 
and where a repreaentatire of the family eitill lives/ 

Though he was »o snccessful iu Bcduur and Sonda, iu 
following yeara in 17(5t, 1765, and 17(>7, Hnidar was 
defeated by Miidhav Pesbwa (1761-1772), who claimed aii int 
in Stiudaand the right to levy tho OQC-fonrtborc/miiM in Mai»ur,i 
had Uj buy vii the JktariLtli&i by Ihu payment of very large bud 
In Januar}' 1768, during tlie tliird year of the first war between 
Enghsbaud Hnidar (176C- 1 76»). tho Kngliab tried to enUst 
MantthiU as allien by tbo offer of Dcdnur and Sonda.* A sqaa 
of ships with 400 Europoana and a Urge body of sepoys wna 
to attack Hnidaru neo-portP. At IIoDArar Haidar nad becna 
make a navy, but his captains were so disptcftfcd bocaase h« 
given tho command to a cavalry officer tnat, when the Englid 
squadron ap]x>arodj Haidar't^ fleet of two ships, two grabs, and 

Siivats joined tho Kngliiih. Fortiftod Island at> tlic moath of 
onltvar river aud HooSvar fort were taken with little loss, n&dj 
small garrison was loft t':> defend them. The English did not h<] 
IhoHe places for long. In May of the same year flaidar'a troc 
appeared, and in spite of their strength DonAvar fort and Fortif 
Island yielded almost without resistance.' In 1770, MAdhamSo 
Poahwa, who was most anxious to take Bednnr and Sonda, enter 
Maisur and defeated Haidar, btit his failing health forced bim 
retire to Poona,^ 

la Kebruary 1772, Forljca, tho author of the Oriental Momftij 
passed down the KAnara coast. He notices that K^rwir vas a 
of iinpurtanoe during tbo fionriRhing days of tho Portugnese, 
that the English bad formerly a factory tbero for tbo purchaao i 

' Rnmlny QiiArtoHjr Rtiview, VI. 211. 

> Wilk.- South ol India, I. 4Ji6 : Rico'> Mvtore. L 282 ; Crwit DuU SSO. 

* iJwciiptao (!«rftl E Hiirloricft Ity Arngflo, Vol. III. 1880. LiriMU, U. DeUOs 
lilSPnnjL-r .S-.i.lft. Uinuit Uuff. 331. M7. • (Iraat D«il. SMi 

■ lii.liiii KA17, I, 15*; WiIkJiSoBlli<.(Ia4i*,l. MliBico'»Mj»ow. l.flW. 
t Dun; 3tf', Ji7. 


Tliorc were a nambor of Portapieee inhabitanls with 
. :j::;^]i iu vrhoso diocese wore tlie Bomnn Catlinlic cliarchea 
in Uoaibay. 1d Xho foreatA near Kirw^, vrbere tbo hKatr tre« 'was 
fetnniUot, tlicre was a coasiderntilo mannfactura of cstBohn or terra 
j^Mnica.' He noticM Oaor and Mii-zi, th« \ttst of wLich he idctitilios 
Willi ilif ftiiciont 

Miisiris. The country near was fanionH for ils 
l-ii'ivr, fftssift, iiDdTviiJnatrac^.' Fyrlific-<iUIand alitlleto the south 
d Mirti wrtrt nlfout a milo rDond, rocky, barren, and so stronjr as to bo 
%<-BH><1 iniprcgnablo. The whole country woa in Haidar AU'b hands. 
Ouiir or UuD&T&r was on a river or n>It lake whoee bor on accoimt 
»( » tromenduaR itnrf tnn moat difficult and danfi^roiifi to orosa. 
it had a furt on nfling ground and was a small town of indifferent 
tensoii. The bt^Bt won the Ea^b'sb ^tory where two of tho 
GoDi;itkuy'& servniiU lived to buy pepper and sandalwood for the 
Pd^IicIi and Chinese markets. There wad a conHidopable private 
tm'k: with Bombay and the north in betelnuts and other articles.' 
T!.!' lowUoda neax were well tilled ami planted with cocoa and 
h-u) palme, pepper, rice, and inferior grains. Its most ralued 
iimiiuft was the white sandaJ tree.* 

AU>ut three years afti-r Forbes (December 1775) tho English 
trarF^ller PartKHis visited Kanara. Ho notices that the Portuguese 
[•y onded at a small fartified proiuoutory twenty-r<mr miles 
'■f Goa. Tlio rest of the coast was in Haidar Ah's hands. 
I Jy dj:cept)on was the inland of India Dave, that is Anjidiv, 
■ ill,. II lilotiged to tho Portuguese.' Oa tho side next the land wore 
tho town and castle mixed with verdure, Itme, plantain, and ooooa 
Itmq, and a fuw gardou>). Tho teland was chioBy used aa a place for 
felon.4 from (joa and DJu. Thuy wt-ro t^tught to npin thread and 
ymm and to wearo atockinffs which were tho best in India and very 
dioap. Aboat a milo oS aborc and fire uiilos north of Uomtvar was 
Fortified Island eirt with a stono nail fttrengtbened at proper 
dntancee by armed towers. At tho Bouth end the only landing was 
a fort with eight guna. At HouAvar tho Union Bag waa flying at 
the English factory and Uoidur'e flag on tho castle. Paraons wont 
aahore about fmir in the ufleruooa and wan well rooeived by the 
Oompaay'a rcsidorit Mr. Toonscnd and hia wife. The cnatle and 
town were on the north aide of llio river near the entrance. Aboal 
a milo from tho entrance was a dangcroas shoal, with not more than 
inne feet of water at low tido. At high tide the poat of the river 
waa sixt'OOQ to eighteen foct deep. It trsm oavigablo for largo boats 
a groat way lulaud and woh very courcDieut for bringing down 
pepper and saodnJwood of which Haidar had tho monopoly. Noar 
ihe castle were two half built frigates, one of thirly-two lue other of 
twenty-four gnns. They had prows and were what were called 
grabs. >V1i«n finished tooy would be complete frigntes, being very 
strong and of a fine mould. The work was snrprisingly good. They 
were built broadside to the river, because their way of laanching 
ahips waa to lay great beams of wood, grease them, and get olepliants 
(o pnsh tho voaael along the beama into the sea.' The coast wau uo 


■ Ui. Hen. I- 809 ^ Or Vom. I. 9IH, 'Or. Urn. 30r.. * (W. Vm. 907. 
» Puutia: Tiav«.l», 23D. ' Partoiu' Tnr«U, 220-*W. 

Chapter Vn. 






Chnptor VII. 



froor from [limtcS tliQu it had l>cc>] in earlier timea. The Manltl 
\ie\A Gbona with as strong and as piraticrU a floot sa Angria 
oytuoA, tuid farther eoath \Asa coaxt sufTered From thfi nuda of " 

DunDg Huidar Ali'e ^vornmont of Kioaro, which lasted from., 
hi» ounqoest of fiednur in 17')3 to his death on the 7th of Decetab^ 
1782, tbo dot&ilcd administration was eutrustcd to tbo ^1 
•ervantd of the foniier ^ovorutiient wiili a separate miaieter. 
yretc doabtless treated like all Haidar'a sabdrdinatc otiliciols. So 
offiooni, chooeo to enqniro into ombexslements, eacouodcd not 
in 6adiDg frandH, but in proving* ovil practices whcro no ci 
practices cxistud. Pn)bity becuoio not only iiDprofitabb hi 
imposaiblti. Those who had lovied mod.erato snrnft from t)io poo| 
wore anablo to pa/ whut Unidar dumnndud nud died uudcr tl 
tortiuv;^ thosi- ulouo escaped witli life wliu having curichod thoms(<U 
by csaution succeeded in ftntisfjiuK Haidar'a dumands. OUiccrs ai 
tos-gatberorB.who had been scourged almost beyond descriptiou, were 
kept in office iritk Uio marks of tbo ehipee us & pablio wajniac 
Naturally the oftiCL^ra meted to the people the same treatment " 
bad received. The evil eflocts of this Byfltom wore soon appu 
'Haidar,' says Munro* 'reocivod Kllnara a highly iioprovod connt 
611ed with induatrious inhabitant* onjo}'ing a gr<>aWr proportioo 
tbo produce of tbo Koil und liriug moru comfortably tliiui thoea 
any province under any native power in India. Instead of obaerrf 
the wLsic and tompomto conduct which would haVL' secnred to iil 
enjoyment of tho«o advauUges, hu regarded Kiiaara as a fund fr 
whiob ho might draw without limit to moot tbo itxpt-Qsiv of 
military operations in other quarlers. The wholu course of 
doputic«' admiuiatratioQ was a serii-s of csporimente to disoovor ' 
utmost to which the land-rent could be raised without dimioishi 
caltiration. The savings Meomnhtted in better timoe for some yc 
enabled the people to support the pressure of coutinuully increaut 
ctsnuindB; but they ccntd not support them for ever. Before Haida 
death, bkilnre und outstanding bidaoccs wero frequent.' ^V1lileHaic 
wacimporeriKhttig Kaimm bv these exactions, the death of the yout 
and warlike MddbAvhto Pea![in-u in 1772, tbo Buoooaidon of N^ 
a minor, and his murder in August 1778, so weakened the Mar 
Haidor'a greatest rivals, that no was able to extend hia power as: 
north as the KHflhna.^ Immediately after the death of Baidar 
(7th Deoomber 1782), inthe thir^l year of tho socond Maisnr 
(17B0-1784), in December 1782, news reached the Bombay Oovei 
ment that Colonel HuniberAt'Oiio had retreated to Fflniani 
that Tipu had appeared before it.* General Klathews was sent 
Bombay with a strong naval and military forco. He captured 
bill-fort of Itdjaniamlrug at the mouth of the Ifin^ or Tadri river, 
and passing up the river attacked nnd took the fort of Miri&n j 
Ue tben sent to Faoiani for Colonel AfcLeod. From MirjiUi tluH 

' PwTOM- TravelB. «18, 289. • WiUw' Sonth o* India. 11. 200 .901. 

■l«UarfKUBblMR«r. Mr. HcbwuU in Wdka' 8outh ol Indin. II. S7*. 
*L«ttor to Boftnl, Slit Mn; IHIW, p«». 2U. 'tinuit Duff*! MttritlO*, iOO. 
•Wilks' South of liuU*. U.5S, », 



deUcbmenta passed to tbc very strong fort oi Ucmimr. 
Llilie6ratof Jauaary 1783 tbo Uritieh batteries and tbe ^uh 
tii« abips upvnud uu tbu' fort, and on tbo sixlb a bruaok 
I made and tho place waa Hturmed. Bxctipt a ivvi u-bu foil m the 
U, tbe gamsouj who numborud abont two thoiteund, wcru Bot 
^liberty. CsptaiD Torriaoo the comuiandiug officer of artiUury 
•ru left in cliargc of tho fort, and the army pa8«>d soothwards on 
t&o fifbeeiilh, detachments having been sent to occQ|iy the forts o£ 
Ankola and Sadtohirgad.* By the treachery of the goTemor/ tfho 
fH hate^ by Tipu, oq tho 27th of January 17S:f, Beduiir the 
apital of Kfinnra was token with Itctlo Io«a Ti})u cotloctcd a 
treat force and atlockud BlhIuut. Captain Mulbows aCtor a bravo 
u e f tf pc n wasforcod tooapitulato on tbo 30tb April 1783, aud most of 
iite officers wera tnadti urisunvra. Tinn iscnt a larfifo force to North 
Xinara, and, by May, )firjflu and the other forts wero retaken. 
Gbptain Torriaao reftisod to ^ro up Uon^rar, and aKaiuat an army 
of ' -;ind men, he aud bis garrison of 743 officers uud nion 

ol aly 103 were Kuropoans, in spito of Iom, diaeaso, and 

wane nf supplies, held out till pc&ce wsa declared in March 1784, 
Of tho "43 only 238 reached Bombay in April 1734." After the 
dose of the second Ihlaisur war (1784) Ktinara suffered severely frotn 
the rraelty and Ibo exactions of Tipn, who suspecting' that the native 
Christian population bad bolpod the KugliBh, dek'rmined to force 
tiiem to beooDio MnsalmAntt. Ho eocrotly numbered tbein, set 
ptards orcr their villages, aud uu one night bad tho whole population 
Hiixod uud carried to Maisor. Ttio men wore circninciseilj and men 
wocneu and children were divided into bauds and distributed over 
the ooontry under tbe charge of MusalmAns to whom was entrusted 
the c<<nvcrts' education in Isl&m. According to Tipn 60,000, and 
according to tbe generally received estimate 30.000 Cbristiaus were 
' in tbc whole province of Kiinnra. Boforo a y«ir was over, 
iHhipt) and the change of elimat« are Miid to have reduced tho 
30,000 to 10,000, and not 3<HiO lived to reuim to their bomca when 
Ti(iu wna ovorthrown in 1709.* Btjoidca destroying one of tho 
most usi^ful and hardworking classes in Kilnara, Prophet Tipn'a 
half-crai^ fondness for new meaaurea brought rain on tbc trndcra 
of KAnnra and poverty on many of its most skilful htii^biLudmen/ 
Trade enabled strangers to pry into the affairs of a state, and as, 
■ocurdiug Us bis gospel of trade, exports strip a country of ita beni 
produce and imports stifle local industries, Tipn ordei^d that tho 
trade nf hifi Kdnnia ports should ceaso. lla liked black pepper 
butter than red, for rea pepper he believed was tlie canae ot itob ; 
ho tbcrfcfore ordered that in all coruit districts tho rod pepper vines 
ebould bo ruoted out." Even tho loss of their markets aud tho luss 
ol their pepper vioeB injured tbe UodbolderB leas than Tipn's 

'M.rAtJinMS. 146. 

* The ^vrnior mia ^tLalUi Ayite, a NiyurtiT birtht Mte «f Bftidar^ tMtU ocwUter 
«U*M. WaW Bouth a U..ha, II. 453, 

> I.,<>'> li:.Hrin Kavy, I. IH*J. TtvtaUa u« given iuitl«r HoitAvmr. 

n\ [. ^s-'J79. 8it TtioniM Muiiro « Rfl|i«rt, Slut May ISOO. 
. v^ touk tl>H (iU« ul VrMulwt or I'aii^tambur ; his nmiluot iu otiter vay* 
•luwwt^fuaul uuuuut|. " WiUu' South ol Inilia. IL MT-M&. 





iTss- ir 

[Bombay OamU 





T^M Staitnr 



oxortions. TTis one rule of ftnnnco was never to hare less rerct 
tluvu hu fnthcr bad. His only way to m»ko iip for fiiilaroe 
by L-ompe1)ing one set of landliulilent to pay for tho oliortcumiT 
of tht> rest. He forced those who had tncons, to pay not or 
tho routs of waste lands bat of dead or mnaway tioluera wbC 
□Dtnliera wcro yearly incroasing.' Tho effocr of thi'e moamiro 
tho opposite of what woa iuteoded. The coUecliotu fell U-u to isii 
per oeuc short of the assessment. Tho Und forced on ctiltivaUl 
ooaeed to bo aaleablo, and the old cla^s of prupnotors diaappoared.] 

In 1701, tho first year uE the third Mainur wnr (1790-1702), 
tho union at DbArw&r of tho English detaohraent onder Ca[ 
LitUe and tho Ma.ratha force ondor Para-iharAm Bhau.Sondafie 
certain to bu overrun .' Perhaps iu the hope that the ifarAthits wot 
respect them moro than th&y would respect tho Sonda cbicf, on 
JTtli of January 1791, the Portaguese obtained frora Shivitji, thei 
of Savai Imodi SadtUhiv, th« formal ce&sion of his rights in 
Sonda teiTitory which tbey hod saved from Ilaidar's clutches 
1703.> In 1790 after the fail of Uhilrwir (April 4th), Paraslint 
led his troopa fco meet the allied or grand anny. Uo joined tlivm 
at ^ringapatam and marched witli thom to Bangator. Ou the 
separation of tho forces fnr tiho rains (July 8th) Parashnntmninrrhcd 
west with the object of carrj-iiig out the Iong-i-'hC'rish<?d Mariitha 
scheme of gaining Sondu and iJednur.* With Captain Litde'i) 
detachment be marched to Sbimoga iu North Maiiiur, and, cliiutly 
by Captain Little's military fikill, in difficult wooded country, 
defeated Tipu'a army and took the fort of Shimoga (2ud Januiiry 
17112).* From Shimocrn, against tho ordere of his suporiore, lured 
by the bopu of plunder, Paratthuniiu uiurched nerih-wt-«it tbrought 
the wooiU to H aidar- Nngnr or Bttdntir, which they reached on 
28lli of Janoary. They dostroyed the town, but, before iKe 
was invested, Parashuritm board that Tipu had detached a st 
force to act ugainst him.* He at once ^ve ordore to rr>tuni 
Seriugujmtaiii, where Lord Corn walUs arrived on the &ih of Pebruur^ 
with tbo Ltimbincd imny of Han Punt and Siknndnr Sh^h the mamtM 
NiK^iu Ali. After a siege of eiglitoeo dayu the third Maii^ur **^^ 
closed (2:Jrd February 179d) with terms most nnfavonrable to Tipa/ ' 
By the end of March the Mar&th^a bad utai'tfid Cor Pouua, but so 
completely Iwd Pflrashurim's troops laid waste their formw lino of ' 
march, that during their return a large part of tho army perished of 
hunger.^ , 

, lured 


urn ^fl 

' Muuru'tt Letter Ui Board of Rcreniie. 31flt May 1800, 21. 

* Thv dotuil* of C*irtaiu Little's dotncliiiiont wcni tbo 8(1) . C'aplkln Ldttli>'a, and 
nth U^itain Al«XMitln'_Ma«dotu]d'i 
neh; ana eotn; 



&l«XMitler Ma«dotu]d'«, bftttaliima of Nntivii ItiftBiry, <>1 BOO iMjxxrtti 
inny el Eumptuui iiad tw« «0Ri{\tuiii'a o4 N'ntiri; ATtill«i7, wiilt bis 
:d pieces. Moor'* N'nmtiw uf Caiptain t.iltlo* OuUchnieBt, L 
^Compare Dotcripfiui Gui-aJ V, UmUjiicxhy AnffiO' Ui-i't ■ Liibun. 1980. 

* Uoor*a Nomtivn, 72-07. * DebuJa aregivon iu Moor's NarnUiTO. IM-168. 

* Moor'a Narratiro, 170. 

f Tipa had t« ocil« one-hAlf of hia torriloty, to par £9|O03,0O0 (Rl. 9 crora* asct 
30iOOO). and teiaetaltpriaoBuarafrea. Onuit Ihiir. wj. 

* Orimt Ehiff, 496. tJf Ponuliiirtiu'B invnanon of Maisor, Bncbasau (MTinra, Til. 'JOO) 
vritM : ParaabuMRi BU&u'n <i;91-179S) aiaroh waiaannnlnuirkci) l>f dcvaaUtic 
tamine, aiiJ umidcr. UaiJu-Na^r, a towu g( OOUO lioiiMa, vwt cutirvlr tUsI 



At the ol)j«fi (X tbe funrth Jlaipur wnr (13tli Febnmiy to 4tli Way 

I7.i'j), after the cajnurt) uf Soringapn.tam aud tho death of l^ipu^ 

5t:ic>JLa and other territories in the wesitem Kamdtak were offereu tu 

th«}*r«bvni. The offor waB accoiupanied, among othpr POnditionSj 

i)j tho demnml that the I'esliwa should cmplo; no FrcnchmAn m hiti 

M-riicf nnd that liifTerenceit botweoo the ManilhAA and Nir^in Ali 

t,\i---M 1x3 sotimitted to Eaglish arbitration. To these terms Mdua 

FiicliutTin would unt agrue, Konda was refused and hecamo part of 

'!.■■■ I'lnipany's torritonos.' On the Ist of Jane 1799 LicntODiuit- 

J Htaart of the Rnmhay army wna directed to take poaseesion 

Ki aauara inclnditig Souda, aiid the Maisar CommiKitiflrKirs were 

nstmcted not to iuterfenj with him in ita management.^ In tbu 

lantp iDunth Captain, nftorinuiU Sir Thomaii Muoro, waa appointed 

C-nnr-jt'/r of KanAr^^ Uo was at first under the immediihlc authority 

o! y Close, the Resident at Maistir, hnt, on the Ut of 

} - , he wae placed nader the control and supcrintctidonce 

c; ■ isKoarilofneTenne»nhjecttothegeneraI[Kilitical powers 

c: ^tir Resident.* Ofiicera commaodiag troops in KAoara 

v»< :<d to cun>ply with tho Collector's rcqaisitions for military 

ajd. Miiiitf/' foacd aiauy districts in the occnpation of petty chiefs: 

Bilgi wan in ihe poeaession of a jxi/i'oar ; Ankola and .Sadti^hivgad 

WVTv garriiionoil by Tipn's troops ; and tho Raja of Sondn had entered 

lii^ long abfudaned territory and claimed it aa his ancient inheritance, 

Tbo followers of the famous Maritha freebooter Dhundia had bnrst 




Iko IxaiuUoiDnt women vcrc carriod ofT, U)d Ut« mat ravulxtil. 8ncli of the mtm u 
Ml into the MarAthia' huuU wi^rc killud, md of thoM uho exapcd tk* (word a 
laty )»fO[Mirtnili penrtiad of liittif,-cr. Kvrry (.-atkble tliiii}; wna >ii-c)>t nwajr hy thOM 
~ 1 fi nil till) mild Hmiiu. 0>lunoI Wtlki (in Ri<w'« 

_i pKfU ID Kurvjw ■w piMMd '. 

Hjnofw, I. ai5) wriUog in InOl, thm lumniaiiui Uie vfTvct uf the Mudthft nid* into 
makmtr <inHp|[ ilut acoon*! half of the ei^tc«Btb omtuir ; A \lu«tha omiy is Che 
ncart taul »wu«e of (Icpopnlatioa. UoiHUrio Umi inTadod Maunr in I'GO, Ikiii 
ViaUi l>aD<tit in ITItl, Midkar It<y« i& )76.'>, 1767, utd 1770. Tryambak K<k> in 17;i. 
bAnaUli Rim in 1774, ani] Uari I'atit i'bndkA is 177fl ud 178a 1 havo inrentigatod 
an th* Kiiot and cxamiiinl ttw tnuM of tJw lasKilttMi raragM o( Panahnrtin Illi.iu in 
I7VI and 171)2. Maay dintrida onoa w«U pooyled hare not a truw oT a buuimi Iminj;. 
CitlhvnuDit caiucd Iic«l«aMt Uoor, who iraa wttii Parultu nun's uuiy (ntm 171)0 to 
ITSSip^eaUiefoUoiriD^dctaila ; On thcirVay anuth tliurout«oi ibe army iNarrativc, 
Af ) ■•« nwrkod Ify nun aiul ilevii>lati>in. B^cry iilln^ iind towo una nnvl u-itli the 
■ttiiwul aiul Ui* road •troireit with bnllocka and bon«i. In ten milei aa many 
imUvffd i-itUf[« wcrw aevQ witlxMit a toul to t«ll th«iTiiaini>8. When (I)itt<^ Ul) wo 
■naiidw tJM ram iprcwl by mich a ho«t ul locnata we are inclined Ui thiuk. tli« chtmi 
d G^d cosld ii'>t tuivr fnllrii nn tho KiQ'ptiAiia in a more terrible tunn. Kvnn aftM* 
iW war waa over, no tboir wny north, (ho Manttlula uuntbiued (DHtu, 223] to plnoilcr 
tb« town* and vilLagM on th« line of march. It wm motu JiVe t^e bntnnning of a war 
tluii the licgtnnnig of a mjhm. T1i« army «u0«r«d frightfully (rom want of srain anil 
from wint >^ foddar. To ««cap« atjirvatioii th« Kuglisb oocUwjtiDt waa ((wc«d to 
ka«v it.n main arniy. B«(rirv tbvy loft riuu had iii«u to three nVe and »ix abUliiifp 
tlw pouorl (3. 5. e Tvitrrt the «i«r). rienraly a auuud vu heard in the oooe ooiay 
wiiiM. Honea and hiillodu wen dyinn BTevywhure oratandlaa lisUeoe and famlne- 
•MAea with ttwir inclaadMly niaaten tcatvd b«ide tfaem (Ditto. SS8, SSP, 331). 
Is uptta of tiie uLiciy h« caaaed. E>*r»«hiiriin wna, a«oardlnK to Moor (Narrative, 3S8), 
* hted oiAU oiul WM mnat T«ipect«d when! bo was moot known. The Duke of 
WaUin^tcn (tiopniatnontary DtaiHUtb*!*, I. Sl.S) deacrlbed tbe Manltltaa in Uaimr 
«Dd«aaCarn KutJua a* a eunw t» tiiuiuui naluni. 

> Onuil linff. Mft ; Rico'* Myaurc, I . £9<U 

« Wcll<«tfr'« DMpatcha, II. 18, 22. • Oleig'a Uf* of Mnuni, fiS, 67. 

*I^lcr« (ruin Secy, to (iovt. to Captain Monro and to tho Board of Re\-*nwet 
let K«K 1M)0. L«ttcr to UomO <A Bercnne, 3l8t May 1900, Sand 3, 



rSombAy Ouett 



Chapter Vn. 



ircm Bednar into Knnd<^K]r cIom to the south of Blutkn),' 71i( 
were preti^nders to »lmo8t orory part of ite district. Except witl 
tbe limits of the uld Souda slatti, though too strong for the 
power, these claimants and frechootors wore ioo coDtcinptiblo to 
iDAde the object of a iDilitary oxpcilition. They foand Aluiiro 
and the threat of being treated as rebels forced theiD to give in. 

Tile Sunda tfirritory rorrosponding to tho present aplj 
sab-dirision-i of Sinti, YcMpur, UaHyfLl, aod $»{« did not subt 
without troulile. The chief of Bilgi in tho south stnigglrd fur 
time; but in September had to submit to a detachment uf Englis 
troopa.' The KTarAthiis and Sonda trregalans wore plandcriog t( 
couutry and had atmost einpti«l it of people. In the same taoai 
as Colonel Wellesley's det&chmenU bcgaa to poor in both t] 
MoT^th^ and the Honda troopsi had to wtthdrsir. B^piiji Ejiac 
the MarAtha commandant of UharwAr, ordorod his dctachinenta 
HaliyAl nml nt Snmbrilm, abnut firt* mili-s south uf Huliy^^ 
ntftintAta their posts againat tho Briliuh. On the 2!)tlv of Septcol 
the Sambr^l garrison of 300 men who bad atrunglr barricaded 
the vtUflge were attncked and the village was carried (huugb 
without losa.* Hearing of the fall of SambrAoi the UaliyAI gnrrif 
abandoned their ptist and on Colonel Wcllesley'a adtunce Suj 
wa« taken vrithout a titnigglo. In October as Oftposition wbs 
end Colonel Widlesley rolumod to Maisur leaving trtiojm at 
at Haliy&l, at lliiadgod twenty mites east of leUapur, and . 
Badna^ul fifteen milen north-eaHt of Sir«i.* So complptely mini 
was the country between Sirsi and Supn that ia Colonel Welleatej 
c^inion the cliief of Sonda wbo had ehtelly caused the ruin deservi 
to be treated as the worst of eneinioe. He and his people ' 

Slnodcrod and destroyed wherever thuy bud been. Tu him 
ne the most diaabtrous and the moat numerous scenes of hamfl 
misery that Colenol ^Voll^?i1oy erur bad the misfortane to witne 
It was a matter of indi(Teri>oce iu whutH! bauds the government 
placed. It was olmoat titeroUy true that owing to the conduct of 
Souda chief and of Mar^tha freebooters thero was little to gc 
except trees and wild beauts.^ By the beginning of October i/'99 
Company's rule waa firudy established througboat K^nara.' 



■ UlmndU Wft^h, Ik M&nltlia hy dMoent, wrrad in HMdar'* army, but 
to DIUTVif dnnng Ui« inrMl(in«f Lord ConwftlliB fl'SO). In I7M k« «u iadil 
to go to Senn^p*t4un, and refitting to embnoe Iilim vu forcAiIjr coimrtad 
IhruHt into priMn. HowMreletMd by BritUli toMienat Utc capture ofStriimutaa, 
c»ca{Md to tiiQ >Uritli»ooiia try, collected « Um (onx, commitM n^af depndu 
■imI wm in I80t> killed ia ■ oavalrv vliuit* Mby Colouel WcUmJov. IRioe'a Unan 
MidOwrg. I. attJt. • SuppL Dwp. I. 3(W. 326. 

• finpvl. Dtw. L WO, Ml. • Soiiyl, Dtwp. 1. Ml. • Snpfil)' D«ip. I. S58. 

*Mr. f^aaob Ncwoouii! Unltby. a (onner CoUeotor of Kiiutn, wrilittf; in 
Cklcatta Review, XXI. 330. thiu »uiuniBhM« Mnuro'H worii in Kjuikra : * V~ 
Hunroenlortxl theilivtrict. the i>ettyctiiefsa|n'til)' hiiiauiluirity, and thej 
body of tbc ItuidboLdMn revivuJ a inactlM wtlli vi liicb tiii'}* bad bean uviUit 
wcnker goroniineut*. Tli«y orgMitacd • pM*<v« i-MuUnce, audnfaaed toiMM 
Mttl« th«ir T<4ita. Bnt tboy lisd to d«a1 with a MMi«r and fftaftwin gjft*d t 
otbermeu with tbc pu««ro( naingacvarity and kUidmaa, eaohio iUptoptP) 
Oua or two pluiiileniig cbiefi ware bauged, and thsir haoda diipefaad, athan' 
fmataatA. audtiwueaorftil laiidholden aa« nothing to encaatage urtbercombii 
IB tba nan wbo did uut un-n uBcr Xo trtrnt lot turm, bat calmly gvrm xittm 
dfaaotv* tbair ooafadantivwi. ' 


Of the Btatc of the district whca it camo uudor Itis aharge iu 
17fl9, Monro lius left the foHoiv-ingBecoum : Wiiliiu the last forty 
T'con. except ia & tnw forourcd spoli, Inod has ceased to be 
■alefthle ; the g^o&t«r part is uot ouly ooitaieable bat vrasto asd 
orortfrowD with wood; tho popalatioc hu dimiDiehed by nao-thinl 
and we ralao of property baa aaffored a very much Kroater redactioD. 
Oenappe and Ankola have only & few bog^mrly iiihitbitants, and at 
BuuAvar tbero is not a single bonsa.' Tbu nurtli of tho district, 
IjowUnd or PayanghAt Sonda was in tbo saino state as the most 
deeubite diotricus further to tlio suutb. Uplund or BlLlagh^l Sonda 
ini£ still worse. It waa nearly a oomploto desert. Tbronghoat it^ 
vhole ext«nt, cs,cc])t a few small openings, it had not & cultivated 
^>ot a mile squiire. The reHt of tho country vnn so crergrown with 
femt tliat it con id bo crossed, only wbcro roods hod been ctaared. 
Host oE the villag^a bad tliiL'Tes iu their jjay. For four years before 
ttiB overthrow of Tipn'a power throe or four thousand bnnditti had 
driren out all tho Sultia's garrisons, except thoso nt Haliyal and 
Sftdishivjfftd. Thoy defeated sereral partios sent against them, 
nnd, though dispersed by a strong dotnclunont, sereral bauds of 
fifty to B hiindrvd men continued to etude search and commit 
deprcnlations.' In IbOO some still held out Robberies and murders 
wero frequent; uo village was safe without a guard.' 

In 1801 Kiinaro was visited by tlio Icamod and most obseirant 
tzardler Dr. Buubanao, whoso diary, tho result of a rosidunec of 
kboat fifteen months, has einco remained tho standard work on 
Uiiisur and Kiluui-u. Buchanan spouka with respect of Major 
Uunro's maaagcmont of tbo province. Uo had not been e.o liberal 
iti Lis gronta to templcd as some officers, but this economy did not 
•Bern to ho attended bv bad results. His conduct soemed to have 
gkincd the good opiaion of overy boocst Industrious man ondor hia 

The fottowiDg account, summarised from Br. Buchanan's ioumnl/ 
shows the &tato of North K&uura in the early months of loOl. In 
the eitreme south the Bhatknl valley waa excellently cultivated. 
At tbe public expense in the fair tteusou dums were made to water 
the rice fields. There woi-o many cocoa gardens enclosed with 
Stone walls, hotter than any iu South Rfiuani. Between fihatkal and 
Sbirali, five miles (U ^o*) to the north, the country was full of bar© 
Utente hilU, some of whose sides were terraced tor rice. Beileru or 
Bailur nine miles north (3 kot) had beautiful Alexandrine laurel or 
Colophyllum inophyllum trees. The Bbore was skirted with cocoa 
poluiB oud the soil of tho plain was generally good ; almost the whole 
was under rice. At Bailur the people in their scattered houses had 
safiorod mocb from the idor&th^. There were not more than hoLE 

Chaptsr VTt. 





' Lifd. I. B7. » M«MD> Ul», 1. 75. ' Miinm'« Life. I. 78. 

* Bnohaitui'i Vysor*, IIL 33, 131. Maura nti» wu Idy«1 in Bctllri. <ru fuTMl [a 
KOaua. He ii«Wi1 iti uniwMiiUe wtH-xls nml hilta, ita fiYe miiithii nf rain. Mid iMk 
oafrieadtydccciiful ucbfilo, Chi tbo Ttli olJunc ll^OO, h« wrvt«, ' WlKtrv tbecv hH 
he* wa/rta fttm ot aavcliy ori«r Ckn bo ««UbIkili«d onlj bv h^taa iiifl«xibl«i 
lailalmiea bwv (m thuuHlit oJ aft«rw*tdiL' Arbntbaot's ljf«, I. uxTii. Gcxzv, 

*jiryMr«uiaCuwra, IU. lW.i;4, 18L-lSi, 201. 

IBoubar Q*setl 


.dupter VIL 




the Qiuiiber which were wuutml to tiU tEo groaud ; aoJ a 

part of the cocoa>paltn8 wore dead. 'Wo roads wore good, 

uot because lubaur htui been spent oa theoi, and evury duw 

again cnnio rivers, hitlsj and rocks impassablo for ft ciui, dit 

ovc'D for A bullock. From Bailur about teu miles north Bad 

passed among low bare laterite hills, with only two narrow vallc 

with a few people otd a little gix>d rioo land, the bftrrcnnc-9t tract 1 

hod over soeo. Two miles sotilb of che UoDd-Tar lake tliere 

a pinin of poor soil with few people. Jt wns impoB&iblo wit 

makinff arruiigcmoDts bcfurehatid io take cattle across the Ec 

laVc. Honi&Tar had been dcmolisbod by Tipu in IT^i ; sinoo 17i 

fivL* shops hud been opeuod. The pirato craft uf tho ManUhacc 

were a gront hindrance to trodo. They hoTOrod round Pi^ 

Island itud hud tLi* imperliuunoe ercn to entor Lite rivent uiid inJi 

Kight days lieforo Buchanan was thoro, tliey bad cnrried off 

bouts from UoQiivar, a week earlier ODC buut from Manki, 

iivo days earlier one from Bbatkal. In the six miles betf 

Qon^var and Ualiulipurn the soil wus poor uud the country mi 

B]ioil«d by creeks. Aocording to Buchanan the cullifstt'd Is 

were privnK" properly, the holder ptiying n lump sum for his ent 

estfite. The pru^irit'turs, who wore Brdhnmns^ were culled mtd^i 

and some of them leased jmrt of their lands to tenants or geniyat 

Few estates wero encumbered with murtKages, as tbo Brtliiaimft 

Jiaiga were good economists. Tho BrAbmans did not work 

their own hands ; thiwo with twenty ploughs were rich and tbiwe wi| 

fonr were fairly ofl; many had only one plongb. Iaihe> BrAhic 

farms mt>st of Ihc work wa.-) dune by sUtTOS. The wtMiieu uliivos _ 

a daily allowance of rice wbich amounted to nearly fifteen buaheUj 

y«ap. worth something less than £1 8#. Ud. (Ra. 14J). They were ati 

paid hn. (Ri. 2^) for clothes or altogether about £1 Via. <&d. (Ka. I< 

n year. A male slave's allowance was 22^ biishoU of rico 

£2 7n. 6fi. (lis. 231). A free male servant hired by the day rccoti 

Four pounds (2 kani») of ricn. Freemen nnd idnrmt workod from fii 

in the morning to seven at night, at noon outing food ccwked by tl 

mnst«'r's ^wople. The tenants hold on four to tfn years Ic 

For each crop of rice tbey jiaid for tho best lujid eighty-foor pounds 

(2 int>mt/nnr«nu(Mj*), for middling land sixty-tbreO]K>iinds ( 1 J mora ul 

and lor poor laud forty-two pounds (I momy). The over-lioliw 

l»aid the taxes. If he failed, under what Buchanan calls a misorabf 

Kiystem of true Uindustilnt inrention, anion wus biljcttedon htm,i 

sold the cn)p and dudiiott'd tho land tax. [f a man gave sectiril 

aud failed to pay, on tho third day after bis failare, bia seeoritj 

waa put in fonfiiiement. Gorornmnnt never sold land becaaso 

arrears of rent, and in bad seaiions the government deinnnd 

reduced. In private sides land fetched about Eve times \{a yearly 

rental and could be inorlgagod fur altout two and a bnlf times, 

lender taking all tbc prohl and tho borrower being free to redoei 

it at any time. The TiUae of land nan shown by the nantlM,>r 

disputed successions. Tho families generally lived undivided, 

eldest memlter managing it« ulfaJri). A rcdtiction in theexport dut 

on rice and nn increiiso in the demand wore muJctng rioc a mw 

tmjiortant crop tbau it had formerly been. 



Tbe catilB wvm Iiaffuloes sd<1 oxen, poor aninkli^ motit of thorn 
fKim ttit^ivv the Sttbyddris. In the rainy luoiitliB they were iat aiid 
■Imti^; in ihu dty auatwD thoagh Fed with hay anil nlrow thuy were 
g«wr>''1v nti!e to cravl. Working oxen wen* fed on rice hnsks. and 
■n- iThIoos oo cocoanot-oil cake. Milk ami bnttor were very 

dmi' "-- --"!-■ few cows were in wrutchwl condititm. There wore do 
okTte. Tbt* Madltlia pimtes were a gjeat obataole to trade; people 
we»*> I ■ ■ ■ ! boats. Thero weri? no manufactures, Trmlo 

I»d b- - i i_v Tipii and the merchnuts were only brginniiig 

to <<i>tnn bark. Itice had f (irmerly boen iinpoit«d. Kow the uumbur 
cS rt. .,!.!.■ was So reduced that rice wae one of the chief exports. 
Tl 'eadiof^ exports were cocQaont«, botelnuts, pepper, and 

itaii'iu-ov'-trl. Kumta seemed to have once been a place of note. It 
bad been twice burned by TipiiV irref^tlara, IlegAda a little to tbe 
Auttii " ' '^ waa a fine plaiu with £tkrm-bot>8C» beilt in a stj'lo 
winch . . <at the people were much better off tlinii wiis a.siiBl iii 

fadia. U-urai or Mir^&u na the ntirth bank of tlie Tsdri was <>ntirely 
deafciDyed, In the hilly country to the east o£ Ihlirzai or Mirian well 
walorol ralleys were not folly cnltivnted owing to the want of people. 
North of Mirjitn the soil was good bnt was much neglected, liecauee 
tlii>re waji Tumae to till it. The pUtin of Gokarn wati well cultivated, 
full rjf rice fields mixed with pidiu gardens. The Uatigfivli river 
"hmi moit wretchwi boaiH anil no trade ; its bankn were bu:iuti£ul but 
niber burrou, aud ite ealt waa bo bad as to be ecarcely saleable. 
Tho nonntrj to the north of the Ganmivli river, which according to 
Bochnnan was the division between Saiga or Haiva and Konkaua, 
Ibougb larger than the soatham district, yielded much less 
iVTsnae.* It waa not natnnilty poorer and the people were by no 

richer than tliose in the south; in fact their houtvcs wero 
not nearly so goud. But it had been so long ansettled that it was 
WKoderfolly waste. Kven of the good lands not more than two- 
thinU wok; under cultivntion. Tbe country had been laid wa^to 
by the Mar^tb&s and by Kom^rptUk and Halep&ik robbers. Munro 
had lately dona good service by Hciidiiig troopit to Hboot unu Gauetih 
lixo short, a Komarpdik chief who had persisted in hie old practice 
of frwfbooting too i^ng after the arrival of the English. Ankola 
WM recovering and liad forty aboiw. But the i>eoplo did not live 
in triwnK. A few shiijm were collected in one place, and all tbo 
other inhatiiiaota were soatlerud en their farma. The country to 
tlio north of An kola woe overgrown by trees. Fart of it had eaco 
been ctiltivaled, and with people enough the whole might bo 
niade pi-oductive. 'fbo ouly industry was a poor luanurncture 
id catechu out of the khair tree, MimoKa catechu, Iloand 
Sttd^abiv^d, much land bad fallen into tho hand» of Govemtneot 
md waa waste. Thin was the result of the raidii of Veuja Nayak, a 
Ktttu&rn&ik chief, who had forced even Ur&binans to join his vaato. 
He bad been brought to order by Major Munro and was DOW qniet. 
Xli9 U)wn of Kirwdr, formerly a noted, place of Enropean oommerco. 



HMiAvvr £20,400 (/^ngiada^ AI.OOO) ; KluuUpiu £U,W)0 [Paifodtu SOfiQO) i tud 
■ «i I, «OlH/'«jw/ai 28,000). 

-^ -"^ 








had gODO to ruio. Of its fonner cotnmerco the only trace 
liltle tr&ffiti iu salt and catecba. The chief basbaodiaeti 
miserably iguoTUUt Hnbbn Brabmanit wbo hud alienated much of 1 
laudtio MarfiikiU, Koiikaiia Urdlimajis, and KotnarpiilES. Maurol 
hjvercd tbo loud rates, bot, as what remained waa strictlj exact 
fche revvnuo had increaaed. An estate psjing £1 I2«. {PagodoM 4)1 
rareaao coidd be mortgaged for £40 [Pagodas 100) and sold 
£60 [Pagodaa 160). The laud which had fallon to Oovernmcrtit 
charged higher rates thaa the old ustates. The farms varied ia 
{rora ODD to five plougha The family of the proprietors gei 
worked on the farm, oiily a few of the rich employed hired sot 
Thoro wore no slavea Mea serTants were paid £2 8i. id. (Page 
6), or lfl«.I Jti. {Pagodas 2) a year with a daily meal of rioe. 
OXOQ were atoall and wretchud, and there were few boSoloes.* 

The north bank of the KiUiuodi or £&nvfir rivor was at first lei 
with protby good soil. Behind this the cumitry rose in hills, 
was apparently little tillage. Owing to disturbances the village ' 
Oopiciuti, tlie first stage from K4rnur, had boea desertod for twei; 
rs. But ander the security of Munro's authority people 
ID to settle. During the aecond stage, though much of the 
onoe been tilled, there was not a house for sixteen miles up 
north boLnk of the Kixvir river. Kadra, about twenty miles 
the cxiBst, had once been a place of note ; all that was left were 
bouses with one man and a lad, besides women. All the rest 
been swept ftway by a great Mcknoiui which had prevailed for se\ 
^ears. ^e people thooght it was the work of some angry sptr 
in Buchanan'^ opinion it was probably due to the spread of (on 
Sixteen miles furtht^r to Airla-Gotma the country was ttitl witbc 
an inhabitant or a trace of tillaga But it was not entirely dea 
as small villages were hid in the forest. The people, who bad be 
utterly lawless wore reduced to order by Major Muuro, and, ext 
from tigers, the roads were now safe for a defenceless man. T] 
country beyond was okost unhealthy ; for a stranger it 
considered certain death. 

At the foot and up the Sahy£dri spars to the south of tl 
Kdliuadi Buchanan found valleys with noe and pluiitatians of bet 
and cocoa palms.* Further on the pepper hills were miser&t 
neglected. The forests were very stately i but the climatB_ 
doodly. The road up the S&hyfldns to KuiAici was badly pi 
Loaded cattle could pass, and this the people thought was al 
oould be required of a roud. Above the top oi the Sahj 
though the country was lovol and the soil good, thero was no t 
except low rice lands and betel gardens. The people were Hai| 
Brfthmans, hardworking husbaudmon who tilled with their OV 

bands. Formerly the country wu« full of thieves and gangs 

Booundrels callml mdi satitboix. Aftar Major Munro hiw driven' 
most of thorn out, thuy went to tho Manitha country and thrice 
returned to Kiuara in great strength. Bands twenty to thirty 
strong still occaaioually oftmo. When attacks wer« expected ' ' 

> finclsMD'a HrMiv, III.1BMM. 

* BuchAaau'a My son, Ul. 201. 




unJ other quiet pt-ople left tlieir hooses, and even during 
UDB bid themMelvea in tbu fui-ests. Pestilence niid beasts uf 
were geMlo compar^i with Hiodti robbcM, who tortured all 
l^^ll into thoir hftods. lu the sixteen milee to VelliipDr the trues 
»oi] wcro IJDO. Tbroo-foortlis of the gnrdi^ns vmre occupied, 
>m wBtit oF L'ultivMtors ihrce-fourtlia of the rice liiadii wero 
VeDtipiir hud a, hundred hougotf, and a fnirlj snpplicd mnrket, 
tnilK bcyiiud Ycltnpur the couutry was uuiuhahited. When 
Mimro cniue to iCiUutra the sixtooo milefl from Telbtpur to 
wua a coDlioued vrute. About half way Major Munro hod 
Ibhcd Karftv Hoso-htdi a uiiserablo hnralet of aix bonset;- Tho 
were Mnrithaa. Tigvrs aiid wild bufialoos were numeruaa, 
re were no elephants. Further on the coniitry was waste to 
_ >nda, whore were «oroe rice fields nnd a few hniises belonging 
Teach(<r uf the Haiga Brdhuiaus. To Sonda the cotiutry whs 
' rongh and there was little cultivation, except some betel gardens 
nod DL-ar the old walls. ]q the eight miles between Souda and 
BiichaDon Haw neither honsca nor raltivntion, bat it was said 
(hciw wenj villivj^ua near the road. In two places he noticed 
ed pepper p1nntntion». Sini was a email Titlngo on a 
}le ibtiruuf^hfare which was ttlill troubled br robbers, 
it purt of tho gnrdoQ land near Sirsi wag waste, litis was duo^ 
irith other troubles, to Tipu'n mining the Und-tas. Mujor 
hod reduced the rent to the old staiulard, but no new gardens 
been Ikjjjud u tho people eipected further indulgence. Thcro 
ire few slavee. Most of the field work was done either by Haigs. 
Itnanfl or by hired labonrers. Tho Hniga Brdhmnns toilod on. 
own gronud at every form of laboar, but they never worked 
For so poor a oonntry the wages wcro very bigh, Tho 
male servants, who were generally engaged by the year and 
werv alt men, seldom received money in adviuico. They got 
meals n day in their waster's house, and once o year a blanket, 
Ikon-hief, and SL'Z 8*. 4d. {F'ngodat 6) in cash. The women who 
by tho day were paid H pounds (1 j ahtsre) of rough rice uud 
'l\d. utina) a day in cash (3 dudnxot which ■i9| = Tte. 1). 
1o ilave received -1 poands (2 thfr$) of roagh rice a duv, and, 
ft year a btauket, a baadkorchief. a piece of cotton cloth, and 
some ou, tamarinds, and capsicum. For his wedding, the only money 
ever saw, he was given £.Q 8». 1 1 d, {Pugfidae I G) as the price of 
wife. As tho wifo had to be bought she and all the children 
the master's property. A woman elavo was paid 3i pounds 
pr) nf rough rice n day, and once a year a binnkot, a piece of 
cloth, and a jacket. Children and old people got dressed 
is at tho master's house and were allowed Home clothing. 
He men vorked from sunrise to ennset with a rest of twenty-fonr 
linctuH at midday. Tho women staid at home till eight in the 
laming cooking. They then carried the food into the fields and 
smnined working with the men till nunisot. There were few or no 
sident roerchanta. Some merchanty from below the Sahyddria 
jught n little jx^ppor, bnt tho chief liuyora nf local pn>ilLce were 
kDJigs from Hubli, Db&rwdr, aud the Marfitba domioions, who 
were saJd to give every protection and CDCouragetaeDt to trade. 



fBombsy Ouet 



iikptw vn. 





team fliti^. 

These inland trader? hrouglit cMh bdJ ^raiu, and 
Ix-ttjlnut and cftrdamaniii. Soin<i of liio trwling was dutio bj bart 
but luoal by casli pajrmonta to local sbopkcujwRi. Thorc was 
import of iron from Maisnr for locoJ use, and an import and _ 
tbroQgh traffic iu salt from the ooaat U> tbo Ifar&tbn territor 
Tlie climate was considered dangproas to people nut iuurtnl to 
from birtb. In the twenty mileA between Sir^i and BanaTisi a 

Svat deal of the country wbicrb had formerly been clc^nxl was waate. 
anaviUi had ruined wnlU and about 250 houses. In the easL of 
Sonda, owing to want of people and stock, dry field tillago was 
mach Defected, nnd the whole of the ricNj-gronnd was not cuUiratod. 
The cattle were larger than in lowland KAuaia, but greatly inferior 
to tho eattle farther to the east, from which many plough oxaJBd 
truro brought. Buffaloes were more used than oxen. Thuru wu^H 
DO Bhoepr goaA^r awiutf, or asaeA, and very few horsos. The reveuoe^ 
was paid in nwaey. The custom of lending money on the inortg>i{[-' 
of land proved that the land-tax was moderate and left ouougb wil 
the caltivator to make the land valuable. A farmer witJi aix plot _ 
WHS considerod rich. Ilaiga Bwibmana never themitelveB held tt 
plottgh. Hired men ruoeivetl 8 pnands (-i sk^s) of rough rice wot 
less than l^d. (1 annn). A man slave was given 4 peuiids (2 shera) 
ofrongh rieo a <lny worth £1 2*. a year, a handkerchief, a blanket, 
and u piece of ulofch worth 4*. (lis. 2)) about 6a. [Pa^Mta I) in money, 
and at harvest kix kamlaks of rice worth I If. Gd. A. woman slave 
received a piece of cloth every year and a meal of dreascd victuals i 
any day alio worked. 

When Mnnro loft Kdnara in 3800, the district of which he hi 
been in clmrj^t- was divided. The present coUociorateof North KAnt 
togetlier with thoKundiipnrsub-divisioa of South KSnam was pU 
under Mr. iload, oud the rest under Mr. Itavonshnw. In 1817 
two divisions were re-nnited into one eolloctorate under the Hoiiot 
alilo Mr. Uarris, and remained as one charge tUl the transfer of Nort 
Kilnara totha Bumbay Presidency in 18IJ2. About the beginning of 
1831 there were some riots termed /•■nfj, to suppress which it waa 
necessary to c»ll tu military itid. The auuaon had been nnfavonrabU 
and the collection of the Government domnoda was resist 
GoverDracut were of opinion' that the riots wcra due, not to 
tomporaryacauaoasfaiture of nrops,but to Lbestateofthei 
which was said to beon some estates but a peppcr-com, and on othei 
oppressively high. .Subsequent inquiry- j^uowcd that the HoUt bad 
been got up by the intrigues of some Brdhmans oo the Collector 
cstnbliiihment to throw the district into confusion, bring disci 
on the admioiatration of Mr. Dickenson, and procure the reoion 
of Native Christians from the revenue department. The riota wt 
easily suppressed and no great injery was done. 

On the night of the 2nd of February 1858 three eons of Phoi 
Sftvant, a man of position in Sitva.utv-Jkdi, who,t*iuce thedistnrbfuic 
of l8U--J5hadboeQ under guard ijiGoa, cacaped. Theyg;*tboT 
a band of 150 men, plundered the customs house at the Tiiii pu 

■ LrttM to Prinaipal Cotlaeton m<1 Mn^tlntM. ]30, 8th Fobnutrj' ]Sai. 
' Ur. SulciM, Omnniissjaiicr. to thi< Boanl uf Ratonae, IStli Januu-y I $33- 


tiboot thirtv miles nortb-vrost of Supa mul took a strong position 
on DnTafaaniguddA bill ubout fivo milca north of Tioi Troops vroro 
seot ngiiinst them aiiA a l&rge ruwaril w&a offerod for their capture. 
Bat the country waa so Uilficult and so fuvouinblu for banditti tbab 
tbey roraaioed at large for nearly two yearH. Id tbo latter part of 
1^59 tie continued proMaro of tlio troop greatly reduced tbo 
sfcrsogih of tbe gong. It woa finally broken up by Lieuteiinnts 
Oiwisen and Drenncr on the 6th o( Oocomber 1859.' 

On tho 16eh of April 1862 the district of North ICjtoAra, with tbo 
GXception of the Kunditpar sub division, tor adiuimatratire uid 
(pgiiilatiTP purposOB, was transferred to tho Proeidoncy of Bombsy 
by on order ot tho Secretary of State issued under 16th and 17th 
Victoria cap, i>5 section 18* Tlie principal reasons for the transfer 
wore Ihnb tho diHtrict was a narrow strip of territory interposed 
between cotton districta of great importiuice ta the Bombay oolton 
trade and tJtu itea, Iho oomuieroiat cmpuriuni of which, at loa^t sa 
renrded the cotton trade, va« Bombay, and that while tho cotton 
CoTtiTfttioa and trade aboTO tho Sahyddriti and the coasting trade 
below, looked to Bombay as their commercial capital, the Public 
Work* and other departments of a<lministration in Kinora looked to 
Madras tut tho aeat of th«ir Guverumunt with which there was litblo 
tmercial connection,^ There was much discussion aa to what 
it o£ territory should come ondor tho Bombay Presidency. 
Btoh after the proclamation of transfer it was represented that 
Kandipur shoula not be excluded,* us, except thoao transferred to 
the Bombay Govomment, it was the only eub-diTision on the Malah4r 
ooaat in -which tho Kandrese language was apokcn. Tbe Secretary 
of Htat« divlined to alter his deci^iou,' By Bombay Act 7TT. of 
1 863, from tho dato of transfor, tho territory was declared aubject to 
Uic acts aud regulaiiuus of tbe Bombay Presideiu^. 

Chapter VII 



> SbAM' BclMom, 02-S8L 

■ falitial, 16. S8tli FehniKrjr 1869, uid Pronluiutimia of ISUi April 1$62. 

■ OorvmrneDt ol TodU. -^iV, 2ML DiK)«mb«r 1861. 

■ BonUr Oov«niiiieiit to SecrtUry «[ SmM. 9, 1 2tb Mftj 1802. 
* Political. -23. Wth Juue 1862. 

I 119-30 







CoLOKEL WiLU, wbo wTOto nboTit 1810, ia distcnssing th« nati 
of lauded pniiwrly in liidm remarks :• ' lu India, as in Europe, tho 
couqucTont ftud tiio coaqiierod, suocoseivol^ iniTOUing nnd impoU 
roUud (onrard nave aiuir vravK iii & southrrn (brcctiuu, and vtaot 
will ationtivcly cxamino tho Btructure and tbe geography of 
porlion of India uHoally callud thu Soulberu Pettinfiula m&r i.. 
a priori that the oountrieft below- t bo QhAls, separated hy a Wrr 
warcvly pouctrablo from tbt> ccntnU raeioDS, aoa fcrbiddine upproi 
hj n burning climate idways funiudablo to tbe iiati7es of tbe nor 
Trill bavo been tho last Tiaitcd by those ian-odera, and will 
retained u larger portion of their priuiitive institotionB.' 
tboTcnpoD instances Kiinara aa a district ' nhicb bus prcscT 
larger portion of ita unciout institutionaund historical recorda 
any other region of India,' aod gives an aoconot oi its early rcroi 
history. IL miwt bowovor bo romomborod that only thai portion 
tho district now known ae ^orth KSuara wliich lies fouth of tho 
Guu^vali and livtweou the Sabyidris and ths se» naa included in 
the old province of Kjinara. The rest vaa at variooa times subjeol 
to various dyua8ti««. Daring the lirst half of tbe cifibtoet "" 
century it formed tbe dounnions uf tbe chief of Sonda, and at 
time of the aBsnmption of tbe district by tho Compony's Govemmc 
vas distinguished as Bonda. Sonda pB^Tn Gb&t or that portion 
the district below tho Sabvddns which is north of tho Gaoglti 
river, oorresponda in it« physical ft^turca with Kiiiiam proper, bl 
like tho Sondn Billa Glifit t>r uplands, it was a frontier cotmt 
bordering ou tho torritorica of serural di0oront powera, and coQse- 
quently the scene of conataut strife and ini«urrectioD, and 
inhabitaDte wero accustomod io plunder and be plundered, 
conseqncnce is that Sonda has Ktat all trace* of its primitive instil 
tions almost as completely oa Kdnara has retained them. £i 

RccuiintH rulnting to the time irrnnediatelv prior to the ao 

of British rule could hardly bo procured, the aoconntanta and Otl 
village otticere having conspired to « iihhold them when, ftftor 
full of 8oriiignpatam, it bocnmc known that Major Munro ' 
marching northwards,' and the Collectors under the Madras Gore 
ment frequently represented that Ibey were nnahle to obtain 
trutitwortby data ou which a satisfactory settlement of tbe 
revenue could be effected. 

' Coiitril.u*«,l by Mr. J. MontMth, C.8. » Sontb ot Inii^ I. lAO.lSI. 

* Tl)« HoB^unUo Mr. Hurii to BWd uf Rotmiu*, 14th Jon* 1$ZI. 


The beta reUting to the laod revenue of what were the territories 
of the UAja of Simcln before tbeir conquest bj Huldftt Ali in 1763 
DMjr he ftt«tt^ in a few words. It is moutioned io land graats or 
tanitd*, that a survoy, wLich was probably mil; an e&tinuiU) of area 
ttvm ioepectiiQ. was made in the second century, but it is uot 
ImowD what the oM assessment vna. Something corresponding to 
the system of Todar Mai, whtofa was introduced in the Doccan by 
BhAh Juhin (1627-I657) appears to have been introduced into 
jftjikola and some places above the Sahy^ria by the Adil Sbiih 
djBssty of Bijdpar, prol»bIy between about 1570 and 1670.* The 
principal feature of that system waa the periodical readjustment, 
with regard to the fliictuatioDs in the valne of money, of the money 
oooiiuuLation for the 6xed ahare of the prodnce. From certain 
•ecoants Mr. Uarria luferred that in the time of the ^dil Sh&h 
dfiDuiy there watt a Quinqueunial mnutiny called reklm jhadli or 
MMeflin<^at ecmtioy whicli appears bo hare been of the same nature 
a^ ' ' I.iI'h itynteni of readjut'tment, with the additional object 

o( j,' franda comnnttcd by the village accountaola.* Ihe 

asaecsinvnc of the Adil Qh&h dynasty was regarded aa the standard 
MseMioeiit, rekka or shist, and subBe<|aent levies were called extras 
or4ktifnU. It ia not possihletoasoertain what proportion the aaseas- 
nent bore to tho gross produce, but the ooimtr^' seems to have enjoyed 
little proeperity for sererftl centuriea before its occupation by the 
Company. According to Munro its decline seems to have begun 
under the Muhammadaa priiioes of Bijilpur, and to have conliaued 
uodi^r its own chiefa who were successively tribntarias to the Biji&pur 
Saltans and the Moghal Emperors, and who besides the payment of 
their tribute or poifiicJau, were compelled to satisfy the rapacity of 
the nobles by heavy exactions from their Bubiects.' To make good 
the tribute an extra asscsimcnt of thirty per cent on all gardens, 
and 2^ to I2| per cent on all rice lields, was imposed, and appeara 
tn the acconnte as cess or jmtii under tJie head of ahamil or extra.* 
Ankola was subject to the Marnthas for eleven years, but they do 
nut ftcem to have had a very firm grasp of it and tboro is no oviaeace 
that Shiv^ji's revenue syslem was introduced.' Haidar and Tipu 
wpcar to have treated Sonda and Kdnara alike, and the account 
of the r«venofi system of the twodivtainns from tlioir time need not 
bo writtoQ separately. The only point requiring meatioa is that, 
according to Air. Uarris.'in some parts of Suuda the assessmont 
VU levied io kind as late as 1770; thnt it amounted to twcthirds of 
tho ^ross product''; and that the settlemuot was made by villages and 
▼iQ^e-irroups or magaais, the headmen and accouutauta being left 
to diviiu) the total assessment among the under-routers as they 
pleaaed. All land waa held to belong to tho Ouvornment. It is Haid 
ifaat gardens were cooaidered privato property, but it appears that 
oxdy tbe trees belonged to the owner ; the property of tha soil waa 
Tcsiod in the (jovomment.'' 

* L«tt«r of Mr. ffarria. KOi June IS21. 
< MuDTo'e ItcpoTt, St«i ii»r 1800. 

1 SCottto'h B«port, 31st May 1800, 
■ Report, ai*l May 1800. 

* Prrer'a Eut Inilia ud Pcraia. IW. 

• X.«ttM to Bo*nl o( Berwun, I4th June 1821. ' Mimro'i K*p»rt, iUX May 1800. 



Administ r ation. 



rB«IDll>7 OlUBtt 



ipt« VIU. 




The rovL-nuB Listory of KAuara proper has Xteen traced by Sir T. 
Muiirti aud others from vpry early times. Sir T. Munro derivnl hia 
iDfortuotioQ frum auoient title-deeds or aanads aod accoaots frritteo 
ID black books or.villRgo roKixteni.' He hnd greiit faith in these blaal 
books, bat almost all have beoQ lost, asd those which remain arc 
easily deciphered. One>»ixth of the crop i.<i Aaid iohnre been the n' 
exsctod by OoTomment from time immomorial,' till, in A.D. lSd2 
priuco of the Pnndynn nice whose capital iros at Madhtira, cotir(iinred 
the country.^ Before hit* time the sixth was paid in roaf*h 
bat he required it to be delivered free from the husk, and therel 
iocreosed the revenae by ten ]>er cent. This system continaed 
*.D. 13S(j when the country came nnder the Viiayanogar dy 
Harihar-Kitir the limt prince of that dynasty, made a new assessni' 
on the principles laid don^ in the sacred books, which snppoae 
produce to be to the Reed an twelve to one, and which p 
&tt proportions into wlucb the prodoce is to 1m divided bet' 
the SDverei^. the landlord, and the cultivator. Colonel Wilks 
doBcribes the manner o£ distribution:^ 'Tliirty is tbe wh' 
uQmber on which thn distribatinn ia made, of which it is calculated 
that tiftevn or one-half is cunsnmed in the expenttoB of apiculture 
and in the maintenance of the farmer's family. The distribution of 
the remaining fifteen Htands thus : To the sovereign one-sixth of the 
groas produce or fire partsj to the Rnlhmans one-twentieth or one 
and a balf parts, and to tbc fifods one-thirtieth or one pert. Thin left 
to the proprietor ono-qnarter or 7^ parte.' The aoveK-igw dihtribiitwi 
tbe shnie payablu to toe Brihrnons and the f^s. Munro smtos that 
the share aetuuUy nlluwod was Httle more than one out of Ihe thirty 
instead of two uud u half, the curt-ailment being made on the gi'Ound 
that tbe BrAhmane hold londe which wore not accounted for. Bo" ~ 
the conquest by the Vijayanagar dynasty the n;venue was collei 
fiometJmoH in money and sometimes in kind, but Harihar-K 
minister mode rnlus for tbe conversion of the grain payment 
money paymeut. The average asaeBameot paid by Imlunra ww 
{Pagodas bO) but Kome paid aa much as £2000 {Pagodas 5000). 

Horibar.lUi's sysbsoi xemained iinaJtcrcd till 1618, wliea an 

■ ThuM blwh books are the rilUcr ro^ttor*. Th^ are tkrec to four ia«h«« i. 
The ItAvm K« a tort of cosrw clotli «t iba mitutanoe of paato-boanl, will dvi»d »■! 
They ara written with * Hort of iikti- imicit, which doM not ral> tbcniKli it will mak 
out. Mr. StcvkTt. lUCi vi ItMi,?. ^ 

■From the r«matwt titn«* of whicli th«Te ia any rocun] tjlln««r tlie miiMU of 
the f«iiTt«Mithc»ntiir;aI]1anr1 wuttMMMMl in rico *t»<juuitit}- equal to tbe iiaaiitity 
«f puiiAy ■own, th»t is a field wliieli Twjuirod u>a ISaiutU of pftdilr t« sow patd ten 
Ittntuiitni ricT to tli« Airkdr. The muwun' Uicn in iiBO wu ciufed • AuM/whidl 
)>iiitaiaed forty fionU of eisLty nipwa wpifiJit ; a ft«fri <naa thprcfunt aq«»l |o Uiim 
thouamd ud two bundr«d mpe** wciKht. Tlic runt ul tLii-i- nuch Awau of lasd wh 
lhw«Au««of rite, oronngfiHlipn-jodo of the huuc Vkluciui tliu Bkhddurior Ilaldu-'ftAsH 
now Iji. The rtvfttvr wiik K>^iiiot:|nM coIle«t«il in kind, MiiMtimv in money. »t tb* 
di*rmticin of thn gnviiminnit, uid [ifobablT m thts ttAtt «f prioca rcnd«t«d Uie pi 
tb«i nthct inoni iid\BntA{[*<(rai. Sir T. blunro to tha Botid of I(«v(iui«, 3l»t 

' \ViUi»" Sootb of India, I. 152 ; Nfuuro, 31it M»y 1800. When Uimb autbo 
differ, M they do on "rmH- iniowr itutttcn^ Colonel WilW*. who nivto Ut«r aad 
K««M In Uw M»oltMinc Mi)t>u*cripts Kad fflhor p*i)tnj, it fvUowed. 

« WlUti- South ol Iod«, L 143. 


idititKHial aManniont of fifty per cent vr&a iiuposod by cue of tbo 
Bhlnir prinooe. lu ItiGO u tax wue put ou cocoAOUta and other 
inSto wuicli beforo liul paid Dothiug exclu^ire of the land-ntnt^ 
ISii Vijaxauogar asaessmunt, with tho«i additions, was considered 
ik» standard rent or rtkha of all lauds culcivawd or watite. Thiit 
MNHBkeat U also oallod thiet, and as sach is disttngtUBfaod io tho 
Htnuots. Accurdiog to the above calculations ivhal wiu levied by 
Omremnient would amount to one-third of the groBS produce; 
but it was taken onlr at a rough ostimote of tbo seed sown and was 
ooasiderod light. Tbepooploaro ropresontod ae happy andproeper- 
ou oader it, there were uo ontataading balaaoeB and land was 
laleabte at eight to ten and sometimoe at twODty -fire to thirty yean' 

Uotil the cod of tho Bodnur mlo cesses ware constantly imposed, 
htnog fixed at a peroentaeo of the standard assessment. Id 1763 
wbou Haidar got pOGsession of tho country he ordered an iavoitiga* 
lion of every 8oui-ce of revenne with th» view of angmoDting it as 
ffluch &a ho could. The udditioas made hy him and by Tipu wore 
enmeroes; but they could iiut all be collected. Some indeed wore 
mgffe«ted by the officoru with tho view of involving tho accouuts in 
COnniaion, so that tboy might have ftO opportunity uf embeTixliiig 
with mope fiafoty. 'flie whole ndroinietrntion of Uaidar and Tipu 
is described m a series of attotnptit to discorer how much atsnessment 
the province coald bear. Tho result of this gyeteni was that popnhk- 
tian waa dimiaifihed by one-third;' tho ancient proprietors were 

* VhUrrtcr proportlMt Uia usownMint might liAvt^ Urns to tlio K^n prodaM lu 
W3t ■! ili4i tiiM) of iho ooiKiumt of Kftiurft by UaiJar, it sUll Mwcia to bnvv boen 
aoStntaVif mod«rat« t« htw mabM tlM vouutry, it DOt to ext«iul iU culiivatiun, 
■k iMCt to pMwtrTa it in Cha aamo flAnriahiiif; «tJlto in wfaiob it b.ul Uccn iu ovliar 
(UBW. Wb»» dicthot* wore in * docliao it wu not MiiKd by the Und-rent but b»d 
Immi tba eonMqMio of the diminntioa of their popnUtion dui-luff tlia tntmeat 
T*VDlt« of tbeir numcnnia petty ebieb or jMlisars, or it bad b«tui ocrauioiicil bf 
%tmforaij Kts ot OMWcaaioo, far tho rAj&s o[ Bodnar, thou)jh tbey wlherotl to th« 
priociplv of m fixtd hoMl-nut, frc^ucuUy pcriaittvd thvtr f&vuurit«a ami tlepondiintis 
wlidfl pUced in the mantle 01 VII t I'f iliHtricM, to niin ninny <>( tlii> prindixU inliAbituita 
1>)F the oxaetJnn of eiorfciUnt lini^u iind*i' variiiin pT-'tcncn*. From iLme uul other 
nil—, in BUST part* of tb« counUytherg went tracts nf wMl« Land wliioh paid na 
rmt jwd whioi ooatd not be aoUl ; but tlie Urnk irhich wers occupied could, fur 
Ike uinat parti be aoM atlhe rate of aael« ei^lit ur ten jeora' purchMeol tho Goviun> 
iMut rent. Under tho Badunr priuoaa MMti* flelda w«re sold at aa hi^i ai twenty- 
fi«» aad thirty yfttn' jtiir^Uaae ; tb«r«for« tbaotitatonding balanow wluob aft«i-war<u 
««ra ao otnnman in Kkoara were almoet iinkiMHTi. It via thought wtaecaaiary 
to knp aanaal d«t«ila of tlis Mat« of cnltiiiition. Il waa aavet itiquirod what 
portioa of hit «atat« a lakdlord cultivated or l«(t wute. It wiu ciiuwud that, in 
irintovor atet* th«)r ware, be waa to pay tho whole rent. When, *m u-a« aoiiMtimaa 
tho oaM, be failod (o pay, even whoro it oooJd b« done, it k-m nitt tiBuoI to aoll the 
wlicJ« ur part of lii> VBlate to make good the dafiuiunoy. Thiswjw lookoil upou a* a 
lianb laetaar*, xaH yrna mUoOi raaorted to. Tbo nsii^l Duatcua wa< to graut hint 
UoM, ta aaaist hin with a loan of mimey, or to renut the debt. The village or 
d»tnot Mas aoarcaly erer asaeased for indiridual failurea. Ou the whole, the reveooa 
vaa thai oaaily rcaliaed aud when Uwr« weire at linioa outataudio^ balancea tbi^ 
tMtD to have proceeded nttb«r from miimamwenaDt than from the uporattan oi tlio 
Und-rcut. Sir T. Moim>. Slat May ISM. 

■ Within th« r»rtyy««ni coding 1900 th«i popufation of thaooontrT-haidbeailcBacaed 
bjpoOB-third Andther«n-ftAlittI<!iloiitAthatitapnM|>»ntyludinfl«i«da |reat<f tmIuo- 
Itoii . (>«ru|Nia atul Ankola, fonnerly Dourisliing plaoas, ooatainod (1800) ouly a few 
ha|p{>rly inhabitants. Uonlrar, otum the Moond town in tnde after Uan^slor. hmt tint 
a aiagle bonae, aod Jklansalor itaelf waa greatly dc«aycd. It may be nid that thia 
ckaag* waa facoaght abovt )iy Ihv, liiv««uu vf Haid^, hy Ida four wacs which hap- 





IBombiy (}UBt 



»apt«T vm. 






Vr T. ifuuro, 

estingnialied ; and land had to be forced on the caltiTatoTs, those w 
wi>ro prenent bciug tililiged to cnltivMte the lands of those who 
absconded. Generally the people cnald not paj either the rent 
tbeir ovm or of tlie defaulters lauds aud not more than half th 
Domiaal demand could be collected. Few would avow the extent of 
their estatee, and freqneotly a portion was hdd in the name of an 
opulent relative, a revenue servKitt, or n temple. Onlj lands t^ithia 
a few miles of the eea were saleable. 

The additional cessca imposed by tho later Bcdnur princes 
by the Maisnr raters were called sttamil or extra, and were utigm 
fisod aa iiepotita or Suca The assesamoDt of 1630 was alone 
regard(?d as land-ront.' 

Major Mnnro naturally diaapproved of tho coarse followed 
Ilaidar and Tipu which had impovennhed the people and rcndi 
the country, almost a desert. Still he did oot deem tumself at liber 

LUl P , 

peiie<l since Uiivt event, by Tipii liimMlI tlcfltrojicg many of U» princi(>«I t 

Xn Uiv aoMitatid (oruioji the ialiBbit«iit>toKiii(>V€ to JuRiaUlmil Kuilirtb<<riinliMjtkj 
ktioaaiUMU' thelklUa, iiy lu> Miiiiis in oivo uigtit nil Uu! ^'tmtiiut in«ii 
ftod dtildren oud uqiIIuu ttjcm tu tbe umnlier ul iixty ihouMnd uito cAptivitj 
MoUnr fur not one-tcDUi uI ttuni lmlt retiinuMl. hy tbe itrahibtlioa it tmvigft 
tml«. utd by the gtaientl c»mi|>IJciu uf liU scn-nnunurit iti all iU depMtinwti. Tfana 
oircuiuatMicca oerteioly ocovlcrktuil tUo ciunxo, but, nil t«kiau togstlMTi ycobftbj 
did uut oontribiitc so tnuiib tu the obitiific M tho extnonUoory »u|tinuBt»lMu of 
kiul-KBt SirT. Munro. Sl*t M*y ISOO. 

1 The uier«»M «t l&ndrcnt wu dirided into extra MMMmenU uid new bndi 
nvcnuo. bucauao it wns llie extru auviiLuituUalDue ibat nddMl to tbe bartfaen of 
UniltinMen atkI t-ibiljitrd ibe exL-ni vS the modem owr Uw anclaat MMMmoal 
ut ihc uuiu larHl& At Die accamiou of British ptrwtx ihit midiuI Maravmcait vm 
etill vrritU'ii, uut>?iily iu i>tl|;«fi«r]il«coonnt3, but iutbckocoiuits vl crftv luldluj^^^ 
It WAX nlons coiiaiil<tnM] » th« du« «f UovomtneDt ; tdl MilM«tni«nt uditfi 
oofuulvrod u opoTeaaive cxactiona. They iren not nulled r«nt. bot wer« ati;, 
witb Itae BAinn ol eAaidh. Lmpoita, aiid iIiim. and diitinguithcd by tbe nUDM 
miniaUir nbo flrat levied tbem. Tliuy weraolvriLn oppowdbr tho peoolp. Sir 
Uunro, Slab Hay 1800. 

lu addition to tli« iMtt or Bijipu r ttandard rantal, tlio chief Mica wUcb veir in 
foroe at tlio cloae of fiediii>r nil« were : Tbe puyfli or «itr» aanasoMot (if 17II. 
TUa ina impMed by the wife ot tbe ntj^ wbo wa n^eat duriii}; the iiiadnen of hvr 
hnobaod ou Ibc oi^caaioii of tbe inamage of ber ten KuvHjiiia N'dik ; it was al 
tbe rat« of oue-mii(<eiJtb of the I'lUf ur HLuidard raiitftl, ami fur a tew rcMvww 
levied aa a njiotiikl luiymcnt ot neraA. hnt loon camo to be ctniiideiM FfTt of 
Iba regitbr aafMiuieiit. Tlia cow or paui of IT IS waa impoecd liy tii* daief o( 
Sonde for the jiuryoau of dLtobarnaj; the Mcifhol tnl>ut«; it n-na at tbe r*t« of 
tUf^paremt'l SjStnlZJiwrcaitub oil rice liclda. Tbe abiimr 
ostn MMMmemt of 1730^ waa impot^'l In bon ol intercit c»id totlM bank 
advanced ttut yurly instalmeate. Iu Beditur fifty per cont had alwaya beeo 
tho midillc vf October, but only 121 per cert ttt Kinant. Tbe mja niabed to 
tiwKluftra iDat«bnootsiatho hubo wayoA in Budniir; bntiu [mrnthelatcncee 
barveat tho iiUiabilAntc wvn doable to coinjily, it was o^cvd that he obiMld bontiW 
tbo Bionoy, and t)ist thvy sbonlf] pay hin aa intorvit a balf aoiia or ooe.Airtjr- 
aeound jiait additional on the rtandard rent. Tbo extra eeea el BaBvajM Ktik 
wa* l«Tioit in 1723 al tbe rate M unu-tuuth of na n.iina. iir a huudred and uxtiotli 
perl of tbe MaDilard rent, in urdor to erect thuUm and feod jiiliirima. Tbe addition 
of ITfiSwaanuMleby thenfiu'todiKiharae tbe aman of the MarAtha tributo. T1m7 
had accumulated to ao ftvak a enni that aho pnteodod abe oooM not paj tboni 
withovt n levy from tho iBbabit«nta oaoal to ono ycar'a rent. To tliie ditnand tbe 
iwaple refnsea to rabinit, and wbea abe attempt^ to foroe complianoe tfaey roae in 
a body on Che olBciale. The matter waa atlaatsettlod by thdreAmenting to pay flf^ 
percent In (our yean at the rate of 12^ |)er cent each year. In the fifth year, wlieo 
waetn bare boon n.-iiiict<il. Tfaidar ordered Ibia levy to be made panaanent. Sir T( 
Mnnra to tiiu Board of Bonsone, 4tfa May IM& 




to dofttii wiJfly Crom whal ho Foand cfitatili.Hbct]. Ho {Mniiidered 

hicB»lf raeroly b Coltoetor, autl nnwlo no further n-ductiors thim 

ndl u were ubeolutuly necMuwry to ensure the collection of tlio 

rarame, lenvin^ it to tho Board to graut rmy further nxIuctioD tlioy 

dccVKMl ptvper.' As tbo land had ccver bcoa surrcycd, and as fields 

«.«Ti =o oiixe*! Rud diridc J that hardly auy one but the owner knew 

:nuti. Sir T. Mnorotbought it was impossible to judge of tlto 

ratty .^i asaesiimotit wilhtmt a eurrey. He accordingly utarted a snrrey 

in BulEor, irhicb iras lo he stopped or contianod its tho Board 

tlmigbt lit. It does not appear to Imvc bovu ciuried ou. nnd all 

(nee of it hns been lost. lu Major Munru'u opinion, tho Bodniir 

memnont was ha high as was coumLeut with lesTing tbo hind any 

eal^Taluo ; bnt as GoviTDiceut had dotorminod to introdnce a pcr- 

maii^iit settluineDt and to abolish rood customs and daiiea on grain, 

be did not Ihinlc bo great abatemetit* were requirod. For HooAvar 

ud Askola, which in hiscpiaion wcro in a mora dosotate state than 

ot}ier parte of ihe district, he proposed the Boduur iuiaesament For 

ihiB rest he proposed tbo Bodnnr asscMmcnt with tivcuty-fivo or thirty 

per cent of Hmdar'ii additions. 

The Board of Beveuue were not prepared to enter into a 
«iuiider«tioD of Mn^or Miioro's aaggeatioaa for reducing the asaesa- 
(oeDt in the proportion he )>jiatL'd out ; but tbe Governor in Council, 
Iwinp of opinion that tho K^mporary ABsessment of the district shonld 
be in proportion to iU productiro powers, authorised the dottlemonb 
fur tbe year to be as pro^xised by Major Muaro. At tbe satDo time 
U was laid down that Uio sacrihcc should bo headed Temporary 
Gmtnitou-i Hcmiasieo. It was also stated that the standard proposed 
by Mwj'ir Mimro did not appear an adn^nate rerenoe for Klinara 
■»'' inco to the Btandard aaseBsment; and it was observed 

wi' -ular isattsEactioQ that tbo proprietary right in tbe lands 

of Kinara had been derired from so remote a period, and that 
* th& existing kuowledgo and Ofitimatton of tbo value of those righta 
anong tbe deecendanl« of the or!g;iuaI proprietors indicated the 
euy racans of introdacisg a pemasent system of rerenae and 

Afterwards Major Mnnro stated thftt ho had proposed greater 
tcdnrtiaDfi than he otherwise wonld bare done under tbe idea that 
apGFnuaneot suUlement was aboat to be introduced, and that siQce 
ha last nrote ho bad been led to jadge more favoarably of K^nara, 
and wonld not |m>poae so great i^nctions.* The landlord's rent was 
ofteofir above thtui below fifty per cent of the net produce, and 
raagvd from Sfieen to eighty per cent Ife saw that without a 
MTTvy or a registor of the rent and produce of litigated estates tt 
WDoId nol bo possible to ascertain the cnpability of tho lands, and 
tbat tbe standard assoMOient wmi nnerjnni, and that the accounts 
had been falniSod. He [Krtubed out what he deemed should be tho 
trwusofa permanent BCttlement, showiiig that laige proprietors 
wore uokaown in the district, and tliat small proprietors were as 
Uk«lylopay regnlaily. He proposed a remission of 2| percent. 




Hw CoatMDjr, 


> UttOT t« BoMd, 4Ut M*y 180a >L«ttart«B(wa, Otiilfovantwr 1900. 

[BomlM7 Quet 

ipter Till. 


tTtw Comnuiy, 
■ 1800. 


Mr. Horrii. 




and that- other reductions aboiild be deferred rill a pennaaeaft 
vFas ostabliehcd ; he remarked that many of tho riUaefiA ia 
and Ankola und all in ^^olldu vroru in so dBSolatu a condition t! 
permanent settlement of them Troold be made tinder great 
advantagcf), and rocoinniL*ndcd lluit it abould bu dcforrod for at loasb 
five yeara' Aftenvard»,' in a letter in wliicli, at tho reqaest of tho 
Board ofBereniio, host^itod bits riows tothu Collectors ivbo auoceeded. 
him, Major Munrc) recoinmeadod cautJou in imposing a new aa^^^H 
menton1and» n-hich already paid tho Bodnur assessmeut and bol^^^H 
Haidar's additioDSj und tliuught that uo more should be levied front 
any which j>aid the Bodnur OHseHsmcntaodthrce-ci^uartersofilaidar'a 
additionti. Both the Board of Htivenue and GoveminetibappfxiTed of 
this advice.' 

In the annual reports of the settlement for the next ten joora tha 
resources of tho district and the condition of the people wora 
reproKcnlod as improving.* Subseqaeutly distarhances bcgani 
Mr. Iteadj after attributing them to variona canses, at len 
dcciarod tliot more r«TODuc was drawn from the country than it 
able to bear. He was called apon for a more particular report^ 
stated^ that the lai^est proportion of lands was rated at more ._ 
the reguhir asaessment or ah-iat and three-qnarters of the extma 
thamili and that none were rat«d ao low ns tho regular a^ossment 
or akiai ouly. TLo reaaon of this was that, owing to tho decline of 
agriculture, it was oecesisanr to mako Dp by an increase to low-mted 
lands tbu reubs of lauds which, had been allowed to fall waste. Uo 
gave it OS his opinion that the Government ebare should not exceed 
one-third uf the ^ro»s produue, and showed grounds for bt^lioving' 
that throughout lower Kiiuam Goveniment were drawing thirty to 
fifty per cent of the gross produce, besides various cesaos. This 
excessive demand, in Mr. Head's opinion, was the cause of the 
decline of agriculture. He afterwards expreaso^l similar but more 
decided views.' He stated that thirty per cent of the grona prod 
waa the Dtmost that shonld be demanded from estates below 
Saby^ris ; he pointed out the necessity of asoertainiag the 
produce ; and showed that tho originnl and extm aweesmeot 
grossly unequal and were no guide in equalising the Oovemment 
demand. As the share of the .itftte was more than OQO-Uiird of the 
grosH produce, he recommended a net roduotioD of botod per cent 
below the bills and of four per cent above them. 

Mr. Read was succeeded by tho Honourable T. Harris. Th& 
Secretary of the Board of Revenue forwarded Mr. Harris d copy of 
a minute not then recorded, asking for any explanation which 
Mr. Harris or Colonel Munro who was thou in the district might 

> Hnuro often sppliee th« name SoikIa to the tcmtory kbgvo tbe SohyAJria omlj. 
Bilgi WH for m crlr ■ petty obicfahip ondera DdJfmfr, 

* Letter to CoUiMiion. IHh Do^mbor ISOft Oa tli« tnuu(« of Major Mnara tlis 
di*tri«t yras divided into two chargt*. tba norUiimi divinoD, conwMttdi&g to 
th« pnNwiit liiJitnH oi Xiirth K.tnom. witli tlM mbKliviiian of KuixUpar, bMW p«t 
nudcr Mr. Kcsd : tbi? ■imtlicni nnditt Mr. RavemBliaw. 

» BoMil'i UtUir, £2iitl July I8»i ; Covcrnmciit Utttr, IBUi Aujart ISOi. 

* Board's frucouditieB, ICth Scptcnibor l^l, paTa^rttiih 17. 

* Letter to Bowd, lit Jwtuuy ISl-t, ■ Letter, 19tli Immrj 1814. 

Sinlc necesMiry, to enable the Board dually to 6x I lie maximum 
rate of asaessmciit for Ranarn.' Tbu niinutu traced tbe hHtory of 
revenue admjiiuitratioii in Kunsra; it stated that the FORultof Colonel 
Blunro's moderattou in Bx)U)|; tho maximum QoTcmmoot demand 
Bt the standard nsaesitinout or relcka, tog»tIier vrilh three-quarters 
of the extru cces or ehdmU, was a f^inoral improvcmcat Tli« 
Bolvuvniftnt docliiw was attributed to tbo attempt to muki) np by a 
at': 150 on low rated lands tho rent of otnor land which had 

p^- i<f tilUg^c nud to tlio ottompt to lery chu full amount of 

Baidar's additions. 

On this minntd Colonol Manro renwrked that it was from tha 
gradual cultirntion of escheated estates thai beoxpcctud tho land* 
rent- of 1709-1800 to be kejtt up, aud that (here coald be no coti- 
Biderable increase of tillage anle^ tUu lusussiaunt oFthe ncighhouring 
csLaU'B ID caltlvatioD wad kept below Haidar'a aasessment. He 
ndbcrifd to his opinion that rcauctinns were necessary. The land- 
tax nood not always be uutiuLained at the same amount ; a moderate 
MMasment should hv adopted for each diiitrict, and no estates should 
pay more. Ho added that K&ujira wa«i mure able to pay the assosa* 
uent than when it camo under British rule. 

Mr. ITarria^ stated that the total asseatment or beris enierod in 
tho village jnpers or putUu was reciirdcd a.^ the limit of tho Gorera- 
taetit demand. At tuo same time lie showed that eroD in respect 
of the standard aasesKment or aAiV some landholder^) were assessed 
iwooty per cent faifi^hcr than their neifcbbours. Tho inequality waa 
tlia result of oorruption under native soreruDseDts, and waa so 
gtarinfif that the system was one maait of nppn^siiion. Ris prodo- 
cessora trind to correct it by the individoat settlement of the rant 
on each man's estate, and uehim.self was Raided by tho prodaotire 
powers of the land io conlinning or decreasing the total asaessmeot. 
He did not limit the demand to the original asse.ssmoot together 
with three-quarters of the exlra^, becaiiae, as ho ehon-ed, hnridrada 
won) asTOSfted beyond that by Colonel ^f unro in his first settlement 
ftnd continued to pay the higher amount. 

On this the Board remarked that their object was not to equalise 
bat to limit the Government demand.* Inequntity, they said, in tho 
reaitit of different degrees of industry and good management, and an 
altenttion of asHeH-'tmeaC would only produce alteration in tlie value of 
land and a want of confidence in that species of property to which tho 
people were attached. They were of opinion that tha best universal 
standard of greatest demand wonld be the average eollections realised 
Eromoacb estate since the province had come under tho British Govern- 
ment, aud desired that, subject to the confirmation of Government, 
Ur. Harris' eettlemnnt for the current year should be founded on 
that basis. On a reference from Mi*. Harris reajwcting oiTtuiu cases 
iu which the Board's principle would nob work as it wag intended, 
the Board issued further instructions, again declaring that their 
oljjoct was to fix on each estate a moderate limit to tho pabtic 



The CompkBT. 
Mr. ffarrit, 


I UUar. CSth Apcil 1817. 

* U4t*r, t7th A«E. 1817. 'Utter, Xtkk !>•«. 1«17. 

- - •" ^ 





Tbm Coiniiuij. 
Mr. Sarrit, 



MMSBment.' Mr. Hnrria ftftcnntfdB oakod if the avcra^ collcctk 
on eslates which had beim aaSBBseil aboTe Colouel Munro's maximi 
sfaoald be the limit for tbcm, aod the Board repUod tliat it ehonl 
The instractionii which the Board had given to Mr. Harris 
roforred to Govommont for final orders and were approved 
directed to be carried oot in Future settlcineuta,* 

Mr. Harris* reported the Buttlement for lSId-30 on the prinoii 
of the average of past collections in all sab-divisiona except A ol 
and Sonda. It was not at finit intended to oxclnde the»o dii^t 
from the new BOtllement, but it vi&ii found imposaible to cnrry it 
tbrongh the whfitu district in one year.' At the same time it 
stated that when setllod by Msjor Muaro, Sonda waa almost a i 
and that in Ankola and Sonda the sottlentont would not afford the i 
to over-assessed estates which wan expected. "Hie Board authot 
Mr, Harris to tiettloAukola and Honda OQ the old principle for 1811 
but expressed the hope that the new priaciplu wuald be introdae 
in the nost ycor.* This hope was not rooliaod, as Mr. Harris 
able to aaaigu good grounds for not complying with thw B«ard 
directions. The absence of any nccoitnt-s or trosCworthv informat 
regarding tbu territories which the K/ija of Sondo micu has elrui 
been mentioned. Under lh(«« circumstaDOes Major Muuro fa| 
arrangod the oeaessment according to tlie ootnal condition of 
country. The standard assessment or retha b«ris wag adopted i 
an account to look up to, but the Hvttlemcnt wau not made upon l' 
In fixing tlio annual demand no regard was piud to tlia actual aM 
in cultivation or to the (juautity of 8ecd aown. Frcath lands 
been brought into cultivation solely on the authority of 
intorestod acconntant. In 18U1 Mr. Kead began on inquiry int« ' 
gross produce of a few estates in Bilgi and Banarisi, bat 
BCttloment with individual landholders woa not Ix^on till 11 
The HC-ttlemcnt vraa then based on estimates framed by corrupt ..^ 
interested villagonccountants. Owing to their pretended ignorant 
and the want of traatwortfay &cc«aats tliu settlement could 
bo made with each oconpnnt, only with the principal lajidhaldee 
For this reason the inequalities in the adsessment exceeded uuj 
known in South Kiinara. 

The only remedy which ^fr. TTarris could suggest was a sni 
It would, bo thought, liKhteu tlie assessment on many iiidividi 
and yet would increase tiie total assessment by ono-qnartor. 

In 1822, Mr. Harris began an experimAntal survey in the Badanj^ 
village-group now in Sirsi, and promised to furnish the Board with tt 
resultB. He afterwards explained in detail the principle on wbie 
he had proceeded.' The survey was called an inupcclion or pahdv 
whioh was said to be the form best suited to the usage of the 

> Lrttnr, lHh Decvmber 1817 : L«U«r, Z9th DecMnber 1817. 

> UtUr, mil BepUimber 1819 ; LcUcr, 1st Beptvmber 1S19. 

* ProceMiunotBoMrd, 16th S«pl«iuber 1831, Mn. 42: ^ 

* Lettot to B<mH, 2nd Auguft 1S20 ; tr.^r» ilt. Hmtw tQ Mr. CKineras. 3711) 
December 1$I9. " Mr. KiurU to Rcwrd. 30tlt D«o. 1819. 

* PfocMdingi. 28tb Dm>. 1820. ' Lvttw to Boftrd. iltL Msjr 1823. 


c^niatry.' The Goremment aseessuifnt was takon nt one-third the 
^i-< proiluco, and tLc tncrmsod revemio wad said to bu moKtly 

i! from liiud untlt-r cultinitioii wliicb waa befuro noktiuwa to 

ivaled- Tbo »um-y sliowod ibuL tu tbat |jart o( the ttwlrict 

Uw fAiW or BtAQdiikrd woa a certain space of Uod rvtjuiriag a certaiD 

qDUtity of seed, and the extx»s or thdmilti wuru found to exist 

oolf ill o delusive form in tho occonnts. Tho greatest ineqaalitiee 

' 'tgularitifs in the former assesHmeote were brought to light. 

' lio survcv removed, and at the same time yielded a pcrmaiWQt 
KKrvuno to the reTenue. Mr. Harris urg^ed (he extousion uf tbo 
wrrey on tho same principle throughout Snpa and Sonda, and 
bnrardt^ u statemect of the establiAhraeDt he. uruposLtl for tho 
p.,-^un,' The nsseBsment founded on the survey in Badangad was 

:iar reported to have been r«alixed without difficulty. Tho 
<r WDg cttutioned to b« careful that the denutad was moderatu.' 

fame time he was anthoriBod to entertaio an CBtAbtiehmoat 
(ottuable bim to survey aod r-^scks tho whole of the Ankola and tha 
Upb&cl iub-divisious on the same principles. 

la 1825 the survey and re-uaaQBamciDt o( (oar other village groups 
in ihe upland oub-diTisiona were completed by Mr. Cauiorou.* and, 
neepi a few groups, the mcaeoriag of Ankola and of Supa and 
Soooa was complt^tod by Mr. Cotton.* But doubts began to be fett 
(fl the proprictj of taking one-third of the gross produce on nil lands 
alike. Mr. Cotton* represeutcd to Mr. Babiugtou, and Mr. Babiogtoa 
npresented to tho Board of Kovcnuo, that to tako the some share of 
tiw gross pnidnco from alt left dilTercut hasbaadmeu very difToreut 
proGUi, and (ended to make thoui throw np infei-ior lauds. In 
Aakola and tu tho village* on the Muriilhu frontier an a^susHtnent 
on chat principle might do rvniincd. It wna doubtful if it could be 
nslisod in the int«ncr gurdcu lands. These were much muro coKtly 
to iroric, and besides the coat of working them paid a duty of thirty 
per cent on their produce- Mr. Bahington thought thiit gnrdoaB 
thonid Dot be assessed at more than one-fourth or one-fifth of their 
gross produce In Ankola fraudnlcnl occupation and transfers were 
oomtouo; au attempt to eqiiu!i7.e the aRne^mont was moro required 
MOd. lass objectionable. But Mr. Babington was of opinion that m the 

'TfaaC->Uoctor firvt cUund tbc rillji^>e laniLt uad«r rioe and g&rdeti. Theri«e lands 
mr* dividoil iDto tbne Kni*, the fint DnJcr r«a«rvi>ini w«r« bibUc tn Lo ovrrtlfrired 
luiT« tim cTofm d«stroy«d, but to cuuut«rbaUiiM thii th«y luu) tho n^vknUj^o ot 
couvcrliblo every •ooand jnox iuto ingamiie pl*iit«Ui>ii> : tlie >«c!imil tort 
ivb Uie love] of the rawrvoir anil wm watwod from tt : and tb« cultivation u( 
wbichwaaaLill tiixbar d«peiidsdoiitk«Bmud fall of raiii, auil waa cutuldsrgd 
cTi>i>. TlM)|itnt« uf land waniatMurMl, aadtttu-thtrdof tbogrMiproduoa, 
] by roKinuK '^■"l ni<«fliir#ni«Bl and eonv«rt«d fnli> niMi«y at modoni1« 
lalM, Via iMDnea u the (utnro mnnej niiM>uni«nl. Tho leala ot umament 
pn|w«Kl lor gardtu Uail wai ragotatixl by th« a«tiniAl«l valnv vf the pniduM A 
Mvtatn ntimbu of ln)«i wen auntned to grtrw on » >porifl«d urn* ami a fixed ralo 
frtfatnt paj'alile on tl>e BQiober of (rxiUAan ot ground incluilod in tlie garden, without 
nfannioelotbsnunherordeacn|>lioaorU)ttr»Ga,ortli«ir praduottrMMM. Secntaty 
Board of Rovonn* to QovcruoMint ot Madrui. ISth Baftamber 1831. 
■ LoctM- to Boaid, ITUi Juoo 1S23. * Procaodiiij[S, ISth Itept t$Sl, para. 69. 

' klr. Babington to Board. 24tli August \fS6. 
* Mr. Cotton to Ptiacipat Collector. 3rd Juna IS25. 
■Mr.Caltootu trinotpol CollMtor, 24th Augait I83n. 



Tli« Comjiany. 

[Boiiibft7 Gu»t 


ipter Tin. 



Thft Coupuij. 


inland gnrden districts it would be Xtesl to take Iweiitv to tliirtjr- 
per coot of the gross prodace according to the quality of tlie lat 

The plan approved by tho Board ttm to uccrtrun tbo qoaotG 
o[ iko grosa produce, to clius tlie lands nccordiugly. atid to cslcul 
tho ossessmcDt by turning into money on on avcra^ of tho pric 
of previous y«ara whatever proportion it was dtiteniiined to 
Hr. Btibington was dJrocted to pnrsuo bis invtistimtion, 
oaaaBB & few groaps at the rates be tbong-lit tboy irere able to be 
and to ttssofis other Rronps on Mr. Harris's principle, and to 
tbo results tu detail. Tbe Board at tbe same tiiue reviewed 
objcctiouii wliieh bad been urgfjd against tbe survey. The fii 
obJL-ctiou wiLSthat tocouatize tbe assessment weald chiuige the ral^ 
of private property. They replied that tbe inequality originate 
tfaroagh fraud or oversight, aud tbat there was no other way 
placing the land revenue on a sound footing. The second objc 
was that if the a«sesaraotit were Bsed according to tbe survey 
iandhoidere would be taxed on the fruite of their industry, 
this thciy replied that it was the same cverywherCj and that 
mistake to be avoided wan to tax extraordinary industry. The 
objection 'k-iu that there wnald !*uon aj^ain be the same inequalit 
aaa the landholders would 1>0 di»trOAftod if they imag'ined themneh 
always subject to re-aJisesHment. To thiii they replied tbat if 
asBessment was eqaal in the first instance a long time would ela; 
before a renaion was nc-cossary, and if proper leases or pattaa 
given to the boldors, and they were led to understand 
principle wua to tux thu land according to a moderate 
of its capabilities and not according to actual culture^ tbo boMe 
would soua como to see that tbe assessment ooold not 

The Oovcmmoiit generally approved of tbe views oxpro^tsed 
tbo Board, adding tbat tbo nilo of taking one-third of tho 
produce from all lauds alike was admittedly erroDOOUs, and 
DATOr really boon acted on,* The main object was to regolato 
assossmeut in such & way that there would be do inducement' 
abandon any particular land. 

Meanwhilo Mr. Lewiii, the Sub-Collector, liad stated tbat 
AjikotathepronrietaryrigbibclongcdtoGoremment nominally rather 
than really.' So long as tbe pcoplo outtivated their gardens and paid 
tbe instalments furrico lauds, they could not be deprived of their 
holdings, and there wore many lands held under grant*, *Ai««i» i 
muliHiUtis, which could not be subjected to the purvey osscsamc 
without pmctiprtlly resuming a grant or in/im. He nrged tluit if 
aascK^meut wao clian^-d, tha new rate should bo 6xcd on the avet _ 
of oollactions.' Mr. Babington was of a different opiuiou. He had 
atatod in a previous report that the aaseesment fixed in IS19-J 
could never be raised on any estates.* But later enquiries led 
to believe that Qovcrnment was not pledged to refrain from rais 
the aaaesament when it was too low^ particularly where there 

> Letur to Boanl. 28th MArah IS38. >Lstt«r tA FnneimlColLectM.SlllSttt.. 
■ L«tt«r to Boud, lath Augut 1128. * L«tt«T to Board, Snh 8aflcoili« II 



jft>1B*tlVr* encroitcbmpots. Ku adjostment o{ the revanan 
>'1lttl)Mde from tfie Accounls, klaioal all of which bad beeo 
Even btul tbo kucounta been genaiae, tixe Bssessmeot 
hy former gorerDCaeiits depeniod lesa on the value or 
■bilitif^ of «n estAle than on the owaer's inSaence over the 
;I or local officer, lustaaces weie givou of est&t«6 id Mnag&lor 
South Kiiiiara ilia futBo-^.^iurnt of which was three or Eoar times as 
"he aesfsstiieDt on other estates of the same description 
V. The onljF rein^ly was a survey, which would be to the 
QtorvsT both of Goremment and of tbu Undholderii. 

The Board, ua haa been stated, directed Mr. Babiogtoa to 

MMM «ntne groups on the principles proposed hx him and some on 

iinrrta' prinL-ipIc, but it. docs cot nppoar that tbeso itUtrDctions 

I arripil out.' Sir. !)rihi[te;ion shortly afterwards proceeded to 

finrope, and Mr. Dickinson, wno SQCcecclcd hiui, did not find time 

to caiTf oD the sorvoy.' Meanwhile the state of the aascMsnient 

attractra moro and more notice. Riotous meetioga or kat» had 

Inken oab. Soiuo sttrihiited them to the failure of crous and to 

uceutre Mseaament, but the Quvemor in Council thouglit the real 

aue Was not tho excess but the inequality of the aaacssuifnt.' 

This TDeqoaliCy was said to be extraordinary and nio^t pemicioiis ; 

tudboldera in tome places held land almost rent>free, in other 

nlfj..., lixey were sobiecfc to aa oppreesively high demand. This 

f thtnf^ called for correction. Under instmotiona from tfao 

vnvemor in Council the Board prepared a statement of the 

fctiument in 1800 with tbo viiriiLtioQX after that date.'* Among 

ether pniata it was shown that during the eleven years which had 

pMsea since Mr. Harris intrixluced the new principlo of an 

toMssment founded on the average of collections, the settlomcnt 

tt^rT nrtt attained to lus standard. The Board then stated that tho 

:-:ation aboQt the assessment was very imperfect owing to the 

ivc systom of nccoaula, and that they could not give an 

n on tho subject of a survey from not knowing the oearing 

^sment. Tho third Member Mr. StolKS had been depul«^ 

into the titate of the province, aud the Board hoped that 

3 better {tyntcm of ocoounts a better systom of Terenae 

i^metit might be iutrodoced. 

Stokes also attributed to tbo want of aoconnts tho difference 
ojunion with regard to the pressure of the assessment.* He 
lllained at length hi« reasons for believing that the assessment 
Tory iijK'hl. Ho fount! among other things that the land was 
lly passing from tbo ngricnltnrnl to tho commercial olasaos, 
srs, pabUc servants, and other men of capital, who were not 
cely to purchase land nnless they found it a profitablo iuvest- 
mont. Thif< had given nae to tho idea of a deprc^ttion of the 
agricuhnril interest In his opinion it should rather be regarded 
OD acc«ftaioD of capital Uk^y to improve tho estates and 




The CoBipmji 



■ UU«T. Xnh Apnl 1327. ■ ProM-cdin^i. t5tli ScplcaiWr tS37. 

'IicWa from EiecriMr; to Collector and MiciBtrftW, 8lh Pobnukry 1S3I. 
* Froondiajp, ISth 8«pt«mb« 1691. • UtUr to Boknl, ISth f»ay. 1833. 







Tlie Company. 
Jlfr. Slakes, 

ligLtoa iks weight o£ the Oororument detaand. He kdmittad i 
the usMSsments were tiQeqiial, but tlioDght all 6xed assoMiuc 
even if orif^innl \y equal, IumI a tendency to becoma anoqnal. 
Kduara, bes^ides the ordinary canips tlutb affected tlie prodac 
powers of land and tbo rnlue oE produce, the fraudulent acoou 
making uF the rillitgo accountant, who till 1820, n-hea subdiridij 
Uicir lands apix>r(ioiicd tlie asiiiiestiineDt aa they pleased, to^tt 
with the iioD-spccificatioD of boundaries, tended to produce 
meqiialitio;^. Tbo Brat step Mr. Stokes proposed wa« the cst«ai 
o£ the tluirdv or assessment on the average oE coUectloas. 
odtniLs that this was not nicely adju»iod to the circumstances of ' 
estate or i^arty ; for sometimes even the original assessment or 
oonld not be found out. lo such cases the rent-produce should 
calculated and a proportion taken with reference to tho fu 
asaoasmeDt, the actual collection!*, and the nitc on neighl 
eatates, varying from forty Uj Beventy per cent of the rent-j 
ITie anrvey of Sondei, Sapa, and Ankola should, he thonght, 
completed, but only with the view of discovering the extent at 
the income of estates, the bonndarios, and the rent-produce i 
Bssesameot should be framed on thu name model as la other sal 
divisioos, and should be fixed on estates rather thaa on fickle, 
point to bo aimed at was, Trithont any material sacrifice, torei 
existingineqnalittcs so far as tboy interfered with the proEp*rity 
the country and the punctual realization of the assBSsment. This, 
thought, would be attained by adopting a maximam demand of so vc 
per cent and a minimum of forty per cent of the gross produce. 

Tn 16.13 Mr. Vive-ash' brought to the notice of the Board { 
Revenue that though the resonrcos ol propriotora were incroa«i| 
and cultivation was spreading. Government were gaining no aoceesk 
of revenue. His opinion was that as tho original aseossmcnt wi 
snpposed not to have exceeded one-third oE the gross produce, ai 
US afterwards the greater port of Kfinam was assessed at 
average of past collections, the proprietors on^fht iavariabl/ 
make good tho QovemmeTit dcniand in the first mstanoe, and 
the rcuuiindcr as thctr share, whereas the opp08it« ooorae 
been followed. Ho thought that owing to the total want 
infomiation about estates a permanent settlement was better ada 
to K^nara than any other st>ttlement. He therefore proposed 
the Government deuiaud on estates which piud toe M^nir 
average of former collections should be made perrannen|,»ii<l thati 
pormanoDt settlement should be introduced in to the rest of the esla.t 
on tho average oE past collections, the waste being reserved 

The Board seenj not to have reviewed these various propo 
for reforming the assessment till 1830.' It was then thi>ugbt 
advisable to put off tho final decision till furbfaer euitiiiry Irnd 
baon made. The Government afterwards oompltuncd that t 
arrangements for reducing tho assessment to a fixed and invaria' 


> Lctt«r to Bowd, 31rt Anguii 1833. * rnKxwdiugv, Ulh Juutry ISStf. 




standnrd hod iii?Tcr rccoivcd the Repnrnte and detailed coosidoratioD 
wbicli tbey required.' Tlie principle on which Mr. Vivunah'a 
orrttngenients procoodort was not fully developed, and th© necessity 
for a complete revision of assessnient on most of the estaboa in 
KAnnra rotnainrd n« iir^^at us ever. Mr. Vivcash'g proposal was 
aimply to olasaify estates into those paying the full demand and 
thoso paying flomcrtliSng loss than tlie full demjuid, or, m tliey wore 
oft«uer called, Iharti thai is hill> and kambkarti, Ihut itt less 
than full.* The kanihhartis were divided int^) three clashes, tbofld 
adruiiciag to the fixed demand by yearly additions, those in which 
a pttrmanent remission had been deemed DC<ceuary, and those under 

In 1H3U Mr. Midthy, when aotinf^ Principal Collector, explained 
tliat it was constantly neoessary to changi? estates from one class 
to another.^ Thu rctt*on of this wiw that a syatoui of claMsificatian 
which was suited only to one part of Kilnara had been iutruduced 
into the acconnts of the whole collactomte. Lands in Sonth K&uara 
on the coast were regularly cultivated, hut in tbe inland groups 
and in the uplands, holdings which were cultivated and paid the 
full as&efJimeRt one year, were not oaltiTated the next. He 
sooordiogty proposed a fnther di<HHioQ into coast and inland village 
ffroope.and suggested that in the inland groape the aettlemeutehomd 
lor the time continae to be based on the proauce of each estate. 

The Board of Hevcuno afterwurda reviewed the history of the 
laud assessment, and concluded that Mr. ITartis had not aufliL'iunily 
enquiredinto the circumstances of the estates, and that for thta reason 
titeM^rdt; or aTerage payment assessment and the revision of I832>33 
bail not answered.* Tlmugh fresh cultivation or hogd^ame was spoken 
of, thore had bcea no addition to the reveuue, and, gonuFatly speaking, 
the assessment was not in proportion to the eirtont of land oultivateu, 
ivbich explained why land was bought by tnerohauts, pubtio 
serrants, and others." There was a concurrence of opinion that 
frnudolent encroachments woi-e Dot uncommon. The Board traced 
the a-'^HCH'^ment from the earliest times, and showed that the original 
dcmaud or r«^Aa v.aa not formed on accarate dataj even if the 
, ozigiual bad been accarate, the extroe or ehdtaHs were limited only 

Chapter VIII. 


Tb« Compuiy. 


■ MinntMoCOaoialtation, ICUiM«7 1837. > Pr(We«(tiiifii of Board, 16th Nov. 1843. 

■HMtU^ment Report. iS3S'.19. * PiweeiUngs of Board, lath Novsinbdr 1843. 

'Mr. BlMiercuiAiknl.-'riMiB<MrUui>1iiixitb8termAa«t(iaTiuor mWoultarBligntab* 

Dm raoocajwUuu of UD*!a IwlonKinn \a liuldera wIiq havo deaerteJ or lwocini« extinct. 

It is fwooaMry io btwr in mind uutt h aiAgame doM not uialuilu ■ut;b Jonda wboni thar 

. ar* regiatATM u dnlinut <»bt(i«, huw«T«c long th«y may have boan abaiutnnvd and 

, Wk wiurt*. Snch wwt«-Uad vlien reooanpted u not «nt«riH.l »a hotAqamt, but am aa 

Vtato agkia broitght nndor cultivatioa. fioaSgantt it C'^ndocd to tlia rD-oc«uMtion 

' of OoTOfnineut wMte Uuul wbkh ia called Maatiu tl»t b without » holder or 

rafcUxuAl that b witbonl uswiouictil, MdHUiiuuisbed Irom OovctnmoDt waabtoatetta 

For « loaa a«ri«a «( yc«n all waatu Uada wcra ](Krk«ii upwa u of ao little iiaportanM 

tlt*t It dill nutaigaify by wluun ther it-ere Udd. It wa'ciiiifiid'CiodaniniicbgaiuwmMaf 

nmtt tK>wn«r atnill, eoald be obCunad for wute i »nd ntfen tnida fnr tbo esolaBivs 

prml«g« of grung ntttlocr cutting grus were reodJy Moept«d, tbe laad in prao«as 

at Ittna being ooovertcal iuto vujuable i;altivatioa «ithar by tha holdcn ttaemaelveB 

or by bMiAMlB who took it Irom tbeni at oiuiderkblo renta. Mr. Blau« to Board of 

Bc^uiticSOttt a«pt<iubor l&ti. 





Tbfl CiMnpsuy. 

Mr. Btaiv. 

b>- tbo ubilitj of the people to paj tliem, so tlial tlte averri 
colloclions or (Aaru'i: nsfossinent was foundoJ on a fal!>e basis, 
propusuil rttrnvdioA irore (liacusaed by the Board, and it was shown 
tbat the only R<le<|o»t« remtidy wiw n sorrw. Tho objectiona to % 
aurvcy wcro miid to bo tbc cspenac, the iutorferoQCC with tb« oxtstio^ 
Htata of property and witb conveysaces execiit«d in sutirip»ti " 
of pcrmaacQcy, and tbc dissntis faction nud diainist wbii^U «» 
iaterfereDce would canse. On tbe Brat tbo Board remarkod tl: 
tho exponao would be compensAted by tho revenue arisiug fr 
coDccalod aud misuppropriatcd land ; on tbe second, that Oovcrnma 
wcro in no way plcdf^d to the preiient Hlat« ol tbia^ aud that ' 
and encroHcbinfUts rendered a Hunrey necessary i and on tbe third, 
tbat (I i^nntisf action would tic ifot rid of by conciliation and decifiioHl 
Tbu Goviiruor iu Council, id rev ienioi^' the»eund somo«ubso<|QQ^H 
proooedings of the Boni-d of ItevcttUH, agreod that a Hurray waa tbfl 
only way of oorrectiD)^ fraad ftod Inequality. At tbe eame timo be 
tbonght tbat mine weight w.-u) to be altacbed to tho objection raisod 
on tho ground of diattattftfactton, and directed tbat no furib 
proceeding!* should bo token till tho Collector's opiaioo 

In 1S48, tho Collector, Kr. Bluoo, roviowod bX groat length 

f«noral system of land revenue.' Ho pointed out that the coani 
0(1 noTcr b<M}n 80 prosperous^ that while, eincc tlio beginning 
the century, population had nearly doubled, bardly any iMlditions 
rnronao had been nwdo, and tiiich nddiiions ns hod been made Vl 
almost wholly from the iiplniidii, part of which had been surroi 
and re-aasossed. I3e attributed cbis nneatisfactory result to 

freat inequality by wKich tho aaeessmeot had always beeu markc. 
his inequality arose from the defective nud iinsatittfnclory rharacl 
of the earlier fiettlcmcDts, the Bubsequent soltlements boiog framt 
upon them and partakiuj^ of their defects. No measnres boil hvon 
taken to aecerlain tbe extent and rcsotirces of estates, Wiihont 
this knonl(Klge there could bo no coirect- ndniiuisti-ation of t^^ 
revenue. Tbe want of such information had given tho people OVf^Hj 
facility in encroaching ou tho rights of Govei'nment and VPf 
evading every attempt to let Government share in tbo growing 
prosperity of tho country. Mr. Blane remarked that the nse of 
the old registerg had beon forbidden by Tipu, that nuuiy won 

'HinutcaotCMUalFAtion, Sn<l J^n. 1S47. VLvttvr to Bouyl, SMh Sept. IftiaL 
* In Mr. Hl>»«'it opinion, tho real cknma nf tho ulAtiaDikry Unit rov«in>o «*re tlw 
fr»i<)iilr4it apprnpnatinn nf irwtn IiuicU belonciog tu lft)M«<l Mtattti wbtdi wu 
corricid on tii a cn-iit ntnnt ; nnil null more the fraud of rilU^ ovi-iiuutJiiilA in 
lowwring tbo MMttBraout od« wtntea Mid impwiag It either on itiJ«r)ur «t*tM 
wbicb oudJd not bear it, or «b Und wbich sjiiwaiwl in the aocunDU liiit h^d iw 
exijt«Du«>. A ttiird causa waa tbe Moccupation <tt abandoned arable ImkU «1wm 
MtMRBiMit had bwB gnidnall; remtttad uid d«duGtod from the t«taJ, UthoS|A 
tbo UniUwpninat forn&ll^sopuvtcd fnim tli«eitatei tA vhich tb^hod balotw*?; 
a fonrtb aiUM whs the cvttivtLtion of wmM lauds never beftire cnildvalud but a1atin«d 
a* t[t«xinegcMindi was trec-lsuil attached tatha cnlUvated buiIa; a lifth wu tlM 
ogaceal«tfa[>pni|iriAti«n. withoucaay actual claim beinc advanoeil, of landa bdvnniw 
to aQvenimeDt web u morab Undt along riven, ptuik-nlarly near the awk and «l 
otbar neMdiuMAJ, or rat*-IeM landa nAver before cultiratcd bvt enjoTM 
oonununltj' at tni^. Mr, Blaae, fteptMobw 184S, pangrapb 00. 

1m^ and that the vitUge acconntants had be«ii disrai&8«d. tJudor 
these circumstances the people'ri rcadipitt resource vrns to fahifj- iha 
aecuitDts. Tlie accfuiDlanta iroro the sole depositories of inforina- 
tion. They and their relations were laodholders. and (he nosettled 
_fltate oE the country gnre them erery opportunity to roliorc lar^ 
laodholders at the oxpeose of small onea Mr. Blano asserted 
that in his own time an accountant's jiapora vere h&Miy oror 
eorrticL He conid not understand how (he orig'iiial asscsaoicut and 
exinu had been accepted an if of ascertainedaHr.henticity. Difforoot 
degl-eee of improvement, it was ttiie, caaaed iiie<|ualily, hut tliia did 
not explain all iiie4)u.ilttiea. It did not explain the fact that in 
■omo Cftsea the origin&l assesstneut or gJiiH amonnted to more tboJX 
the whole produce. He was aatisSer! thnt long before the beginning 
o( the Companja Govern ment the ancient as8e»9m^>nt had ocaftod to 
be mr^ro than nominal. lie further urged that eren if the data on 
which the average payment or Ihardv assessment waa foandcd had 
been faithfully ascertained, they would hare been inauSicienL as tho 
hanfa of a permanent tax, for the areragc was taken of yoitra 
aacceeding Tipu's govemmctit^ when the country was dc-pre^Bcd and 
the rerenua was at its lowoat Ho asserted that the whole difficulty 
had ariaen from tlie abaudoameut of the principle of levying a fixed 
flharu of the supposed produce or its equivalent in money. He 
pat the point to he decided thua: By equalizing the assessment it 
ia not intended to lower the i-erenuo ; in some cases therefore tha 
WBessment mnat bo raised. How the total, though not founded on 
trustworthy data, has tieen assumed as a limit to the public demand, 
and liuvt-'mment must determine whether they are restricted to this 
limitation. If they are, there is no help for the inequnlity. The 
BoanL had ur^d the retention of the maximum except in coses o£ 
£mad, but owing to the total iguomace of the Govommeut officers 
rfispecting holdings or K'Pjs fraud could only be proved inforen- 
tiaUy by as-sumiug that u givun quantity of land should buur a 
given amount of osaesament which would bo equivalent to an entire 
reiMaessinoot. For the samu rcaxoo encroachments could not ho 
diacorered without a survey. No other of the remedies proposed 
oould have any effect but a general snrvey founded on an entire 
atraaarement of laiidi4. U was too late to reglnter the produce of 
b'tigated estates, and besides encouraging amicable suits to defi-aud 
Government this would never have given infonoation regarding all 
estatea. Tlic nyetem of fixing the nsseasmont on a field by tha 
amount of seed n&cd in wning it, was so indefinite, the atandard o£ 
tDeasammont varying in almost every village, that landholders 
ftided by the ooorl^i could always dcftat the revenue officers.^ Had 

* Hr. BIaim wtoIo, 20th Seplember IS4S : Thia mei or b^jvitri (jrttem i* lutScwrDtlv 
d«fiail« to KC** Um puTpoaa o( lh« paopl« ia tnuiasctiuuB Mnons tfaenuclvea, and, 
«t the MUno tirae. auflSdeatly tadenntte to enaUo th«m. MvA hy tbc caurte </ 
law, tooppoMtbe raveoM offioen. Hurc Is no •taodard in«Maroai«nt for fixian tli« 

wbiuh a mtfJo or • iAawJi of »««! mn WW. It BOlonly vartca in nca'ty evtry 
Tfll*gft'gTwi|\ bat variM al*o for the differeDt cUam* f>( land- Kt^cb tnbilivui'H baa 
tln«« or ii'ur muittM of caWUting Ibt area l>y whioh the muilti, nnder tha luunea of 
ilmeia mv-in. ajul mmla, tlul nuda, bij muila, anJ (unuA niinfa, rariN from liitv, 
ttXjr-mi\. (Utv-fnnr, liftf, (mtj', ta thirty nkert. Iumiuo villagoaUioarMiscalculBMd 
hf toUiu of fire tirn t»ch, and in otkcn hy r meuiin called a pmiapadi «t tkirty 


Tbs ComiiaBy. 

Mr. Btia,u 

TBomb&jr OM«t 





iff. Biane, 

tlie Kystam been devised for the verj purpose of 3efeatiug scrntii 
it could Dot have liecn moro effectual. An attompl lo rcviao 
could not have any effect. Even a mrtini survey, b muuBuremc 
of ostatos under uivpstigRtion, vonld do moro bnrm th&o good- 
ono knuv tlio bouudariea. A luost- ruia tvould be f^iven to cor 
tion and inlrigno, and oncroochmonts would bo coiiSrmod. It 
alnaya htxn tlio ioLcntion of GovonutwDt lo efFuct a uetUomi 
Trhiob it could proiiotinco porni&uentj bat sanction was nitli} 
from every proposed scbcnio owing to the want of accuiut« iufc 
tioD. Tbo ouly way of gaining Accurate iiiformatioo was fcwj 
gent>r&l surrey. This moosarc, instead of oTcnbrowin^ tbo aoa 
principle, an Mr. DIair had said, would mtore it. Mr. Bl 
admiltod that eomplicntcd nrrasgonieDts had been mildc on 
failli tbiiL the avenigo paymcut or Ihnrdo assettsmcnt was final, ai 
although the Board hud stated that GoTcmmcnt W'>ro in no 
pledjfuj to the pri!S«nt state of thing*, yot, owing to the length 
timo which had been allowed to pass without n real rnvisinn, 
ruMSeHSiDont founded on a eiin,-cy woald cnsato dificoutcDtj 
distnrb the existing rolationa of landod proporty. 

Another branch of the aubjoct which in Sir. Blanc's opit 
showed the nece^Hity of a mirrey was the wlioleaalc encl'^^ing 
QoTOrnmcnt wtiate in prirato estates. The extent of the GovcriiDM 
right in the forests and wastes Iiad never been cloarly dt 
and extensive tracts had by degreeti been included by pei 
whose right to the land was extremely doabtfnl.' U was partly 
wagto estate!), but more on th« rntti-leas ur rel'hniuuiht waBCe tl 
encroaohments had bi^en ina<le. Government waste land which 
the low rat« of the Bediiur as>VBiimeut bad paid a rental of £tiO,( 
(R».6,00,O0O) had almost all been Appropriated. This appropriat, 
of waste aeenis to have beon ontirely lost sight of nt the time] 
the averago payment or thardv setttcment. There was no TCoordI 
ahow in what »ub>divi^ion or villajirRs the wwito was ttituaUMl. and 
few old accounts, through which ihia might have bcei^ asfieiiAinc 
were lost^bnrned.or destroyed. }ioi only was nn acccinnbof the 
taken when the average payoieot or thaniv scMlutnent was inadojei 
since that eettlemeat the occupiers of estntits had helped themselves 
to the waste without check or reatraint. The landholders' the 
which hod pnuitically been adopted since the average pay 
or tharav settlement had been introdncod was that their obIsI 
included not only the land which was in cnltivation at the til 

iJieri, In nonivar it n c4lcDl>t«(] by & niuuure called k huttlffi, uiA to the ii(i 
by Uie large kod uoall thaitili. the nmtU tlmadihtinnXwulve ia^a tlirrtot Vtiea%i 
nip»M'w«i^( or tlire« puCJto <Aeri vf Mrenty-lwo ruficea, mi<1 tli« luf^ _ . 
bnng «a«aJ tu twenty wf tlM NnaU. The nArr t^pun by whiuh tbfw) >wdUtej 
r««liiiiiM \» iMjully unoertain, vuyiag frotn aitiety-RH to a«i-«ntj--twa^ 
wcidlt. TImw TwioB* iB«aMireinciil> &lS»r<l ampl* rgon for ditftiitis and 
to tM arm of a laau'a hDldlug. and when they are tak«B in coDioucUoii 
eoioplicatod local vllla^ raws by wbiiii the reut-produce ia caltmlaied. tha «rlS 
■ubjeob becKmaa UiTolvod In aach a nuue of obaoarity that any Att«a|it at revw 
by wbteli tliii obj«otian« of tbo luulhald«n, pnrpoMly raiKil and | Kiai ito<l im 
b* aatJaHad, bocoinaa alt Imt hopoItM. 

> From Mr. Btang'a lotUr of •;Oth SepUnnbei- 1S48 ; Utten ruling to tt* Ear 
Bovwnuv AdiuiuHti-ation of Kfinara, pp. 100- 900i 




' but tmcts of wiiatf of two ilescriptioiw, 

'" :^llcB out of cullivatiou iu former tiiuos, and 

1 .'; w»»le whicb had aever been under tillftge. Tbey 

&li-^'Ti ii[.it thoy hftd a right to bring iindor cultivuttoa both of 
%tao kiodfl of ttit«t« withuut any additiooAl aasMsntent. Tbuj* 
•■Bfi'" ' 'n«ut dciDHiid waa filed on the entire 

whti^, y doscriptioD. Of those waalu lauds 

it- ■• ■ 1- li ^^"^x^llllt Of rpcoi-d, and eveu of the cultivated lands, 
- ■ ' inl ftt tho beginning of the Company's Gorommoot, tho 

I wna an accunut Kiiied ibe rturmoty cJtitla, which was 
»i«-i-: ■-'yt of the lands nndflr cultirAtion in tho second year 

rftiw a Qovi-Tumeat. Thisslrttcinent was suid to be only 

i!i ' i .:. 11, uDil was not admitted to be a oorrect or authcotie 
^. ! ' . .<u« which could be uitcd aa a practical check. 

V, i; ■.■«-poot to tho oni-blo waste, ussumiug that it oriffinally 
Ijru. ■-! fjiirt of tho holding' or vary by wuich it was claimed 
and that no additions were made to it from lapsed estates or 
fn>ui Gorcrnoieut waste landa, Hr. Blanc held that the origiua] 
B«ie^>rii<-Tir ur dumaud on the estate might be asstiiiied to represent 
" inent share ef tho prodnco of those lands when imder 

It waa known that very large remissions wore nude 
nfd to \io made on account of wnste portions of e&tAtes, 
.. the asae«8iiiaufc waa fixed solely with reference to the 
DS the^ rcrnissions would be excluded from tho<e 
tho rent would bo perniauently reduced by the amount of 
tCTDjiffary remiB&iuus. At tho average payment settlement do 
{VDTi&iau was made fur reimpoaiug tbia asacaaiuent when the lands 
were ntnin tillud, nor wiia the waste land separated from th« estate. 
-'•otiDuud to be uttnchcd te the estate, ii^nd, when it was 
__,_.; .-. ...^'^bc under cnlttvatioQ, it may be said to have been enjoyed 
fno of rent. Mr, Blano believed that in fixing the average 
parmeDt demand it wus the intentiou of Government that increased 
cnltimt^on within the limits of eatatos should not bo charged, 
nod ihat the holdeni should have tho fuU benefit of all the 
liindfi they migbi, bring under cnltivation. This was done under the 
imi>rL-3siou that tbi-no landa bore some kind of adequate assessment. 
NeitLer the L'Xt«DL of the waste oor the importance of the question 
liAd, bvun andcnstoud. 

The (juestiou of inunemorial waste attached to estates was distinct 
from thd ({uostioo of wasto lauds once under tillage. It wa» to 
111' ' us admiHsiou of, or at least to the failare to oppose, the 

c!*- r locmorial wi*sto that the absorption of neftrly all the 

rate-less or rekln'tnaehl Government wanto was due. Considerable 
ir.ic. -. <-iF fincb wasto land were attached to many estatea, aomo of 
-- tirublo and some of it^ hilly or atony incapable of improve- 
iiMMit. ThvAo wAHto areaA were often termed kumaki or auxiliaTy 
tint iR land granted to help cultivation, 'ITicy were intended to 
pr ' ' laudhohiura with leaf manure aud to furnish fodder for 
thi Originally they seem not to have differed materially 

from tbu waato lauds used for similar purposes in other partit of 
Ibo Country, except that, instead of being common to the village, 
tbsy wer» divided and enjoyed iu sepamte portions by individual 


Land J 

TIm) Ccn&puij. 

Mr. JTIdw, 

tBom1)4]r Oi 



»pter Tin. 


Mr. Blam, 

iBOilboldon. ^fr. Btitne coosidered tliat they were originsllj 
OAsmtialU t& au adjuuct to, aad in cooDecCJon with, tbo cultit 
landa. He tliouglil thai the right to them wax a inodiQtrJ riehc. 
be eQJojvd only for Iho puqKi&os fgr rrlucli tltcy were hdd. Too i 
of theite lands for Bucli purpOKOs was a uecasMry oouceMiOD. 
were not on that account tbo leas GorororacDt laads, only Ian 
which neighbouring landholders were allowed to uko For porucular 

If this was the original tenure nnder which tlieso WH»to. 
had bccD h(?ld, it wiut c-utirul)' chanjced uadar Britiiib admini^l 
The holdora clttimcd the saiDo proprietary right in tbo waste' 
ID tbo cultivat«d land, and| as a conscaueuct?, cluiiued the H£ 
to bring them under tillage witlioot tiie payment of addiliot 
asses^mont. They ereo claimed tbo right of selling or letting tb 
Bud thus if they chose, ^epiirating tbeni from the ciilHration, 
ftlionating them from tbcu- original uses. Another cffoet of sucl 
tenoro was that eren where the lands were greatly in excess of 
onftiititv necessary For the purposes for which they were intend 
the huldtirs could prevent others fruiu taking thcui ou a Bi 
assoesment pn^ablo to CTeTomment, and the person who took 
land paid tbo rent to the landlonl, not to GoTcmmcot, and w* 
every respect hia tenant. Though the right to cultivate uucb I 
was not admitted iu theory, it was, as a role, enjoyed, in pracf 
for the simple reason that Govemment did not know the extent 
the original ostatvt<, and could not tell what woe uow cultivation 
what was old. Mr. Tilane set his face against the adini^^ion 
these claims. But land.i, which were formerly brought un^ 
cultivation in this manner, were beyoud recovery, and nearly i 
cose iu whioh it was attempted to restrain tuom oucroochmo 
iovolved a protracted contest, aud the certmuty of having to doff 
a law suit if there were the most slender grotiuds for disputing 

The foroAt uid wood land held for wood-ash or kumri tilUjp 
wftB of much tho samo cMure as the leaf-manure land. The lajid- 
boldcra claimud the exclusive right of eultivating them, of rvntiug 
them, or of selling ihem aud ihoir produce, in every respect iu tho 
Bamc manner as their old cullivntcd lands, upon which, according 
to Mr. HIaiie's view, an aBsosument wai alone fixed. Light^^ 
thrown ou this subject, and on the manner in which the pcopl^^J 
Kdnara quietly made new rights for themselves, by referring to sIP 
tormfl in which public grants aud private dee<U were worded under. 
the former govemmeut and unuor the Company's rule. F 
ancient d<H:amenU it npponrs that in former times estates were 
the nndctiiied tracts of mixed cultivation and waste, which t' 
were afterwards made out to he. There was no room for doi 
as to what was granted. Thu government was careful to de 
exact limits of the laud, appaiotiog a person from head-i) 
plant boundary atones in tlio presence of the inhabitants of 
fonrsurroaoding villages, so that uo dispnte might arise respe 
tho boundaries. Tho deed usually ran : * Yon are to enjoy the eai 
land with tUl the eight rights together with all extius arising 



tbereFrum/* 'Vhese aro tbe tonus ot s docd orocatod in 1730 by 

one Kristuiappa Karoik, m&king over Uintbi origioallj' graut«il to 

Wi Kocoalors by K«ldi Bauvappa Xflik about 1704. There is do 

naaUoD of Furvat or o£ wa»t« Inodfi. Th» tornm of n devd by which 

Ibe Tory 8Snie laud was cransferred in 1^37 are : ' Yoa are beoce- 

(r,n-;i"I, Bs full proprietor, to enjoy tho laad, the sito of the bouio 

' r vrith the forost aplands, and the eight rijchU.' The 

lol terms introduced are most significant. It was not 

' a purpose thai thoy found their way into this and similar 

:ind that purpose waa to creato a right to additional land, for 

J th»re was no nathority. Tot it was by Kiich documents thai 

for nearly luUf a ccutury the people bad transferred lands which did 

Dut belong to them ; and that tho courts had eonlirtned by decrees 

foandod on the terma of Ibcao dceda the alieitatioQ of land which 

bflnoi^ed to GoFommont. Uudor this state of things the functions 

of the revenue officers vroro to a great cxt«nt transferred to the courts. 

A KAnarese landholder of ordinary intelligence who wished to take 

sew land did not thiuk of going to the Collector. He had a variety 

of better plans hy which he secured the land for nothing. One very 

oomtnon aevico wa« ro get a neighbour to Bell or mortgage the 

land and then by a fictitious snil Bare the transfer confirmed by a 

court decree. In other casc« the acoountaat who examined the 

land was bribed to enter ibo spot coveted aa within tho estate o£ 

aparticnlir party and thia entry was prodacod years aft«r. It is 

iaipossiblu to deneribo tht: cunning with which CTidence was got up, 

not only in tho revenae departtneut but before tho police. 

"■'' • ti it is considered that this system went on from the begin- 
: the Company's rule, it may be imagined to what an extent 
Guvt^i'ument land was appropriated. The abuse arose from the 
Want of any public record of the estenb of each man's holding. 
Id suits between individuals tho rights of Government did not 
come under discuBijioa, and the production of an admitted sale or 
mortgage deed or other evidence of a like nature always led to 
th«> land being decreed to one party. The simple rule that a man 
had a right only to »» much land as he paid for was never applied 
to Kiinam, nor was there any rate or rule of assessment by which 
tho C'.>ltector could detcrmiDo whether a holder liad more or less 
knd than he ought to have, or by which he could recover or roaaaess 
the extra land. It was of no use to tell a Undholdor, ' Yon havo 
three or four timos as ranch land as you [Hiy sssonsment for.' 
Tbe answer vnxs, * It is within the limits of my holding.' Or the 
didDiani produced some paper or theevidence of friendly neighbours 
l<i prove that the laud was his, and if the claim was resisted thora 
was the ready resource of carrying the case into court. 

. Ur' filano cited the following instance as illustrating the lax 
MFtem of land management und tho ur>ceub need for reform. In 
Mogalor sah-di?i8ioUj Uuri-KulliLh village-group, Bunger-kolar 

' Tbo eijjht righti ara ; Asdni fntura rigkta, oidAMi pr«awt righto, jaia waior. 
mtli; U«Mur«-trov«, aLUWpa <l««out«, jxlkKd'i 

i MUivoltivaUd Und. 

roek* Mid miomU, tiMn* prodno*. 





imbay Ouett 



vpier Vin. 


Tkc CuiiitNuiy. 
ifr. fittw, 

village, Tinmljor IS was divided and a portioe tranefenvd, . __ 
as tlio old holding GJ mudtix asujaaed at abuui. £1 13k. (f/iiiM 4). 
1814, iho liolder 8ha Hiri hud morlga^d ta one Lnka NaikJ 
portion of the estate which yielded a yearly prodace n-ortb . 
(Rs. 210). A stiit ntose ont of this traoBactioa which camo bol 
the DiMtriot Court in 1819, and aubsequL'uUy hrnjipral befotv 
ProviDcial OiOrt. Duriog the hearing of l)x*}sv cam'a two 
dooamcnta wure pryduted, one pur|>orliiijf to be a grant by 
local chief iilKXit ninety years before, and the other a sale deod 
ODo Maihc9 Nittlc to Sha Jtiri in which tlio ptl^oha^t^-ulouey is 
at £14 (lU. 140). In these two documeots certain bonadarios 
mentioned, and a deed of acquitance or rajinantii having- 
tendered, the ProTincial Court accepted it, and direct*"! its 
to bo eiifor<*od. This order wns cnrried ont in 1S85, In I337J 
coniptuiut c-ame before the Magistrate regarUiuK the right to i 
grnea land, and, aft(>r rarions inquiries and reports by tlm m£i 
Iho Suh> Col lector, Mr. Miiltby, oxamiucd the land, and wrote an ot 
stating that the land in dispute, as well as some other land 
had boen coltiratodf appearod to belong to Government and diivot) 
it to he uea^ured. The niea8iiremeu(s showed that the OE 
holding of t>) muJas had dcTelopod into an oetato o£ 6£{ 
Mr. ^laltby decided that iran of lhij« extra laud wan Govoi 
waste and ho ordonKl the iniinilnrdiir to tnkc offent for its caltil 
One Shaker Ali offered to take the wasto land on an assessmt 
of about £10 (Ks.lQO}. An order was issuecl that the offer 
be considered at the rent settlomeui time, and that meanwhile 
^nss OD tbo disputed land Bhoutd bo sold on public accoai 
Tbt bolder Routinaed. to pre^ his claim to the whole of 1lie 
before different officers who had charge ot tha division, and \iirio^ 
orders were issued which prevented Shskor Ali's wffcr being accept 
This state of tilings lasted for seven years, during whieh 
gross was sold on Qovomrocnt account, &ad realized consideral 
more than the entire assessment of the estate. In September 18^ 
Mr. lieadc, tbo Acting Snb-CoUector, inspected the pi 

Miparontly with reference only to the old documents meofl 

ai>uve> pronounced the whole of the land to bolong to the holt 
of tho number, and wi-ote to the Collector leporting thia 
leqaeetiug that all the money whiob had been realized on the 
mi^bt be refunded. Thia was objected to on the ground 
Mr. Roade ought not to have upset the dccisioo of a former Sn\ 
Collector, and upon the Buspiciotis appoarsocc of the uld docameni 
on which the whole claim rested. A particular report of his reaaoi 
woa called for, but this was never faraiahcd as he was 
after rranHferred to another divifrion. Meanwhile, DOtwithHtanc 
Mr. Maltby's decision tlmt most of the liiad was Goreramoi 
property, the estate was sold to a wealthy Ohriatian nutrchant 
Mangalor, Joan Salvador Coellio, for £230 (R«. 2300), and the 
deed was registered in court. In this deed ' The wholuof tbo I 
with the ganion, salt-marah, waste land, and honso,' according to tf 
Provincial Court's decree, was named, with the exception of two 
muddt which were loft for the support of a female relation of tl 
former holder. The purchaser appUed to the mAmiatddr to have tl 




ontored in his nnnio aiiil ttf tniimlfltilnr rtiferrod biui to 
tKy'e order. Tlie bolJei- rc-joinoJ by rofcrriug Ut llu* (li--crr«! 
'■' , mill n'iterateil liis dpiiiand. In 181-^ lliu caay was still 

•i:. j:Lite, aud tUb purclieiac'r eujo^cd tbe vbolu of tiio cstato 

t't<.-ppt tbo gross IbdiI. 

' 'oainent* upon wTiich tlio Provincial Court'fl 

i- lUCo deod was foundtKl, ami by wliiL-b laud 

DiuDj than ei(rb[ liiuvh tb« extent of tbe oH^nnl holding wag oiada 

:< ■ t-< ibo claimant, it uppOftTcd od cxatuinatioa that tLo first wiw 

yrctoudcd copy of a puminnont iL^aae or mti/^^/a ^motiug 

CI a tomplo in tho vtUa^ of PorAkndi, Tvbereas tbe Iftod iu 

lion vTSis 111 thp rilla^ of Biiiiger>Knltur; nnd the deed wag 

MopiMh, Sbo Biri, who purobaaed tbo Innd from n 

u, Muibeii N&ik, vrbo prodacod it oa a ^nuil to 

If, No one nppeara to have enquired whetber tbo chief had 

puwer to muku Much a grant ; or bow, if be bad granted land to 

.pic, it coold bavu come into tbe posEWsnon of a Native 

iH ; or bow a dDCumoot rcforriag to laud in one Tiila^ conld 

anj ripbt to land in aoolhur village. ITib Provincial Court 

to have otoroly looked to tbe acquittance tendered by the 

it«. and conlinnod It. Tbe rcnriino aiilboritioii; were not 

ilted, nor, if r-hoy had been, was it probable that there would 

IiM-n any difTunmi rei»uli under the lax Bystom which always 

ed in K^nara, whirro there were do raleH of asseBsment, nor 

pablic nyord of tho exLont of each man's holding. 

In Mr. liliu.i '« opinion IbiH case gave importout eyidonco of the 
diffieuUv which rifvenne ofiiccrs bod to contend with in npliolding 
tbr rigbtf of (jovemineDt without nabjccting themselvoa tu bo 
dmg^(nd into oonrt, a course which tbe want of any mlo of assese- 
ownt and Ibu umlelinod extent of estates put it in the power of 
orery on*' tn tJilce. Olbi-r pointu on which, in Mr. Blaoe's opinion, 

Mj t 

ex.. ■■ ' 


important light, were the want of infommtiou 
' -oarcef and extent of est-atett. When tbe arerago 
tiiariiv settlement was made a romieaion waa granted on 
j..^ying about £1 12^. (lU. li>) where tbo not prodacti wa% 
to be e<iaat to about £38 (Its, 380) and probably much 
' ' amount ; secondly, the kind of documents whicli it wa« 
■ft the courts to mimit as ovidooco of ppopriularj- right and 
thv iixkiiiK-i in which the rigbt« of Government were compromised 
by decrees in private suits wbepo tbo public claims were not re* 
presented ; thirdly, tho unequal division of tho public Bssessmenfc 
upon Keparate portions of estates when dividvd, an assessment of 
ftboat sA le. (1(8. 32) having bcoD apportioned by patting about 
£1 4a. (lU.ltJ) upon thn^o mudag of land, and leaving 59 mi«M* 
Msossed at only" about £1 13s. (Rfl,l6) ; fonrthly, the confidenco 
in* '.bo [leoplo looked to the court3 as a nieana of defeotin 

rt'i Sera, aa shown by a person paying the largo sum 

JtiJtU titi. 2300) for land tbo groater part of wbich bad been declared 
not to belong to the person disposing of it ; fifthly, the manner in 
wbioh the want of any rule for Ibo disposal of such cases enabled 
tho people to prolong tbe raostaimplo questions through a sncoeeston 

— -**■ 





The CompiDy. 

Mr. Mm 



iB6m\)&y GaMtt 





TTi« l3oia|Kiny. 
Mr. Btaat, 


of ye&rs, nnd t&ke them from one pnMic officer to anotlier, \a 
hope of eventually obtaining a fnvourublc deoisioQ and nt all 
of reaping the BUvautago of delay. 

On this and othtT cvidoucc which Mr. Blanoloid before them 
fl^eat length the Beard afjrued ihat aBuirey was required before 
reTeniiQ Hyntem cnald bo pluced on s HntiitOictary footing. At 
uanio time they thou^^ht that it would bu enough to Banctic 
small efttAbliehinent auder the Collector to Borrey, where a sai 
was iioccssjiry.' Referring to the numerous transfer!) of proj 
which hiid takeu place on the faith of the state deinaad reimuDtj 
unchanged, and the serious erils which would ariso from any gen* 
iDttirftircnoa with the pi-eseut settlement, they thought that 
arerage payment or thaniv aasessment .shonld nob, as a ffbole^ 
distvrbca. In cases of obvious abuse, the asseesroent should 
reTiKcd, but the demaud sbonld not exceed one-Kfth of the 
product}. They aUo remarked that the elnims of the {wople to ' 
ahould be treated liberally, attd laid down a rule for delermini 
when int<vrfi^rcnoe wiih uniieroi^iary sad whrai additional land wo| 
not be allowed without additional asseflsmeat. Separate ididi 
wore recorded by Mr. Goldingham and Mr. nianc* The pnrpor 
Ur. Goldingham's minute was, that oa the whole the state det 
bad reached a mnximum; that the claims of the people wbo 
that all lands, whether cultivated or not, are included ia tl 
holdings or varijs, ehoold be treated with liberality, as they 
uover c)uctitioiiod before the average payment scttlemoot ; and 
while a register of laudu was desirable and could not be 
withcrat a survey, the people should not be alarmed, and Oovcrai 
abould declare it was not their iuteutiou to raise the asseae 
generally. Mr. Blano, who bad become a mombor of the Be 
ainoa he bad written bis report, said that the objection to a sdi 
was its expons«, that a small e«tlftblishmeut under the Colic 
might measure some lands, but that the average jxi^kment or that 
settlement Bliould not bo gt^nerally disturbed. 'I'bc Govemmc 
raaerved their decision till the opinion of Mr. Blliot, the 
member of the Board, who was than on a special commissioa, 
been ascertained.' 

Of the rcvenne administration of the district between 1S51 
1802. when it was hand(*d over to Bombay, there ia little to boi 
Mr. Malthy had remarked that if a scientific Harroy was introdnc 
a clussificaliou of the land and an acre assesiiment should supei 
tho principio of computing the Government demand from tho 
produce.* He showed that if tho principle on which tboGovcrumc 
aecounta wero prepared, of taking one-third of the Jfrosa prodi 
were carried out, the result wonld not be donbtful. Nothing cai 
of the proposal, and until the tmasfer of the district to tho Boml 
Presidency no important change waimadein the assoasment, thou 
it was generally admitted tbnt it was as unsatisfactory aa it well eos 
be. In 1858, Mr. Maltby, the Collector, profioaed to aesesa 

■ Proe«edinn, 9t1i M»>- IBSl. iprooMding*. Stli Vorr.tStSOftSSth Mnr.lflAt'^ 

' Minute* o? CoiuulUlion, 29tli Mkf I8S1. ■ Ltttor lo Doard. 7th Octr. IBM', 




iHwIy t«lt<>n Dp trnm Oovarnmeot waate, und lands already taken up Chapter 



linblc tn n aaue aiu ent, ncconluigto Iha qimViiy <>£ 

.nir'a proposal waa approp«J and ha was uskeJ to 

. buw ht) lutcbdcd to nficcrtnin the cspabitltjr of the soil.' Ho 

-d to take one etuylu product and estuuato tbo utialtLy uf tbo 

im tt« cn^bility to piv/daco this staple, and this coareo 

' the Saactiou of tha Board.' 

the tiwiafer of North KAnara from Madras, oporallone havs 

TO proffPCM for introdncing tbo Bombay sarvoy stjttlomout. Of 

■■^•^"■'•'■* in the ordioary praciico which the p«icii)iar character of 

reqairod Colonel Aodorson, tho Survoy Cotmnisitioner, has 

I'T. liiK' lollowiog ai-coiml : The feTOnshneaa of tho climate UioitB 

surrey oporatiooi) to thron or four moDibs in tbo year. The ahonness 

of the BTirTiiyinp sensoii makes it ueceetsary to dcftl xritb a aub-divHniQu 

r'i*'~'-i'o«d-' inoagh progress is slow this system has cortuiu 

'^ges. Id the ousurreyed parta of Kiiuiira thoro ia an real 

iiirtirT',,t, ■:f Iniidain thoGovorumont records. All that ia known 

landholder, khateddr or varyddfj haa to pay. Any 

pt lo III l.HjunJarics gircs riso to disputes. These disputes rome 

at tho tiiQi' of uioasuremcDt aud tbo limibH of the lands of the 

uro marked off. Thcso liraits aro often nnknnwu to 

> <j lands are oommouly held by teimat<i, who till partii 

LTTO Qci^b LiuuriuK holdiuga, paying to each bolder a certain 

rent or isbara of tho proaiice. Tho limits of huldinjp* which 

boon &x«d at tbo time of tho mcasorument come under reWow 

or two aflermirds at the time of tbo cbuwilication. The 

moonwhilo have tbo opportasity of bringing to notice any 

«TT - -^lay have been nuule id the origiual boonilary aettieraent, 

ail hange that aoemii called for » unado by tho classing 

oSicer. FiQally, a few niontlis before the settlement ia iulroducou, 

iho villago mnp, on wbiob every holdiog h showo aa a survey Hold, 

^Dtl » list of the anrvey fields with the reputed holder of euoh, 

arv fpvuu to the milinlatd^lr, Rome of whoso clerks, in company 

mth the village otBcers aud limdholders, inspect every field, and 

eot>ir tbp buldiT nf each field in the ^'iol•l InB|K;ctioii Uuok. This 

inif't''- -nquiry raisoa a crop of dispnt^s. Somo are at oncft 

li' Kj :ind Kuttlcd by tho sarvey officer. Where he faila to 

1> irtica to agroo the dispute is roferwud to the miralatdAr, 

-very rilbige for the purpose of Bottling dispntea, and to 

t->-ni If..- iifld iospeetiou rt'turos which his clerks bare miulti oat. 

Any bonudary changes which the uji^mUitd&r finds necessary aro 

' ''■• tlie settlement officer and carried out by him. Tha 

it made on the papera drawn np aad checkod under the 

ifi.'ii!tIi»uUtr'H reaponHihility. In caeea of aggravated di.'»pntc, the 

n>:u<il,Liifi> makes full notes on tho spot and brings up the question 

i at tho settlement. The rusult of this method is that in 

i.^^ .^^,^^^, where laud has a high imlue and is much subdivided. 

> LvttM to Bo&nl, IStb Pabnun ISSK. * lVo«««'lia«f, SSth AprU 1SS3. 

■ I^lx 10 Bonrd, 8Ui Jimo IMS , tji-tUr, Ttli Aiwil lEiSS. 

■suTvwj CommUueiMi'i ten<n4£a ol t\h A|>ril 1S77, tad ill of 90tfa April 


» Sl«-28 


1862- l£ 

IBombaf ( 



Chapter Vm. 

Bomlny ifurvcr, 

■SinTcy Sjftttmi, 

OppaiUion In 



tbe preparation tor the settlemeDt of tfretity or thirty Till 
mere fraction of a Bub>din&ioa, keeps the muulatdar bus; for^ 
or Eour months. He knows that thin field inspection give* 
opportunitjr for clcariag disputes, and that if he docs not 
advantago uf tbia opporttmitjr, he Trill bo fonad out at tbe Kottlemri 
or still worse aftertho aottlomont is over. Thoreiora tbe mdmli 
takes pains to make the Suld iuspeotiuu cximpleto and to ec 
that the records based on the snrve/ ar« nccnralo. Theconseqac 
is that after the ftcttlemcut diapatee about limda and thoir boondi 
except cujsea of disputed title which can be decided only by 
civil courte, aro very uucomtaoD. 

Under tbe former system of roronue nuuiBffemeDt the anib 
the account or tyiry iu the Government books. Ono acconat! 
boldiug genemlly ioclnded Bevcral detached plote in ono rill 
and often included lands in more than ono vflla^, and even in m^ 
than onetmb-diTiKion. Of the prociHe situation or natUtro of the' 
forming one holding or varg even in the same village there was 
tmstivorthy record, the village accountant and the 

concerned alone profeesod to know. Of the share of aa_ 

due on the several tiL-ld» or several dctachi>d pluta of land oomprii 
in the holding there was no record. GovorDtnent land was of ' 
appropriated without uuy addition to tho land-tax, and the asa 
ment of holdings boro no proper proportion |to the capabilitie 
the land. Under the new or survey system every holding wae T 
oarof ally distinct. It was il iinded into sepnrat« nnrvey fields or ac 

of moderate and convenient size, each of which was sci 

assoued, due regard being paid to the boundaries of the sub-dtvisfi! 
of the holding. Tbe aasossment waa bused on a moderate proport 
to the productircnoas of the soil. In ordinary cultivation 
in ordiuaiy seasons, it did not exceed an eighth or a tenth of 
groi!8 produce ; and in the superior and highly tilled lauds^ 
proportion waa considerably lower. The holding thus ret 
intact, but was divided into a number of scparatelv marked , 
asBessed units or survey 6olda which the holder could k^p, grvoi 
or dtsposo of at his picfisurc. In this respect the IftDclholdor 
gaioed. Waste land, tbe sole property or Govenimoutj was 
into arn bio and forcBt Of tho arablo wastOj unless it was 
for any Oovemment purpose, so much as was required to meet ' 

?robable spread of tillage was split into Kurvey fields and asaesfl 
'ho forest waste was surveyed in large blocks and placed ai ' 
disposal of t.he forest department. Con!>idprablH areas wore 
apart for grazing, but grazing privilegoi) were uiways recorded to 
granted during the pleasure of Guvemment, so as not to preri 
the grazing laud being changed, should at any fntnre time sac~ 
coarse seem desirable. Forest rights in graung lands wore 
reserved to OovomTiient 

Between 1864 and 1867 the revised assessment fiiodby the rei 
surrey waaintrodaced without opposition into 199 viltagoaand haul 
in the Hub-divisions above the oahyiidris.^ In 1S7U-71 theratesi 

*8nrrey ComniiMiooet'i Memorudun, 1070, 9th October 1$71. 

■awitmrnnt fixed by the sorrej wero given oat m cifrhtc«u villagoa 
of Kirw^r flab-diTJsion on the coast clo8« to K&rwdr town. lo these 
rilUgta thtoufrh & long aeries of years probnbly from the boginoing 
nf British nile, fraod and cormptioD had deprived Govemmeot ul lh«ir 
prtippT ihare of the land rereaae. In 1S71 the coast Inudholdcrs 
oombinedtoqaostion the right of Cinvemmentio revise the asscssmuut. 
■nd filed aboul 5U0 Huits. AgunUi of this coiiil>inatiou were sont to 
Simi to permaado tho Ittudholders in tho eigfaty-foar Sim Tillages, 
into which revitwd. rates had bet<Q iatmduced iu ISIO, to join tho 
Kitrfrir leagoe ; bnt they failed to got more than ten enpportcrs. THe 
TMt'e^ of ahseesoieiit Gxed. for the K&rwdr villages, cuusideriog the 
mdvnntagM of their aitnatioD, wore very low, for lower than the rates 
ixnpoaed aod accepted in oilior parta of the diatrict. It was felt 
lii&t, wbatever might hare beeo the origin of tho old cormpt 
AaacBsmetite, it would he inexpedient at once to demand all that 
Qaremment were entitled to demand ; that for the first Bettl<>ui(>ut a 
uauderatft rate sboold be imposed &« a compromise, luuring Uiuattain- 
nseiit of full mtes to a revision at the end of thirty y<ttr«. Tho new 
rmtea of aasossment would more than double tho revenue on tho 
eigUtceo Tillages to whi<:htheywereapT>lied. As regarded iodividuala, 
tbe incidence of the new rat«8 varies greatly. Many of the poorer 
' leaa tnflumtinl cultivBtors found tbeir assesstnenta niAterially 
oed; in some casoB the new assessment was not more than one- 
foarlhfUitd in nuiUT cases it wnji not more than one-half of what nas 
foriii4>rly paid. On uie other hand the larger and more influential land- 
holders found their (utsc-ssinont mnch increased. In some cases the 
Conner aBsessments wero nominal without the shadow of an assignnblo 
nason. The new a-sseMniont was communicated to tho landholders 
at thtj end of Ma-rch 1870 by the Aciiug Collector, Mr. ElphinstoDe, 
and tho Survey Comnii'tpioncr. There waa BOmo vague petitioning 
ftad general denial of the right of Government to m anantri the 
land. At firtit many of the raoro intlnential landholdei-e refused to 
attend the settlement. Bnt finding that the plea of absence would not 
avail them, the nnmber of absentees became Rmnller and tho spirit 
of oppoeitton seemed to have abated. For a few days after tho 
a«tt](.-mont there was some talk of organlxed opposition thmngh 
tho coarta of Uw. An attempt was made by the largor landholders 
to laiae a gonorsl dcfuncc fund, hut for somo reajion this plan fell 
tbroogb. The CoUootor and tho Survey CJommissioner were told 
that tbo mass of smaller landliuldcrs hud come to the conclnsion 
that tboj bad better loavo well alone, and there was every hope 
tbat tlie oppoeitiou would die out, cepociallv as report itaid that a 
kgal opinion talcen by the malcontauts hod beim uofaTourablo to 
them. Matters remaiQcd quiut till about the end of Janaary 1871, 
-wlionmmouni began to arise of an intondod combinntioii to difipiito the 
right of Govemmout to revise tho asscasraent. When the first iuHtal- 
ment of tho new assessment fell doe, payment was refused not only 
by thoflo whoae aBsessmonts had boon miaed, but also by those whoso 
•SBessmonfcs had boon lowered, and in the course of tho next two 
nwnths a large number of snita wore filed against Government 
denying tho right of Govoramoot to revise the asseBament and assert- 
ing thut the ioTtaer rates were permanent. The litigants based thia 

Chapter TTtt 

Adm in istrstion 

[B9Bb*y OsMttMr, 





abaf Sarvay. 


claim od isolato j exprassjotxa in procIamatiQus aod notificati 
in Iho first ([uurt«r of the century. The Survey Coaitni»>; 
ihftttbcfo was no iast grotuid fur tliia claitn, oikI that <i 
sixty years they li"l(l Ni>nh K^uum, tte Madras Gorenuij- 
in any w«y ndmitttitl that thoy had not power to rovino the ossc 
meot. On ibe cuntriiry thoj had persistently asserted this rijrht. 
MiDO parts of North KAnnm revised rates wore introdnced aod 
the rostr of Uie ditilrict {Sivy had oftco ntidor oonsideratiun the mc 
erpedient rnode of effecting a revision. Tho Bombay Goveromt'tit, 
iMsed tbc-ir rif^ht to roviso the aBsei>atiieiit on the iohercut right 
GoTertimenl to legalate taxation^ as erpreised in srclions 25 and' 
of BoiTibiiy Act I. of ltl6o. The plaintiffs donied this right, uiS 
asserted tliat the existing ossestinients were pcrmanunt. 

TTndor these circumstances the Revenae Comoiissiooer antbor 
the CoUoctor to allow any portion of the asMBsment wi 
Iw in excess of a ponnaneiit lease or mu/ynu palTa older ii 

transfer of Ktinara to the ItombnyGoTemnieDtloBtanddTer, peudi 
inqairy.' The forraal agreement in each case was to l>e prodnc 
and authenticated to the xatit: faction of the Collector or of on oC~ 
deputed by him. A.I1 other landholders vitro ^ven the optic 
of resigning their lands and paying for the current year 1870-7I_ 
•seeesment at previoaa rates, or of paying the full sur^'cy rates j 
the land was not ret<igned within a certain date. In cnse 
persistent refosal to resign or to pay tho aurvoy assessment 
nOYenne Commissioner desired tho Collector to proceed to disti 
hy notice and sale of land, as provided by the rules framed 
section 31 of Pombay Act I. of 18G0. 

This K^rwdr opposition resulbod In tho grant tUnara land 
■which was decided in Majr 1JS75 by the Bonibiiy Hi^h Conrt. Tl 
decision was on every point in favour of Government.' An appeal 
tho IMvy Council followed but was not prosocotcd. Tho agitatii 
died out und the main question of the gcnoml right to rerifie 
ajwessment was set at rout. 

To lighten the pressure of the enhaDCOment in indiridnnl 
Goveranieot sanctioned certain oonoosuons.* Tho holder of 
iiDCultiTatod at the time of the settlement, so long as the land remi! 
uncultivated, can kcop the right of occupancy np to five 
after thu settlement on paying an eighth of the full aaseasmc 
This conccsiion applies only to cho K&nara lowlands and iu thi 
only to holiliuga iu any ono village which pays an assessment of 
than £2 lOs. \\Xs. 25). It wa.-!! never the practice to iccegnia 
right to hold land, whether cultivnted or not, without payifl 
BSBesMueat. In former times large landholders had appropi 
nuoh land to which Ihey had do title. This aupropnation ' _ 
still more general while the survey was going on. Every hulder was 
allowed to point out the limits up to which he claimed, and the«o 
claims were admitted without question so long as uo counter-data 

> Bavodm CMDmiBidaBor, 1164, a7th M&roh tSTl. 

■ Bonttty Hj^ Courts Beporto. XU. Apvciidix, pp. 1 ■ ISi. 

*OoTenuiieiit RciioIuU<ui 3^73, 31at October 1S74. 


won ffct up, or tliBiD ftppoorod to bo no reosoa to reserre the land on 
bulukU of QovemmttuU No immediate payment wait incaired on 
this land as tbo old assossmcnt remained nachanged tilt the 
•oltliimciit, and, at the settlt^nient, thero was ulwaytt the option of 
roiug^n^ AO entire enrroy field. Thas 1/uid wta widely claimed 
mtlioab any former right and ivithoDt the immodiaiu iutention or 
thu ability to bring il under tillage. Large landlioldors were specially 
auxiuaa to keep their teuauts from l>ecomiDg oocapanls onder 
Govornment, aa this would redoc^a the oompetilioo for their land and 
Would lower rtinta. A second coocesflion was that in oil holdings 
pajring- a survey assessment of more than £2 ] dt. (Rs. 25), if the 
utCKOse of assessment exceeded 6fty per cent, only fifty per cant 
incrrase on the old asspBsmcnfc should bo paid in tho first year, an 
ndditional twenty-fiTe per cent in the secund, and in the third and 
Hjiluwiog years the wbolo oE tho increased aRsesament. Thia 
omcesnion was necessary us macli cultivated land in the more 
ootlying parts had hitherto paid a nomina] land taXi 

As tiiere ts a considerable difference in the cooatiy above and 
below the Sahyidris, the incidence of the laad-tnx is shown 
eeparafcely for these two main divisions of tho district. Below (ho 
Salijfidns, the nTorage new or sun'uy acre rate is, on garden land 
15*. 24d. {Ra. 7-0-S). on rico htnd 6«. lljd. (Ks. 3-7-8), and on 
dry>civp land ll^d. {'{is annas). Above the Subyidris the average 
»cre-rate on garden luid is £1 2f. lOli/. <Ks. 11-6-0), on rice 
kind 4«. 5i<7. (Rs. 3-3<5), and on dry-crop taud 9J. (6 anna^). The 
oonditions above the Suhjfidris aro bettor soitod to the growth of 
the Dicnil valuable garden crops uud the average rato on garden 
lands is thoroForo mghor above than below tho SahyAdris. Much 
of the tioe-IiLud butU above and below the Saliy&dris bears sugar- - 
cuie in occasional rotation, and, below the Sahyitdris, a second crop 
dI rice or of pulse is common. 

Up to December l&b2 there have been surveyed and settled the 
nb-dinsioDs of Yell&pur with 173 villages, KArwiu* with sixty-one 
viUages, and Sumta n-ith 218 Tillages ; 213 vUlagea oat of 271 in 
Bopa, SOI villages ant of 296 in Sirsi, and thirty-seven oat of 143 
in Hon&rar. The Sidd&pnr snh-divtsion is alone untouched. Except 
in Supn where details of tbe old assessment ore not separat^y 
ftTailablf for each block the result of Ibo &ur\'ey settlement has been 
to raise tlie assessment from £4067 to £10,704 or 1I5'50 per cent 
in KArwAr, from £14,493 to f 19,7(10 or 3C'34 per cent in Ankola 
and Kumta, firom £(ilt57 to Xt/aOO or ISliS per cent in the thirty- 
wven settled villages of Hon^var, from £5703 to £9298 or 63-03 per 
M&t in YellitpDr, and from £750S to £10,567 or 40-S5 per cent in 
the 201 settled rtllsges of Sitsi. 

Tho following statement shows tho progress of the settlement to 
tbo Sidt ul December 18S2 : 

Chapter Vm 



Bombaj- .Sorvqj 


IBMftbaj OwettMT, 






JTAura An-KV ZJeMIib USf. 













Ankcbknd KumU 
Q««i>w ... ~. 


tXwv 'Z r. !" 

Mnr , 

TdU . 


























iTemxTM. Before the introduction of the survey iietUementj and still in 

/ioUa^ unsettled villages, hoUlings or varga are entcrDd in the Govemiaeo 

accouitts either as mvli that is perinaiieut or as ^eni tliat is renlod 
This distinction pmticrly nnpliva only to land in tliu old province o 
Kinara, that h*, ui tiiu tandH to the south of the G&ugiivsli rlrer ; 
bnt ondor British rule the tcnoa have come to bo used over the 
whole di.<ftrtct. 

The proper meaning of rarg is account, correspoudinff to ihdta in 
»«lik-d difttrictd, with this ditfuruuce thut if a vargdttr takes ap 
frcuth laud from Goverumoiit, or by agre«mont or purchase obtuiu 
the transfor of a portion of another varg the a!aditioDa] loml iii 
not included in the original varg bnt a new varg is entered iu the 
accounts. Bnt at an early Rtagc of British rule varg camo to bo UMtl 
as synonymous ivith holding or estate, and each varg lias lately 
been known by the name of some pemon who held it at a former 
tame, retaining oUo ita original number. Occasionally umjg liavo 
been subdivided and new varga formed under new ruLmea, but this 
has not been the rule. Generally there were separate vanji for 
each village, hub cavja couipriAiiig lauds in ditferent villages are not 
unknown.^ Within the viDago the plottt bolonmng to a parj ftro 
scattered in all directions and never could bo identified by any one 
but the owner and perhaps the village accountant, and as thero 
were uo boundary marks and no reconl of area, then; vran a 
rcmarknblo facility for enlarging the holding without incnrriiig 
additional aaaeasment. 

The meaning of the word mult is disputed. Some would connect 
it with the SaiiKkrit maulya meaning price ; those who do so aaaort 
thatmu'i holdings were originally bouglit from tlio government. 
This saems to have been Haior, aiterwards Sir ThomoR, Mmiro's 
Opinion. In a letter to the President and Members of the Madras 
Board of Revenue, dated 81st lilay ISOO, describing the revenue 
adminiHtration of Kfinara under former governments, Munro says 
' When a proprietor alienated land for a certain rent for ever no 
either received a price for it, or lie received no price for it 
or ho paid a sum of mcmey to the pcnion to whom the land was 
bmuferred. Which of these modea was adopted depended on the 

1 Miuiro, ■Ith U1L7 1800 ; Ur. SluiO, 30tb SepUuiUr 1S18. 





cjrcatnstancea of the parties aD<:1 the nature of Ui)> land ;. but In each 
of the three cas«s the tenant was the same, and the tenant watt 
called tenant by purchase. When the govei-nnient disponed of landa 
which had reverted to it hy failure ef heirs, it followpfl the practice 
of iuili^-iduals. It sold the land almost always for a lamp pajinent 
or luuaruRQ ; it HOmcttmcH gave the land fruo of charge ; hut it 
never p>aad money, and it seldom or never advanced money to the 
new tenantA or owners.' In tliUpib.%tagc tlio wordfiteiiunt hy purchaao 
appoar to bo intended as a traualation of mitlgenif/iir, a clo^ of 
ieuknb dcacribed below, and the wholu statement Hcciaa to bo 
founded on the assamptiou that mul meaji^ price. Former govcm- 
m&nts granted the muU tight to lauds by means of instruments 
cmlled mulpatitU, and thesa aocnments show that a pa}-n)ent called 
naxardna or hanike wiw made. This has le<i Major llunro to stato 
that thi- lands were sold for a na2ar'uin. But the word naxardtta 
doeti nut dL>ji(iU> tliti consideration which forms part of a sale. In 
Uic cafies in question it would rather mean a fee paid for iho 
issue of an order, probably of a somewliat similar nature, tliongli 
purliapti ditfurently applied, to atamp duty. Besides it is woU known 
tliat mul does not tav&a price but root, and the more probable 
signification of mnli is pormancnt. The lands referred to in Iho 
r were grantetf for ever subject to the payment of the 
ncnt Even the non-payment of the revenue did not 
lately deprive the holJcr of his right. Munro says:' 'If 
abtconded with balances standinj^ against him, the land waa 
ferred to another peraon ; bat if he or his heir returned at ever 
> diHtanta period, the land was re!4tored on either of them paying 
a reasonable compensation for the balance and for such extra 
expuUM!!* as might liavu luten incurred on account of improvemenbi.' 
Thia right was not continued under the British Government. Kt 
le says : ' It was not well established, but it in stipulated in 
armanent looses or mjilpaUda granted at the beginning of 
Briliafi rule, that if a descendant of a former permanent holder or 
fnulgtir appoAred within twelve months and paid a reasonable 
eoupensatiou for the balance due, the land should be made over to 
». Tho hereditary right, says Mr. Elphinstone, toother with the 
>wer to alienate, constituted the private property in land which 
aa by many .supposed to be peculiar to Kjlnars and Malabdr ; bub 
tirdaddra in the Deocan appear to have had similar rights.* 

It is asserted, and it is not improbable, that originally all the 
cultivatod laiuhi in Kflnara wore hold on muli or permanent right, 
and that each holder poasossod a title-deed in the sliape of a 
muipatta, although few authentic documents of that nature granted 
by former governments arc now forthcoming. During the latter 
part of the eighteenth century, under Haidai and Tipn, the country 
was partially depopulated ana the lands desert«dj and from this and 
other causes some lands formerly cultivated revoricd to Qovemment" 


Land I 

* R«pnH. 31tt May 1800, pRneraph 23. 

* Boport on the Torritorio* oon<]iiGrQiI from the r<t«hw», 2Jth October 1619. 
■ Uouro'i Letter to CoUccton. dth Doccmbcr 1800, panfcnph 0. 


iBontwr Q« 




^Lond TcDuru, 



At first, nndor British rule, the pnwtico was to offer tliose 
lands annnally t«i tliu IiigheMt Litlffc-r.' They wena Uiuii oJlod . 
gcni or rented from Govornmont and the cultivators wore" 
tenaut»-at-wiU holJiug Jircctly from Govemiin-iit. The riT* 
giviog oat thc«« wa^tv lands from year to year was not h>i. 
work well, and in 1807 the Mad!r&a OoTeniment sauctloD^ 
alienation of those landH to respectable persona who wonltl tindr 
to culti\'aio thorn tuid pay aasesamont on tlie same terms as 
original hoMets.* This alii^nfltion was carried ont bv weaM 
-pennanont leases or muljiatlm, which probably woroaiuuhur to ' 
granted by formir governments, but no naiardna orhanding^i 
fee was tflken. In thia way, Id the language of the district, ' 
lands were conveH/id from »arkir-gani or government lea 
muH or permanent holdings. "Ine process did not go 
itpccdily as wha dcrincd de^sirabtu. In 38R4, Mr. Vivcaith, 
Principal Collector, after slating that people M'ho desired mulpat 
or permanent dot^ds would gut ilium on application, gave 
assnranco that tho^e who had paid the full afisufesment would 17 
treated as mulg^irt or pcruiauent hoIJvre, so long as they i>aid the 
full assessmont, even thongh tboy had not obtained nxuif'^ttijii and 
thoug^h the land was not entered as mult.' From that time all naJ 
distinction between getti and muU vatyg ceased, bat the two nnnien 
remained in the accounts, and are still used where the survey selUd- 
ment has not been introduced. 

The waste or deserted lands above referred to were also cnlle 
ItutnmfU, that is lands which ha<l lost their occnpont Arable lain 
which, at least within the memory of man, had never before 
cultiv&tud, was called rekhdntuht or land which had \ofit the 
of its ossossmout. It was given ont with or without v\ulpatti 
and entered in the accounts an homgame that in new accretion 
cultivation. Such lands wer« not nccessai-ily formed into soparal 
holdiugs or vargs ; they werB more fronutntlv entered as authorise 
additions to exiatinff holdings. The name )iosdgame is still in un _ 
\>ui thoro is no reu difibrenoe between the tMiure of hotAgame' 
lands and of other lands. 

The term Alienation seems to have been used by tbc KinaM 
offioera of the Madras Govuniment in the sense of gi 1-^ fi 

permanent cultivation subject to the payment of the a... ni- 

nas been decided, in one of a largo number of suits institntud 
opposie the introduction of the survey settlement, that the usa 
ine wocd aiicuation did not imply a permanent settlement of tl 
aasessmcni or any remisHion or revenue, total or jartial. Su 
remissions are few and iosij^ificant Almost uvci-}* tvmplo 
KAnam hiw land nfctached to it. which i8 entered in the name 
temple deity, but the full assessment is paid for the land, and 
in no difference between the temple land and a pri%'ate holdi 

* Board «f Banonc to Gwommmt. 31«t Angnit 1G07. 

* Becrotary ol Govcmmntt to Donnl of Kcvonae. ZStli OtAolMT 1807- 

* VenwcaUr Oracr, Hth OetoWr 1834 . 

--^-— -w^-^. 



BudowtnenlA in ciuli nm pftiil tn many temples in lica of collections 
fonnerly inati*; by tho msnagt'rs fmin private bylilinjw uiidur Uie 
name nlhanulharm or mitatde charity. Theso Mr. Eea-1, who Miecoedwl 
CuliKiul UuniY) as ColK'Ctor, attaclied and added to the aase^menb 
of Lho hu)diii^'.H an ituiua of revenue. For a few Roman Catholic 
eliiirrbeft aud a few mosques a partial uxcmptioti frotu oa-s^uuient In 
cUimod, and at present allowed, 1»ut tht- titk^M hnvo not yet )j«eii 
•dJnrltcatviL lu 8ome part-i of tH(.'di.%trict ekeisaruliji, or.-iulx)rdiiiaU! 
vilUf^e otficers, wo allowod a roinission of asseasinetit on land 
held l>y Uivui ill lieu of cash payniuut»; but cash paymentet lu-o 
becoming th.i ru!«. Tho only othwr alienation of land revenue to 
On n'ttic^l U the i-einiiision of iKWcsMnivot allowed by the Bombay 

G t in 1H70 durinjT thu lifL'timo of the widowt of 

Bi. .tja. a descendant of the^-a/iyiir or chief of Bilgi on the 

laods provion.sly held by him. 

From what has boon stated it will he Koen that, although the 

nainiT.i mutgdra or )>unuttu>-iit holders and geii^-ira or renters hava 

b*H*n kept, siue._* 1834 tliere has been no real ditrereiiee in tlie 

stAto^ of pcfiioa'* holdiny land directly under Ooveminont, 

WluT<'ver the survey settlement has been introduced, so fai- as 

Ooviirament accounts are concerned, vvau tho distinction of name 

haM ceased, aud the right of occupancy as defined in the Bombay 

Suivey Act is the only recoi^iii?^! tenure under Oovornracnt, except 

in tlw' few cases where temporary cultivation' ia allowed. In the 

flUr\vyi»d part«iot'the di.^trict, ind(;ed throughout the whole district, 

Ihi; oiUy real dioliuctioD is between occupantji wlio cultivate and 

occupants who do not ctiltivate. In lowland Kftiiara cultivatuig 

occapoutiiareprobiitblyraorenumerouathannon -cultivating occupants 

but in other pai-ts of the district by far the greater portion of tho 

loud iii held by occupants who do not themselvus cultivate. There ato 

few people of any clas^^ who do not hold .-tome land, as the purcluLse 

of laud U almogt tho only motio of iuveyting money known in the 

dii^trict ; but in most places the hulk of tbe large laudboldera are of 

the Shenvi cju'<te. In many ca-ses the.>ie people are the dpJicendanta 

eitherof village accountants or of the- relations of village acoountanta, 

oBtjen* who had every facility for enlarging their own holdings 

and allowing tho.s6 in whom they were interoHled to enlarge theirs by 

encroaching on Government waste. Moreover those people formed 

the educated clww of the communit}', and rapidly became the 

ninut.'ye<l chu.^ and acterl as village bniikers. In course at time the 

lands' of their debtors passed into their hands, and the debtors fell 

fnim the rank of occupants to that of tenants. Alii)0:4t all the largo 

taudbokJcrs ntill unite moneylending to their other occupations 

In upland Kiiniira the rule Ih for oocupants to cultivate their own 

land^j, but everj'where there are Urge landhulders, and the process of 

the more ignorant cultivators l«ing converted from occHi>antrt into 

tonants which is near completion m tlie lowland sul>-di\asions is 

alAO in operation in upland KAnara. 

It remains to descrilw the rights of those who hold not directly 
fn»n Oovemnient, bnb under a nuperinr holder. Of these the 
highi;j.b are mulgonigart or permanent lessees. In the minute of the 





--^ - 




Madras Board of Revenue recorded oq the 5th of Jsuaaty 181 
their status ia than tlcacribcti : The mul^miyara nr y r---;- 
t«uuntii of Kdimra wore a cls&s ofpoople uukiiouni U< SI:ii 
OD condttJoD of thu pavment of k apccifiod invat-iiibh! n.'.i.t to 
jnv/i or luiidlurd and hU sucoeasors, obtained t'ruiii hiiu a, pi^i 
j^rant of a certain portion of land to be held l^>y tlieiu aadl 
heirs.for ever.' Tni« right could not bo sold by llw mjilyeni^ 
his heirs, but it might be mortgBCed by thum ; and so long ofl 
HtipulaUtd runt conliuuud to ho duly paid bo and hli dt^ 
inhurited thin laud lik« any other part of their horeditary pmpe 
The landlord and hia hcirH yfun pnicludt^d from raising tb^ rent 
thu peruiaueut lossoo. It was, thoivfon:-, originally t.'itb>>r bij^iiur tli< 
that procurable from temporary tuiiants, or it was Hxvl at the 
or at a lower rate in consideration of ac«rliun )«uui being paid 

Ercmluni or purclukic -money for the grant in perpetuity or . 
ivour conferral by the landlord on some of hu dupL-ndnuts-^ 
ftmounted, in fact, to n ponnancnt alienation of a certun porti^ 
of land by Uie landlord ; for it never again laps>ed to hiru co- 
descendants exeopt on the failure of heirs to tho penuanont le 
This clas.s of pt-opie may therefore Iw considered suborriiiute 
lords rather than tenants, espoeinlly as, though many of 
cultivated their lanila by hired lalxiurers or tilavva, others sab-i 
tliom to ehdlgmig'irt or 'temporary teaAnt<i.' This desedf 
appliva generally to .the mtthjttii tenure of the present day. . 
aoma coses the rent U 6xe<l in produce ; in other cases it i» SxeAi 
taeik. A fev wK^^rrti deedn belonging to tlie early part of 
century have been found -nhich stipulate that if the asse&smejit 
inereoaed the lessee will pay the tiuhaticed amount, but the ouijori] 
contain no such provision, and one of the most dilBcult pot 
Brtalng out of the survey settleiui'iit requite from the fact that 
retitied luwcfiKtnont excisedti the rent fixed in a mtd^ni de 
Moiit of the mxil'jeni deeds executed sinoe thu !4ui'\'ey beigan cont 
the stipulation that if the asseflsment is increoHed the leaae« will 
the erdituieerl amount. 

Another sub-tenure of a permanent or ijnasi-pcrmanonl natt 
nadtiyi or ardkcU. This tenure whici) applies only to gardi 
landN prevails to a considerable extent on the coast, espi-eially 
HondLvar and Kumta. T)te rent payable by the tenant ia Sti 
generally at one-half of the produce, hut it is sometimes fixed 
other proportions and in a very few cases in caah. The occupy 
bears the cxpeiwe of planting the trees, and the tenant bears 
expense of rearing them. When full-grown trcos arc miule over^ 
a tenant, tho tenure i» eallod siU^t, and tn this case the tet 
rGOeives one-third of the prodxus for hia laltour. The landinrJI 
in both Riu-s&s pay^^ the amosHoicnt The lease is terminable at ttic 
will o£ tliB tenant, bnt he cannot liu ousli-^l by the ovrr-hold< 
unlc&» it ia proved tliat the property h&'i suffered from nt^gk 
These tenures appear to be declining as they give rise to nuin«i 

' Tiieto graoU ircre alwAj-ii in wricintt. mftny of Uivu bim boco loat* 
* Thi* wu 111* aon (nqueut pnctiM, 


-t frequent form of land nioi-tgago in Kinara is mortgage 
rion, caWeil liJwijj/iidi ndti'iv or usufructuary mortage. 
U "lortgage is roluvmed the mortgagee u exactly In tno 

p : tlio UndhoMer, aihI fonitt'riv tiiH laiul was fruquontly 

vntoryxl in tbu accouatd ia the mortgagee s name. 

Tbo ordiiiary ^ub-loaaney ia tenum-nt-will or cfiati geni, and it is 
by t^nAnt^-at-\ri1l tliat almost alt the large landholders' estates are 
cjiltivotcd. A yearly holder or chiilgcnujdr uiay hold citht-r under 
a permanent holder or tnulyilr. under a permanent tc-naat or 
wnUjMtgdr, or and«r Government as the occupant of a lapiicd 
pnrimueut estate or mit/i rar^. If the yearly loutee holds luidur 
aa ov('r-holder, his name is in no way recognized in tlie accounts. 
If an over-holder found his tenant in arrears, under the Mudran 
llagnlntioi) ho had power to nttAch his property and report the 
oitschment to the Collector, who, at thirty duys' notiw, during 
wliich time the tenant could appeal, sold the prop>rty by auction 
and satir^tied the claim. The teiiant generallv uoldsa written Icaiso 
""■' nvfls an acceptance. The period for which the documents are 

.-.J. ia geneially a year, but fresh documeuta arc not cxMutcd 

year ; on the contrary it is the practice to cultivate for many 

iv<- years on the same lease. As a rule fresh dociimiints are 

tliawu up only when a change in the rent or some other circuni- 

'tanc-- make3 a fn'-sh deed necessary. The termn of tho lease vary 

ilr^rcut places. In Supa tne rent !» ordinarily tised in 
. elsewhere, except for gnrdon land, it in almost always 

m grain. An regards garden aaseasment, Mr. Read, tno 
(^ni-.:f>r. wrote in 1814 1*^' The genorsl practiw) observed in lowland 
KAnara for aascMisii)^ oocoanut, uetulnut, and pepper produce is that 
for now cocoanut gardens a lease or hud is deinaniled, securing 
pMsession to the cultivator until his young treoa begin to bear, 
which i^ generally the case in their sixth year near the aea-coast 
and in their tenth year near the SahyAilris. The average aweiwment 
of about I2«. (Rs. 6) on each tn?e is then demanrled on the tree 
instead of on the produce. The trees thenceforward continue to be 
chargi^l every year by the village accountant, and no idlowauce ia 
made for unfniitful years if it is supposed that the proprietor liai4 
thu niryins of keeping up hi.s garden, iHicau.-ie in old gardeiia, while 
a /tiw trei4 each year become unfruitful, their places are impplied 
by tbode beginning to bear. Another mode provaila, which has 
Iwnn coutinnml during the Company's Government, of aiuesKing the 
groojxl, not the trees, from the period of starting th« {garden ^ the 
Avttr.ti,'tt rent of the utdghltouriug ricc-fieldM and. dcmandmg DotUing 

■vhen the trees begin to bear. This ia the prevailing uwigo 
;i the Government an<l proprietor of whatever description; 

"it observed by the landlords is to grant their yearly tenants 
... — ^.ujeRUfdrn from one-fourth to one-thud of the gross produce and 
to their permanent tciiaut«i or tnuA^tmt^ui'A one-half the gross produce, 
becmao the latti;r are bound to pknt young treca in lieu of decayed 
oiv's and not to soU or transfer their right in thu garden laud to 






t*tt«r« r«Utiu2 t« EAtly lt«r«niM Adminutntiou, $i, SS. 



I Bomb* J 





Land TaimrM- 

JWwImK TiUofr- 

any Iml Ihoir laiullnrHs. It h not ciif<tOTntiry to demi 
additJotial anscsf^iiKiit fur a Scvf betel or pt-ppcr viiii'»! int 
with thi3 cocoa-ualms, bf«aus« it is siifficieiitiv known tlint t\ 
injure the productive i>ow<;t8 o£ the ti\*» tlicy ore eulftred' 
cmhrtwe. P«ppor and betelnat gardene are not awcMed in 
MU-ticuIor roonnor, hut pay according to the qiiiUity of tho 
field wil of which they are formed. They on; fotmd near the , 
of the Stihyrtdpis ant! are alnnist all cnltrvstod by the Inodloi 
fchemwlvi-3, luuBt of whom are Havig Brdlimttus. Wln-n an^ 
thean (fardena lapse to the Government they are rented nt one-i 
the estimated gross produce, or, if thai cannot Lu hai}. they 

fiveu away to the highest bidder. Hence it appears that the iniituttf 
iviMon of tliv groas produce of gardens iu MnlnlitLT Itetweeii Ik^ 
Oovermneiit and the cultivator \ft not found in Kiinam, wher^^J 
tt])«!cttic tux ou each tree or a fised gi'ound-roul is dciiiaudL'J M'itii<i^H 
reference to the produce of either. It i^ conjecturiLii tliul atxi^^ 
two-third-s of the propriftors of gardens below the SahyAiii^is pay 
t]iu laud asM)^»iuent and that the other one-third pay ujx>n 
trees. Before the introduction of the .turvcy settlement, and 
in uiisL-tllcd villages, the tenants' rent waa ordiiinrily calculated ' 
doulJe the Govcriitnent a^ses^ment- Owing to the revision of 
BaHeaaucnt this Hysteiu itt for the present at least not so coiumoT 
it fonncrly vos and the rent is nxeil oooording to the untnrT< ' 
the Miil oud otlicr cireuiUHtances. In eome parts of the dii^trict, 
|)articulai*ly in Hondvar, an agreement to dinde the prodt, 
called paltt, 13 common. The occupant provides the seed j 
aoinetinies the oxen and tooU, and an*r deducting the seed wit 
Miialt anxiuiit fur interest, the Imlance i.s divided either e«]nnlly or 
proportionn to which tJie occupant nnd tenant have agreed. 

From time imtncmorial kumri, that is the raising of raoi Elei 
corocano, br cutting and burning brushwood in the foi-cst? 
Howtng seeu among the otihcs, h&i been extensively carried on. Jt* 
l>eljcved that thiR forest tilings was never specifically allowM a& a 
right, but only as a tenipoi-ary privilege, and it cannot properly 
called a land tenure. But in nome o-state.t or varga there is an entry] 
kavtri asse»smcnt, which is often called ehint or standard asset 
on account of kumri korltiyu, that is a tax on the cutting of kti 
and on that ground and also becau-se some penuanent leases 
mulpallat mention kumri a-ssea-tnient, not only a right to f 
tilh4^ but property over large tracts of foreet-locid have 
claimed. Before 1822-23 the revenne from kumri ytaa entoi 
in the accouut^ under the head of motarpha or village taxes, Imt ia 
t^at year it wa.H directed to bo credited to land rerenue.^ ''^fl 
system of ausee»ing the tax varied in ditferent villages. In ROvBj 
places it was tinted at »o much for a couple, a man and a woman,' 
or so much for a man alone ; and in others oooording to the numlier 
of billhooks used iu clearing the biishwood in which catie it woa, 
always of the nature of a polT-tax. A* there wa« no reason to gi 
the prii-ilogo to any but the wild tribeswho know noother tut 

' iMiDvtMOtCooMdUtioB, dat*d llthOclobti 1822. 

nl guatog a livelihood, it appears at fiirsi sk^t diilicult to occouub 
f«r th* entry of frumW assi'^sniRnt in the hoTcHiigs of persons who 
hiv) olhur regularly cultivated laoi]. In 18A8 Ur. T'isncT wrote' 
Tlwrv i«' reason to doubt that the only <litforence between 
■^tine gbvenuucut humri ceas, sarfidr kumri korhnjii, antl thu kumrt 
ocas |jai<l hy re^lar hoUKn-s or raryiiiirg ooiisisO'il io the jpjvcrn- 
utcDt «r-i«s bi-iii^ levied direct from tlie lntvtrx cutters whili; the 
hul'lvrs' or vtir'jdiira' fcKVi-ri oe*s wan recovered by theiu from the 
kuuiri cutlers who either cieawd parts of the holders' laud or 
Wins oUierwise under his influence, on pajHng n specified sum as 

rof the demand on their estate-t. If thin in ho, the Rj'Btein of 
'inri a.s8es8ment from regular landholders was prohahly 
I <r the !i«ke of convenience. Whi.'n the country n*a» Ices 

iiLvowible than it now is, it would not Iv easy to ii^vy a poll-tax 
fri-.m fVf^ry fiumri ciittt-r and the mloption of the practice of uhing the 
n-,:tilar holder, a man of influence ii] the neighbourhood, as a medium 
for collecting the tax is intelligible. The destructive nature of 
JIt'ivki cultivation attracted the attention of the IlImlriLs Board of 
Iti-v.-nue, the Mjulras Government, and the Court of Directors. In 
IMd Mj. Blanc prohibited it in places from which timber could he 
iveniently exported or in which the reser\'ed kinds of timber 
BW.auddu-vctcd thutthocK who claimed a right tocultix*ute A'timn, 
■ucamtea kvmri asseasmcnt was entered in their holdings or estates, 
should Dot be allowed to exenn-te the right in such jilaces and that 
Uie assessment should lie romitt«d. In other parts of the forest 
■Uumri was to lie allowed only to an ext^'ut proportionate to the 
WMtvAiiient. In 1858 the principle was adopted of fettling the 
HjiK^t-.^xment with reference to the number of kumri cutters and 
allowing (Zm^ki, that is so much nroduce as i-epreaeute<l double the 
kumri assessnient entermt in the holding or var^, to audi holders as 
~ eld estatoswhich p^d a ^MniWaascosment.' In 1860 the Governnient 
itiivly forbad),! kamri in holdlngH, and extnndrd this onler to holders 
in'nt leases or mw/^iaHd*.* In unsettled villages the /tumri 
H- . .1 is still entered in tbc accoiuitn, hut the lunouni Ls always 

reiniitt^^l.' ffitniW is now reatrieted within tlie niirrowt'iit ponsible 
limits It is allowed only to thoau hillmun who at prcwui have no 
oUier means of livelihoou. The tax ia fixed at 2s. (ae. 1) the acre. 

Tbr revenue administration of the district is entrusted to an 

er .stvled Collector on a yearly pay varying from X2100 to 

B790 (its.2l,H00-Ks. 27,900). Tliis officer, who U ah*o the Chief 

strate and the executive head of the district, in helped in \ua 

. of gcmernl Rupei*\nsion by a staff of three asslstanta, of whom 

ro are covenanted servants and one is an uncovcnanted servant of 

>var[mient. Tha sanotionetl yearly salaries of the covenanted 

it« rajige from £600 to £1080 (Bs. 6000 ■ Ka 10,800), and that 

the uncovenantt-'d a-ssi.-stant is £060 (Ba. 9600). 

■For fiscsU and other administrative purposes th« lan<l8 under the 
{^Hectors charge are distributed over eight sub-divisions. All 



k.FUior,Ill.3athAug. I8.S3 {«». eS. 

•Mr.F(>ber,9l,30UiAiia. l8A8|Mn.20. 
< FtocMdine*, sard OcboW IWl. 


[Bombiiy Ouatt 









UiCM Aro CDtruated to the two covcnant^l awUtautn or ttmsiniiE' 
collector The fourth assistant styled tlic hcad-qoarter or huz^r 
ilepiity collector in entruste<l with the HUpe-n-ijrion of tim treaiury. 
These olScera are also assl^taut luoffiKtrates, and those of them vho 
have revenue chAr;ge of portions of tlie district havo, nndi-r the 
presidency of the Collector, the chief mann]£reiu(uit of the difftn-nl 
iulniini:>tratiTe bodies, local fund and municipal commitie«s. within 
tile liniit-H of their revenut* chargcfl. 

Under the eupcnision of the Collector and his umstanta iho 
revenue cliaigc of each fiscal division of the district is placed in 
t>io liandii of Ru officer .styled indnilatdllr. These ofBccn, who are 
also entrusted with magisterial powers, have yearly salarieH varyiog 
from £180 to £2*0 (lU. 1800 - Rs. 2400). Three of the fiscal 
Bub-JivUions, Hoiidvor YulMpur and Supa, contain each a p«U>j 
division or j>ef'i mahil uoder the charge of anofhcer styled mahi 
who, escept that lie hoci no treo.'^ary to superintend, exerciaea^ 
revenue and lua^i^isterial powers generally entrusted to a m&mlatd 
The ycatly pay of the tu4halkana voriGa from £72 toX&6 (Ra. 75 

Xu revenue and police matters the charge of the 1 257 Oovernmeu| 
villageA is entrusted to 942 hcodmcii, all of whom are stipcndii 
Of tliese 108 headmen perform r»?venae duties only and 74* 
entrusted with both revenue and police charges. The yearly pay i 
tlic headman dtpunds on tlii? amount of rvvcnue derived from Ilia 
village. It ^•aries from 10?. to £11 4«. (Ra 5 -Rs. 112) in stttU'd 
villages, the average ct'vt-nue reooipta of a settled village auioniiting 
to £72 {R.S. 720); and from l»t. IJd. to £12 (9 mim.-Rs. 120) in 
unsettle*! villages, the average revenue receipts of an miMetUed village 
amounting to £HS 2». (Ra. 881). Of £2187 2r |J. (Rs. 21,871-0-4), 
the total yearly charge on account of village headmen. £1501 11*. S^d, 
(lU 1,5,015-13-11) are debited to Laud Rt-Vi'uu*.- imd £685 10«. 3W: 
(Ra 6855-2-.5) to Police. Ko headmen are paid by grants of land. 

To keep tlie village acconnif, draw up utatiritics, and help tho 
villago headmen, there is a b<Kly of stipendiary village aceountanba 
or ahdnbhogt. The^iie men number 299 in all or about one occountnnt 
to every five villages, each charge containing on an average )7(j!i 
inhabitants and yielding an average yearly revenue of t'SJH Ha. 
(Rs. 3784). Tlieir yearly salaried, which arc poitl in cjusli, amount in 
settled villages, on an average to £13 lOs. (itn. 135) and vary friim 
£12 to £15 (IIa. 120- R& 15(1) ; in unsettled villages they averagn 
£11 8». (Rji. 114) and vary from £10 16». to£12 (Ks. lOS.Rs. 120). 
Thej represent a total yearly charge of £310S (R<(.31,020). Beaidoa 
the regular acconntants an extra e-stablishment of accountants is 
annually maintained to strengthen the regular staff pending tbe 
iiitrc>duction of the survey settlement into the un.settle<:l part* of tho 
district. At prcticnt (1882) about tive-eigbtfaH of the dititrict liavt 
been surveyed and settled. 

Under the headmen and the village accountants are the village 
servants witli a total strength of 4y2. These men are liable Ixith 
for revenue and police duties. Most of them are Ilindus. The tuUil 
yearly grant lor Uie support of this establuhment amouuta Ut 


ild95 124. (Ks. 19,936), being li (Hh. 40) on an average to ea(^ 
man. or a cost to each \Tllagc of £1 12», (Ra. IQ\ 

Tlnj ycdrly cost of tlie villugu ej»tiiblishiaent« may he thus 
sammari-eJ: Heailmon £2187 (lU 21,870), acconnlaiitH £;JI02 
UB*. 31.020) and aon-aaU* filfttHi (Rs. 19,960) nifUting a total of 
tJita (Rs- 72.8501. c-^iual to a charge of £5 !««. (lU JiS) a village, 
or (Fight p*r cent of the catirc lantl ruvcuue of the district 

Shuoq reports aru availahle for the sereDteen years ontUDcr 
1861-»2: J n 

Iq l86o-fttl the mias wore aoaAonablo and favourable both to 
no* aod ganlcn crops. Fever, djsontery. aod smoll-pox prevailed 
wrer most of ihe district; fovop chiefly above and dysentery below 
the Sahyadria. The land rovcDue rose from £fl2,837 to £76,222 ; 
and the rupee price of rice fell from fourteen to seveuteon pounda 

The season of 18G6-67 waa on the whole favoarable. The raing 
beguu irell ; in SuptombiT aod in October the fall was scanty, but 
tbc failing crops were aaved by an abumhiut aapply in Novembar. 
Pablic lioaUb was better than in previous years; cholera and fever 
dedined, though fever was still prevalent in Yelliipor aud Supa. 
Tha laod rewutiu foil frtim £75,222 tu £00,772, and the rupee 
prtoe of rico rose from eoveoteeu to sixtoou pouuds. 

In 1807-68 the rainfall was abundant and seasonable, the crops 
wertT richer and public health was better than in the previous year. 
Iceland revenue rose from £60,772 to £74,103; aod the rupee 
price of rice fell from sixteen to twenty-one pounds. 

Itt ldOS-ti9 thu rainfall was geuemlly favourablu, and tlio harvest 
fair. Poblic health coationou to improve, but cattle disease waa 
ganeral, and very fivtal. The land revenue rodo from £74',103 to 
£74,040 ; aud the rupee price of rice fell from tweutyooe to 
tweaty-two pounda. 

4al8tid-70 the early rainFnll was scanty; aud late raina in November 
and December, though abundant, were uutimuly and greatly damaged 
npe rice and cotton aud Co a letis extent injured Indian millet and 
gram. Fever was general and there were some cases of cholera, but 
pablic bciitch on the whole was good. There mie no great morality 
among cuttle. Tho land revenue fell from X7i,'.)46 to £72,231 ; and 
tlia rupee price of rice roae from twenty-two to seventeen pounds. 

Sxoept for rioo, tho scaaon of 1S70-71 was favourable. The fall 
to flw end of August was good ; in .September the supply was scanty. 
and in October it vraa heavy enough to cause much injnry to tho 
rice. Public health was better thnn in tho previous year. Tho 
olrief forms of disoose were fever, snuiU-]X)Xj aud bowel cumplainta. 
Osttle disease also appeared in some places. The land revenue rose 
from £72,231 to £7.%7&I, and the rupee price of rice (ell from 
Bevcnteen to twouty-five pounds. 

Id 1871-72 both above and below the Sahyddris the rainfall was 
modorMe, especially in Supa and Tell&pur. On the coast tho 
rain^l was irregular. The only sub-diviaion which received a full 
ND]>ply was Siddilpur. The season waa middling. Public health 

Chapter^ YHt 







IBombt}' Oi 


[ Chapter^ VIII. 

|Sm*ob Ho porta. 




tv&» gooG, and tlio amount of cattb disease w&ft niuderate. 
IsuJ revenae rose from £75^761 b> £80,921, and tliu rupee [irtoe 
rice rose from twouty-five to twenty-four puiinds. 

Thu season of 1872-73 was favourabia In June and Jaljr 
rainfall wns good and timely. A heavy fall in Auguflt Soodf^d the I 
rice lands nnd slightly injared the crops. But thi> waa follovroil 
regular and moderate mm and bbe liarroat was. better than it li 
been for ton yesiTK. Public henltli was good \ fever and u^ui» WQ| 
OQ tho ducliue. Cattle disease broke i>at in »<jme sub-divuioug. 
land revenue rose from £80,921 to £SI,.HO, and tho rupee price g{ 
rice fell irom tn-eaty-four to tweoty'six pounds. ' "^ 

Tliu Buaaon of ltt7S{-74 traa modorato. Tbo ruiu6il1 ynsak 
good, but there was a long* bnvik iu August, und though Inter on 
ftoaaou improved tho hur\-t^'at was light. Puvur.smikU-pox. dysoni 
andcattta disoase pi*evail{Nl throughout thu year. Thelund rev 
T090 from XSl^.HS* to is*^5 1, nnd the rup*o prioo of rioc renu 
imcbaugod at tweuty-Hix pounils. 

The aeasoD of 1874-75 waa fair. The rains, began in )fsy 
continued favourable till Antrust. After Anj^iu^t heavy rain dam. 
the luw-lying rice crttps. Fever, Rtaidl-poz. and cholera wero 
or lees prevalent. The land revenne rose from £81,25* to t" 
and the rupuu prioo oE rice fell from twenty-six Co twont 

Tho scoBou of 1875-7C was on the whole good. The raiua bei 
early in June, and were favourable, e»]»3ciiilly along the coa^t. Kxi 
iu oapa, tho crops wore above tho avcmgo. Fever and 
diseaae prevailed throngliout the district. »iuull-pox in porta uf ICum 
HoD&var and Yell&nur, and alight cholyra in KiirwAr, Siipa - 
TolWpnr. The h»nd revenue fell from £y9,0+3 to £«a.3S7 ; 
the rupee price of rico foil from twenty-eight to thirty pounds. 

The season of lS7(f-77,ono of tho great famine yoora in tbo Bom 
Karuatok OJid Maiaur. vraa fair ou tlio coast, indifferent in tho con 
of tho distriut, and bnd in thooiut bordering on Belgaam, Dbarwilr, 
and Mnisar. Thu riuu&iU began about thu lOth of Juno 
contiuQod abundant till tko ond of Jaly. la Angust it tcua ah 
and iu Heptcmbu-r and October it failed partially in Humo place* 
entirely iu ollinr^. The failure was greatest ia the easttiro v\" 
bordering on Belgaum, Dluirvrjir, and Muaur. (^ tho coast tho 
crops were comparatively good. A few milea along both Hidsa 
of the SahyAdria they were below tha average, and in tho naoet 
eastern villages the crops either entiruty or panially failed. Aa tho 
late rain failed, the cold wenthor crops wor« gonornlly poor, and i 
doriog the hot season water and fodder were scarce. Fever prevailed 
throughout the district, but oactle di^euao and small-pox woro lea^j 
fatal than in the previous year. Hscept in August, September, uq^l 


October cholera was general eftpocially iu the upland ^ub-divistoi 

n'as general eftpocially m tue upland ^ub-divistooflP 
The land rovenao fell from £Uii,3»7 to £dl.9Gi, and tho rupi>o 
price of rice rone fi-oio thirty to twenty-eight pouuda. 

The seoson of 1877'7S, tbo second of the great famine yean, 
on the whole favourable. The rainfall be^;aii at the end of ^ 

maA in Jnno was fiiir. In Jnly and onrly Angfost it failed, lut, in 
the l«tl«r part of Augiiai aod id SepteuiWr the fall n-a.s well-timed, 
ajifl contiDueci &o heavy that io Octobor some crops eaGFared from too 
mDch rain. Except in a few villa^s, the nee crops were good. 
Owing to the failure of rain in July, the garden produce was 
tielaw the averago ; heteloula did not yield more thaa half the 
aruragc, and rardamoniB and pepper almost entirely failed. Owing 
to the heavy rainfall in October, the cold weather crops were good. 
Duaths Wi're ahout forty-five per c:ent more than during the prcviona 
yew, partly owing to the excessive rain and partly to the oxtromo 
deamMH and scantineBS of grain. Both fever nud cholera noro 
wort! falsi than duriug tlie previouti year; on tho other hand thore 
was IcssmortAtityiunong cattle. The l&adrcvonuu fell from XS1,964 
to £81,^14, and the rupee price of rice rose from twenty-eight to 
twenty-two pouodx. 

In lb78-79 the rainWl was the heaviest on record (132'89 inches) 
aiul the rioe harvest was anueuatly fine. The gardens also profited, 
Mlduxc«pt crops on low-lying landfi which were sodden hy excessive 
moiitture the harcent was exceptionally good. Tho land revenue 
To«« from jC8],2H to X9S,CI6Q, and the rupee price of rioo rose from 
tweoly-two to eighteen pounds. 

Tlie harve*t of 1879-80 was below the nveraga Most o£ the 
eftrly sowiogs were washed out by heavy rain aod the later sow- 
ings were withered by a long enell of drought. In Aiigiist and 
Sptember tha rainfall was got'd Dot hardly made up for the former 
Mefl. Good lands scarcely prixliii-^d an average and the ywld in 
the uplands was poor. Garden landn suffered little. The dry aeason 
Ctvp sown in January and reaped in April was good ; but the cold 
VPMther or rabi crop was poor. The land revenue fell &om £93,950 
to £85,700 and the ropee price of rioe rose from eighteen to 
eevvnteeu pounds. 

tn 1880-8 1 the regular rainfall in June and July was followed by a 
blvak which lasted from tho second week in August to about the 
lOlh of September ; a timely fall of rain in September saved the 
erops, hnt ia the uplaoda the harvest was ecftoty. Tho rico crop 
was up to (be average; and the garden crops and sugarcane were 
good. The land revenue rose from £So,760 to £8t},0Sl}, and the 
nipee price uf rice fell from seventeen to twenty puuuda. 

In 1831-82^ except in Sirsi, the rainfall was below the average, 
but on the coa-st it was sntEcicnt and fteosonable. The open high 
hodit above the Bahy^dri» suffered from itcanty rain, but in other 
parti) the crops were good and the season was on the whole favour- 
able. Public health was good ; there was no cholera and loss fever 
than HKiul. lu the i>outh Ihore were eeuie caeos of Bmall-pox bnt 
only eleven proved fatal. The land revenue rotM} from £86,686 to 
£11)0,283, aad the rupee price of rice fell from twenty to tweutf- 
foor poonds. 

Chapter ' 


ScMoa Reporu. 





a W«-S« 

CbapUr IX. 


Ettir Acu. 



'For tlie four years ending 1803 no mfonnfltion is ax 
regarding the odiuiniatration of ju^UeK. Tlit-- prvaiubtv to 
Re^ilntion n.of 1802!^liow» that before January m02 no regnb 
tions wurc iu force. The CuUoctor ducided uio»i ci\il suits at ' 
discretion and made over mo^t petty land disputes to arbitratic 
In disti-icts where a permanent 3cttk*inent of the land asjMw 
ment wai inti"oduced, district or zilla comis were estftMi.->U 
under Madnwt Rt^gulation II. nf lH(i2. In I}iO:{, whim on Act 
the adiniiiiatratinn of criminal justice was introiluced, Etitctiona 
to 5}t of IlIadroH Rvgulatinn 11. of Mi(Ki, e-tnpowL-red the Collector 
exercise magisttriai funetion.t and sections 47 to 55 empowered 
to decide civil Huits. As the pormancnt Huttleinent wa» not appli 
to KiiuafA thfiso regulations were not tntnxliioed into tbc 
In 1807, under Regulation II. of ISlHJ, a dUtrict court wa*< 
Ii.*hoii nt HonAvttr witJi jiu-iadiction over South and North Kil 
In 1800 the district court wiw removal from Hoimvar to Mi _ 
In 1817. nnrlcr Madras Regulation IX. of 181G, tlie mogiiiter 
powers of the Di,strict Judgu were traoMfcrrud to tlie Collect 
and, under Madras Ri-jfulation X. of 18Hi, the District Judge waa 
^ven the powers of a criminal jiid^u for coininittin» certain caaea 
for trial hefore the circuit court, for tryinff ami ileciding petty caAsa- 
on their own authority, and for nassing scnt«nce not excwduijf tw 
years' imprisiinnimit. The Distnct Judge was subject totlie l'r«i~" 
oial and Circuit Court of Tcllicherri. 

Under Madras Rognktion IV. of 1802, a Provincial and Cii 
Court consisting of tnreo Judges was established at Tellicherri 
power to hear appeals from, and to decide on circuit criminal 
committed for trial by. thu District Judges of Kitnara and Malal 
To hear such cases, one of the throo Judgeis of the Provincial i 
Circuit Court left TeUJcherri for six montba every year for the di|^ 
tnctt north of TeHicherri, and, on his return, another Judge set 
for tlie remaining six months of the yeaj- for the district^ south ol 
Tellicherri. The Circuit Judge Ansitcd every district station ou hia 
way. In deciding cases he was helped by the kaji or Miiltanuuadjui 


' Frook mklMUlt toDpli&il by Mr. 8. H Ibgon, C.S. 

* Sikjgi Uoon) l9 tb* Bowd of Bv^-araa. December 1 300, pua^ 2, i. 

law officer of the Pi-ovinciaJ Court. At tfic closo of thft trial the 
JtaJC ffivv Uift opinion callL-d/u^tifi, aiicl. il'the Judj^e ajin*ed, docision 
was ffivtn on tnc spot. Cases in which the Circuit Judge ami tlie 
Jtrei'i'disajfrwHl were referred to the High Court or SaJar Faiydiri 
Aa^hit at Madras. 

In ISO", under Madras Regnlation XVI. of 1302. native coinmis- 
eiODors welt! nppointe«l in KAnara tu dvi^ide suitH rdattng to |Mrsonal 
property not exceeding £.S {Ks. 80) in value. Under Uadras 
Begulation \1I of 1801), the powers of the native coinmiMsiunem 
were extended to the heai-iiig of such suits uiuler £10 (R.s. 100) as 
were referred tn them by the Judjfy. In 1816, under Madraa 
Begulatioii VI. of 1816, native comiuissiouers gave place to district 
munsifi'. Under Madra^i Regulation IV. of 161(1, village mtinniyx 
were appointed with powers to decide suits relating to pci'sooal 
property of not more tlian £1 (R& 10) iu value, llie office of 
villas* muKgiff waa in most eases given to pulila or village hea<Irafln. 
Undi-r Hi^guuition V. of ISUi the villayc council or jKiuchiii/nt was 
a]>p<>itit4?d with power to decide suits referred to theui by the village 
mumifn i ttiul under Rcgulaliou VII. of 181G the di.i-trict council ot 
jnmehay'ii was appointed to decide suits referivd to tlieiu l>y the 
^JBArict munaiffii. Village and district cooncihi or pancha^ate con~ 
tinue<I iu Kitiiara, until the transfer of the district to Bomhay 
in 1862. In 1817, for North Kfinani including Kund^tpur, threo 
tmnniiiJfH. one each at Bhatkal Qokarn and Sirsi, were ^poiuted with 
power in decide suiti not exceeding £20 (Rs. 200). Betwtjen 1821 
and 182ii the Bhatkal muntiji' was removed to Honii%'ai-, and the 
Gokaru MUMxi^'to Ankola, and an additional mu-n»ij^ was appoint- 
ed for Yellipur. la 1827, under Madras Regulation I. of lti27, an 
BMiiatniit jud^e wa-s appointed at Uonitvar with juri^iction over 
Kuu'Upor, Hon^var, tCumta, Ankola, Sirsi, Sidd&pur, Yellapur, 
and Suna. The judge heard appc-als from the decisiona 
of the district mutmtfM, and, he^idL-s having criminal powers, heard 
original ciWl suits nut i;xceediug £500 (R.i. SOOO) in valuo. Appeals, 
from the deeixioiis of tho af»i»taiit Judge lay to the Disitrict Judge at. 
Uaiigulor. In 1827 ai(i(/«r-«in»n'*courtwa3 estuhliahcd at Houitvar. 
In 1830, under Madras Begulation VII. of 1827, a native judge was 

appointed at Sirsi with jUTL^diction over Sirsi, Siddinur, YcTlapur, 
and Supa. In 18:13, under Regulation III. of 1833, the juriKdictiou 
of Ihf mmnif:^ V&3 extended to suits of £100 (Rs. 1000) and that 
of th« sodor-umma to suits of £250 (Rs. 2500). Iu 183d a native 
ijVigeis coart was i^ulistituted for the ns-sistaut judge's court at 
Bim&var and, under Madras Act XXIV. of 18:10, the native judges 
al Sirtii and HonAvar were styled principal tadar'amint. 

In lft4'l, under Ha-lras Act VII. of ISi-.^, considerable changes were 
luwh; iti the judicial ailiuini.Htration. The oQices of the Provincial 
CircuitConrtatTeltichcrri.of the l)(.strict Judge at Mangalor, and of 
the two principal andjir'amiiui at Sirsi and Honivar were abolished ; 
North Kanara wau sepai'fited froiu South Kiilnara in judicial matters, 
and the ofiice.s of a Civil and Stswions Judge of the second class and 
oi & tnufli mulnr-amiii at Uon&var and of a sadar-ttnin at Sirsi 
Kenj e»tahli-slit'd. Uodar tliis arrangcnient the Collector aud bia, 

Chapter ZZ. 






Cluptar IX. 


CtU Saita. 


assislatil contiriTiod to perform magiefa^rial work. In IfifiS 
principal ftrrdar-nmtn was app<jlnt«^(l untler the Judguand a nuaat^ 
court at KumtA was sanctioneJ. In 1860, tho preaent North 
K^ara, with the suh-divtHion of KuiKUfmr, was nian« th« Hepumtv 
charge of a DUtrict Judge who held Ha court at Uonivar till 
1866. when the aiurt waj* rcmovwl to Kirwiir. In 1862. when 
North KAnara patHwJ to tlie Bomlmy Presidency, Ki 
continued to (onn port of South K&imr«. 

Of the strength of the judicial tttaffand the nuuih(;r of 
decided in K&nara the earlieitt avulable details are for 1862. 
that year the number of pivi! couitd was nine, tlie iiuiiiJitT of 
dispoeed of was 4'JO'), and the averajje duration of eoch suit wi 
five months. In 1670 th« number of courts was rcduoctl to" 
tih« number of »uttH disposed of was S4-6C, and the average duratic 
wa» throe moutKs and seven days. In 1874 the uuinher of cii 
courts wa8 ilve, the number of siut« had risen to 286ti, and 
averafje duration ha«l CuUcti to two months and twenty-oeven da^ 
In msO tile uumlier of civil courts woe tlvo, the snit^ niimWr 
2803. and the average duration waa two months and fifteen dayj 
At present (1681] Oio district is provided with a District Judge i 
four subordinate judge*. Of the four snb-judgM the first du 
sob-judge of KiLrw^, besides special juri.<^iction above XoOO 
(Rs. 5000) over the whole district, has ordinary juriadiction ovt; 
Kdrwilr, Ankola except the Kulenad tn'itjni m village-group. U 
ChinnApur village-group of Yellrtpur, and the charge of liie Saj 
roahAlkari ; the second ela^^ sub-judge of Kumta has charge OT^ 
Kuuita and til e Kulenail village group of Ankula;thc auVjndgB 
at Houdvar has cbarj;e o%'er Hon^var and the tltrcc inllAtfO'gnqt 
of Hiro-avattalige. Chikka-avattalige, and Hire-kode in SidihSpc 
and the sub-judge of Sirsi has charge of Slrai, Yellapur except t 
ChimiApor viU^e-group, tlie 8upa mfimUtdflr's division, and 
Siddiipur except the village groups of Hire-avnttalige, Chtkka- 
avattaligi;, and Hire-kode. The average diatoiice of the Kitrwilr_ 
court from its furthest tix villag^i) is sixty-nine mileR ; of the Sii 
court seventy miles ; of the Kumta court forty-one miles ; and of tl 
Hondvar court thirty-nine roilea 

During the twelve years ending 1881 the average number of suit 
decided wa* S776. During the six years imJing 1S75. the tot 
show alternate rises and fallg, the lowest total being 2+67 in 1870 
and the highest 3193 in 1873. For the next three years the 
returns show a contiauous fall from 3092 in 1875 to 2272 in 1878. 
In 1879 the total suddenly rose from 2272 in 1878 to 35S9 
an increase of nearly fiftv per cent; but in 1880 it again fell 
2806 or to pretty nc&i-ly the former level. In 1881 there wa« 
further fall to 2095, the lowest total during tJie whole twelve year 
Of the total numl»or of easej! decided, forty-one per cent have 
on an average been given against the defendant in his abiienc 
the lowest being thirty-two in J879 and the htgheet forty-five 
I87&. Except iu 1879. when there was an tmusual fall to thii 
two or nine per cent below the average, the proportion of o 
decided in this way showed slight variations from the Average, 

Ti» or foU being generally ono or two and at the tuoet four per 

XoMmi Kr.paH« Dttrtt*, IS70-1SSI. 











u» ... 
im ... ._ 
mi ... .^ 

IST» .. 


UTi , 

wr» ... _ 








vm -, 

IWM _. 

IWD ... 
IMO _, 

IVyal ,. 









Of contested cases, dui-ing this period of twelve years an averngo 
of S5'21 percent have Wuu decided fgr tho defcodant, the per- 
centage varying from 31-19 in 1873 to 16-63 in 1880, and tho 
nnmber keoping aWve 200 Utore aiid Udow 200 after 1878. In 
sixty or 2'86 j)er cent of the suits dt-cided in 18S1 the decree was 
execut4jd by putting the plaintiff in possuasion of the immovable 
pn»p«rty cmiiiied. The numbur of this class of ca»o« varied from 
108 out of 31St3 in 1873 to sixty out of 2095 in 3881. In 287,or 
IS' 09 per cent of the 18S1 decisions, decrees for money due ware 
ex(«ut«d by the attschment or sale of property. Of thoM 201 or 
9*59 jwr cent ware executed by the sale of immovable property 
and 86 or i'lO per cent by the sale of movable property. Tho 
mnnbcr of the attachments or tuklea of imraovablo propurty varied 
from 57! in l876to 201 in 1881, and of movable property from 155 
in 1876 to aixty-fivc in 1878. During the twelve yeans ending 1881 
Itic nnmlierof decrees executed by the arrest of debtors v&rieti from 
1 1 Is in 1873 to 380 in 1881. During thclirst five years the number 
roHu from 895 in 1870 to 1 058 in 1874, and after a sudden fall to 640 
in 1875, gi-adually dwiudU-d to 380 in 1881. The foUnwing table 
shows that during the Kume twelve years (1870 - 1881) the number 
of dril prisoners varied from thirty-fivo in 1875 to twelve in 1877 : 
Kdmra Citil PriMmera, tSTO- tSSl. 

















Mm .- ... ... 



^ ^ 


■ H- 













am ^ ^ ... 






Wi - 







ur* .. .„ ... 






m ::; : 







Wt -. 





»o ... 





an ., 







Tb* *w*mtr yriMMM* Id un *<M all modo*. 

*The followinff statameut bIiows in tabular form the working of 
the district civU courte during the twelve yean ending 1881 ; 

Chapter l£ 
Civil i 



i9oai1>ftjr 0U9t 


■ptor IZ. 


i^vU Suiu. 

ftU Caiue 



gd»ara CiM CovrO, IS70 ■ ISHJ. 


UKomKUi. ^ 

























1871 ,. „ 








iKia .. 











. IIH 












■W4 J 

UTH „ 








isn ... _ 







1J*« ' 

u» ._ .. 








I8» ,_ ^ 








ia» . . .- 















197 ft 






AttMhtMM M- aUt 







«t PMfMrlr. 












ura », „ 







SOS ' 


wn . ,., .. 









IBTi , „ _ 


















I»« ... ^ 









im ... _ 


















isn ... _ 









»»» ... _ 









I8W ... - 









IMO ... „ 









im ... » 









Tlicro ia no Small OiUiw Court iu Kdiiaro. Since OctoWr 1880 
sul)-juflgt.*8 of Honivttt and Kumta have bti?u given tlie powers 
a Hiiiull caxinc cuuii jud^ Iti Itit^L the uuiubcrof &\o.vXi cause suitn 
deciilwd, by them wa« 320. 

There ih no arbitration court in K^jiara. 

The work of Registration eirployH ten sub- registrars of vbom 
eifjbt are special omcers ami two are head clerka to miinlatddrs 
and mnhiilkariH. Tht! Kpocial .'^iib-registrars have been upjiuiated 
since April 1 882. One of these aab-regintrars is stationed &L oadi 
petty diviHiuiial and NubHii visional head-quarterH. In addition to tlie 
supcrrision of the Collector an District llegistrar and bis o&ustant 
and d<!imty collfct<)r». the .lub-reRistrarrt are «iibi(.f I to the control 
of the Inspector-tnjncriiJ of Registration sntl Stanipt. According 
to the regifitrsbion rt-porfc for lbSl-83tJic registration reci.*iptM for 
the year amounted to £1078 (Ra. lUJSO) and Hio charm?s to £787 
(R«.'7870) leaving a balance of £291 (R*». 2910). Of *I55. tho 
total niunLwr of re^Ktrationa, eighteen wens wills, 604 were dfioda 
relating to movable property, and iH73 wcro decda relattog to 
immovablo property. Ot the 3473 documents relating to immov. 
able property, in addition to 1448 misccUaneouii u»truiucut«t, 
eighteuD were deeds of ^t, 978 were deeds ot sale, and 1029 were 

jortgage deeds. Tfio regUu?red value of llie total immovable 
Jtoperty transfcn*cd was £101,7«* (Ks. 10,17,840). 

At present (Idt(3) twonty-six officers share tho admimstration 
of criiuiiial justice, 0/ tliese hix ar» longistratu!! of the first claas 
and twtuty of the 6««ouU and tliiixl classott. Of tbo magistratea 
of the first clow three arc covctianbct] Kurojic-au civilians, one 
is B Europoan uncovenantod cinlian, and tvto arc natives. The 
District Magistrate ba» a obmiral suiK-rv-tiuon of Uiu whole district, 
while each of the first clasa magistrutos, as lutsistaut or deputy 
collector, ha» an avurugc charge of 782 Miaarc iiiileK an<I 84,^tt 
pfiiplc. In 1S82 the first cIbss mnpstrfttcit decideil 227 original 
criminal ca^^^ and llfty'fourcriminurupiK.-al.'i. Thu nviTuge charge 
of the twenty second and thii-d clans mau;iat rates, all of whom are 
natives, is liJ5'5 sauare milcBWith a population of :2L.Ot)2. In 1^2 
ihcM mngistt-ates aecided 1327 original criminal cases. Besides their 
inagitit«rial duties thr^e officers exorcise revenue powers as mfimlat- 
dini or the head clerks of uiimlatddrs. Besides these, 714 polico 
jhUUs who also do rrvenue work, ait> entriwted with petty 
magi»U-rial jiowers nnder the Boni^iay Village I'olice Act (VIIJ. of 
1S07). Of the whole number, twenty-five, under section 13 of the 
Act, can in certain cases fine up to 10«. (Ra. h). The others undar 
section J 4 cannot tine and can imprison for only tweuby-four hours. 

There is no regular Village Police. The revenue hea<linan or 
patil, AS a rule, performs the duties of a police headman. A new 
revunui* head is appoinUtd on nrohation for six moutha or a year, 
and. when he is considered to have gained sufiicieut experience, la 
given a police deetl or ganad under the authority of the Diviitional 
Commissioner. Both in revenue and police duties the village 
headman in afMiiOrd hy the village watchmen, tiheUandis or uiilltia, 
and uffninin or nK-AsungerH. In villages wht-ru Hit.' Iieadman has no 
police-deed the ln-ailmun of a iivighhouring vilhigu looki< to the policd 
■work. The Superioteudent of Poliee has no power over the village 
police. The system of patrol hv tlio district polico ia carried on 
in the reguhit way. eacii poet Iiaving its appointeil area which ia 

Colled by the officoTs and men in charge of the post. The village 
Imon has no separate emoluments for bis police duticit. 

ITitt chief local ohstacles to the discovery of cnme and the 
coi)\'iction of ofienders ore the ditfictilt nature of the oouutry, iUt 
hills fnrcsti and hroa<l estuaries, and the neighbourhood of Uojk in 
the north and of Maisur in the south. Forgery and the fabricating 
of fal.i« documents are the characterwtic ciimcs of the higher 
claawa Crimea of viul»)ice are ram anit Kerinui agrarian offences are 
unknown. During the nc« harvest disputes com>tautly noise aboat 
the right to cut the crop. But the ground of dispute is possession 
and the quarrels do not lead to agrarian diatui-bance. Few if any 
crimes arise from the prwwure of creditors. Cases of professional 
poisoning are rare. 

There arc no an-^ettled hill or forest tribes. The low oU-hs 
Halepdik^ and Komiipilik.H, who wen: formerly bandits and gang- 
tobberw, have now taken to hiiabandry and in ordinary times are 
M» orderly as Kunbis. Thero arc few wandering triVtes except 

ChaptftT IZ 


CrimiMl CtMM 




itpter IZ. 

iiniaAl C'Umu. 


Latn)>«inta. The Lemb&niB or Vai^iria paus tlirongli Kitiara. 
cousidi'rable numliers during the fair aoaasm with their bulk 
canyingKrain from Belgaum aud Dli&nvir to the coast or to rii 
ports. Formerly they used to commit robberies ou their 
jounieyK, and the K]>eed witli which they movcJ and the neame 
of Mauur and Uoa oftcu provcntod the polico from br' 
offendem to ju.stici?. The district is at present free froui Laml 
depredations thoiiy;h other gang-robbers occasiooaUy comofrom Go* 
or Mui-sur aiid coiuinit oifvQcea m the district. 

In the year 1881 die total utrength of the district or regular. 
police force was 663. Of these, under the District Superintoat' 
two vrnrn AutKinlitiate officers, 105 inferior aubordfnate officers, 
6fi5 foot conHtablcti. Thu cost of maiutuinin}^ this force wan for 
6uperint.'iul.;iii a total yearly KiJury of £1200 (ILs. 12,000); for 
auDordiDfitc oflicen^ on ro^rly ^darics of not leas than £120 (Ra. 12C 
and thu iufirrior auboruinate olTicers on yearly mlaries of ]&& tt 
£120 (Ks. 1200), a total yearly cost of £2785 12*. (Ra. 27,W5fi) ; 
for the foot coiwlaUe-s a cost of £56(6 2*. (Rs. 66,461). Bosides 
nay u totul kujh of £2+0 (Rs. 2*00) was yearly Bllowed for 
horse and tnivdliuf;; ullowanccs of the Superintend i-iit ; £;J26 H 
(Rs, 32GS] for the pay and travelling allowances of Iuk mtaldixhtnc 
£241 Hi. (B&. iilti) for th« horse and travolUug allowances 
subordinate officers ; and £765 4«. (1^. 76.'!2} a year for contiugencic 
aud petty charges. Thus the total yearly cmt of maintaining tt 
police force amounted to£ll.'204i lis. (Rs. 1,12,047). On anareai. 
3910 Hi[iiare uiileti, and a population of 421,840, thewi figures gii 
one oonntable for overv of) siiuorc miles and 0S6 people and a co 
of £2 17<. Sid. (Rs. 2S-I0-G) to the squat« milu, or (I|rf. (H *».) i 
each head of the populatiou. Of tlictoULl strtmgth ofOf}^), esclusii 
of the Superintendent, thirteen, one officer aud twelv« men. were 
1881 employed as guards at district, central, or subsidiary jt 
»venty«nine, four of them officers and sevcnty-fivu men. we 
encaged us f^iards over treo-turie-'* and lock<up«, or as escorts 
pnaoners andtreasure ; 670, eiglity-fire of them officers and 485 m» 
were stationwl in town-s niunicipalities, and canton int-iits. Of 
whole number, exclwaivo of the Superintendent, 380 were provide 
with tire-ariuH and nine with HworuH or with swords and l>ator 
and 27'') were provided with batons only. 230, of whom fif ty-eigl 
were officers and 181 men, could read and write; and fifty-five, i 
whom four were officers and fifty-ono men, were under infitructioi 

Exccptthe Superintendent and one constable, who were Eui-opci 
the members of the police force were ali natives of India. Of th< 
thirty-six officers and 22S men were Muhammadans, twelve offic 
and sixteen men Briihnians, two officern Rajputs, fifty-fonroffit 
and 261 men Mar^th^, and two officers and forty-Sve mfl 

The police are recruited chieBy in the district^ and in Rotr 
and S&vantvMi, aud to a less extent from Belgaum^ Shirw^, 
and Maisur. Besides the local reeruiu there ore about half a dc 
Pardeshis from CawnporacdLucknow. Neorlyholf of the force 
RainAgiri and SAvantvidi Muhammadaus. 



Thii rctnnw for the ciglit years eniling ISSI show a total of 
tWrty niurrU'rH, thirty-.six ealpollc hoiuicides, tliii-ly-nirw aisus of 
(jn»!Voiis Imrt, 12+ gang niul other roljlit'ries. juh'I ]6,.'i77 otlior 
olIeiiceB. Dtiring tliusL- eiglit yi.-«rs the total nmnber of oftl-ocia 
gave B yearly average of lilOO or one oHence for every 200 of tbo 
pO|>u]ati<]n. The number of murdci')) varie<l from two in 1877 
and IfifiO to seven iii Ifi81 and avt-rogi-Hl four ; cuIpaMe homiciJea 
varied frnm two in 1 S75 to niii« in I8S0 ami avt'ttiited four ; cnaes of 
grievous hurt vurie^l from two in 1S7« antl 1870 to ten in IS75 
aii'l avcragpt] live ; fjaiiy; and otlicr i-ohlwrii-'s varied frotn pight in 
JS7I and IK75 to lliirty in 1S77 and avt-mgrd tiftccii ; and other 
utr.jiceM varied fixiiu 154* in 1674 to 2002 iu 187.S and avenigcd 
SO'2 or 9»'ti6 per cent of the whole. Of the whole Dumber of 
fKTsons Arrested tho convictions varied from thirty-six prr cent in 
1875 to Hixty-thrtw in 1877 and averaged fifty-lhroe per cent. The 
|..-ivriit»i}^i> of stolen ppjperty recjvcifd vai'iod from tliirty in 1879 
tu '-ixty-niiiH in lt?7->. Tbn details are : 

Kitwara Crime aMdt'olif., 1874- JS8I. 



OrMxcM A)i> Oaimctiam. I 

UiinlM and Attvonit 

(IridiDia Unit. 











i .-c a S c( 











a M 














H )« 



l-T* „ 











u w 



1 -' r m.^ 





1 M 








'■' ■ -, 










lOi s 













m, M 
































P VoUl ... 


















OrfTOia»*ai><JWTK:no»-<*«'*"»mI. j 

Other OAnon. 





























j» ■■ 
























tn i 




























































TnUI - 












BwddpR the lock-up at each mfiiidatditr'a ofBc*. there is a diatrict 

jail mt Kiirwrir. The iiutnlMsr of onnviets in tho KArwsir jail on the 

aUt nf Drcftiidier ISHl wi» niiiety-»ix. of wlioai ei«hty-ninc wore 

aud BKven fomalfs. Ouiiii^ the yvar 1882, lo5 convicts, of 

^.:. Ill I+IJ were maJcB and nine females, were admitt'.'d, aud 179 

Chapter XX. 



tEombay Os 



Ch>pt«r IX 



of wbom 167 wcK! mnlcs ftod twelve fcm&lcs, were di 
During tho year the daily average of pri»oo9is was ninety-6ve 
at ihv clot« of thu year the number of coiivicta wilh !Wventy-two, of 
whom sixty-eight were mnlos and four feiualcs. Of thusu tweuMd 
eight tatits weni sentcnc(.-d for not wore- than one ycai; tuste^H 
males and two femalet!i were for over one yt-ar and uot more tlia^^ 
two years ; nineteen males and one female were for more than two 
years and not uioi-o than five years; four male* and one femile 
wore for between five and ten years ; and one female was foe o' 
ten years. Tliere were no life-prisoners nor any convicts nni 
sentence of transportation. The daily average uumlxir of k 
was 2'1. During the yem* one prltouer died of IjowcI «iiiij»lai 
The total cost of diet was £170 {Rs. 1700) or an : 
£1 15«. 6d. (R& 17)) to cadi prisoner. The ducE jail iu<l. 
cane-work, weaving, and carpentry.* 

' DslaUa u« g^voi abow fi. 7A. 

, Ira 



The oarliost l>aJance-shc*t of tli© diiilrict as at prwMmt constituted 
bi for 166.1-64. Tliougli siitRo 18(111 tuauy account chanmis have 
l>«en nia^le, th« different itcnw can in mont cnsea l)c brongnt under 
corrvJipnutUii^ heads in the form now iu ujte. Exvluidve of £527 
(Rs. 5270), the adjiutmcDt on account of alienated lauds, the total 
Iraiwftctions cntertxl in tlic district IxJancc-shwl for 1881-82 
oHiitcd under receipt* to £261,590 (Rs. 2«, 15,900) against 
300.-22;t (R«. 30,02,5:10} in 186^-64. and under clioi-gt-a Ut £260,577 
IU. 26.05,770) against £318,396 (Ks. 31,33,960). Leaving aside 
inportmuntol misttOlant-ous rcctipU and payments in return for 
sorvicf« rendered such as post and telegraph rocciptft, the revenue 
for 1881-82 under all hwuLs. imperial, proviucJal, local, aiidnmnicipal. 
came to fU-S.OTS (Rs. 14.39.750),^ or on a population of +21,.S40 an 
iii'lividiial sliare of 6*. 9d. (Ra.Sj). Dtiriuf: the last twenty yrars 
the following changes have takcD place undtr the chief heads of 
receipts and charges. 

Land Revenue receipt^, which form 48'35 per cent of £207,400 
fR* 20.74.000). tilt entire revenue of the district, have ri.son from 
£0->,;i42 to £100.283 (He. C,5i).420-Ra, 10,02,830). The ilicreaae i:i 
cliielly due to the iutroduclion of rcvisL-il rat*is of tutsessmentsnnder 
tho xnrvey settlement. Land Rovenuo charges have risen from 
JE12.8«t to £18,332 (Ra.U8.lilO-RA 1.83.320). This is partly dne 
to tho increase in the number and salaries of revenue olBoers, and 
partly to tcui|K>rary chacguK iu connection witli the ruvimuo mirvejr 

Tito following utatenit-nt ^hows the land revenue collected in each 
of tlie twenty years ending the JJlst of March 1882 : 

Lajio SMVESVt, :SS£-C3 TO tSSlSS. 









tM»«S ... 
taa»M -. 

UM4B ... 
1MM9 ,. 

laam ... 



aa-» ... 
uea-« ... 
IMU-TO ... 
iwo-n .„ 
un-n -. 




tlT»M ... 

W74-:8 .. 
VftVSti .. 
WTfrTI ... 


18T7.T8 ... 
lB7l-7a ... ... 



StaupD ROoipts have nHen from X5757 to £G834 (Ra. &7.&70- 
lU 68.340) and nUmp expenditure from £183 to £226 (R& 1830- 

■ Tlxu tfiUl ii nude of th« foUaving Itemi : £131,444 Und rQvontw, (tempt, 
o«M, UKued UsM,TM{>ttation Mid edunlios: £10,346 Hi]t:aDd£ll,W3 local uid 
■Bii)ri«i»l luodf i total el4S,976. 

Chapter X. 

Revenua aad 

Diilrict BmUho 


[BoralwT Guei 

Cliapt«r X. 

evcaae and 



Ra. 2260), Thi; iiicrra.sp hh'Jit Utiii ImaJti ic owinjir to dutnjfte 
thf' Inw and ailminiirtnttion of llu- &t«ii>p ruvL-nu*-'. 

Excisi! n^>ij>tH have Hm-ii frotii tS137 Ui £l),l(i4 ^Rk.5I37 
Rs. 1.1 1.etO) Mid chargrs fit>ni £4 to £m7 (Its. 40 - Ba. fi370). * 
incronse in the excise n*vc>nti«> ih ]>«rtly duo to j^reater coinpctiti 
for (lii: liquor farnia aud partly to the imposition oF a AOpamtu Uu 
tax for the ri^hl to tap i-uc'jfUiut. hmb, and ItoKtonl Kiigo-|Mliii8. 

Thurp were in 1881-82 four lioeiwcd tUviia for llii- fuilmif Europ*'; 
and forvij^ii lifjtior, two at K^rwdr, an<l oiiu m eacli uf the towiu 
Koiutaaiid Sirii- Each jdmp paid a fen; of X-l {Rii.50). In 1381- 
thi.- amount ivalized on account of fees levied on shops came 

Th«? total revenue from the farms and tapping' fws was, id 1S81 
£l0.8(i0 (Kft.HiS.<J(K>), of -which OiGOb (l{8.»iC,050) wcro rooli 
from thu famis of 187 fhopa and X42'i5 (It4.4-2,5&0} represivatt'd 
tapping fi^'ca of 8265 trt^es. 

Ill tJ)o coAAt Hiibdinsions of K&rwAi'.Ankohi, Kumta. and H<m& 
country' lii|UoriM inanufactni'cl from cocoo-polni juice. In tli»'upt 
Bub-di visions of Snpn, YelUptir, airsi. and SiiliUljjur, liquor 
Dianufacturvd iiKutly From migarcano niolassc& or jd^i tlavoii! 
with tin.* l*ark of the btvra trin;. Toddy is drunk to a jtmall exfr 
in Siddapiir luul parts of Sirvii nii'l Supa where thi* fntini tnxw 
ba&tard nnf^-palni'*, C'aryota iin-ns, in the cvrrp-con forcsU 
tapufd. Thr uiauufncturu of liijuor from the camIkw fruit it. 
carriod on iu the coast «ijb-cli\-i»ioii.H, aiid f«>ui the llowcr of the *p; 
Bas8ia tatifulia, in Strsi. The quantity made from Ihv la<it t 
ROurccM is vcrj' Kniall and la nin«tly for niralicinal pur 
cHfthftw and l«i*<sia wine hcinjj use*! hotJi intcnially aod external 
in ca»vK of cold and of rhi'iimatin {MUtis. Tlu! U'lrknf the fmni ti 
which is n«e"l to flavour Iho lot-al niiii or MURni-cano -spirits, 
brought from Dliarw^ atvi nthi-r m-ighlKJuriiitr district**. Pal 
juice is drunk l>oth fitwli fcraii'uU.>d and diKtiUcd. Th** fi 
juice w also liuwlc into innla«M'A. Tlic cJiicf liquor-drinkinjj cl 
are ChristiaitK, Dahlia, (ludigani. KhArvia, Kh^idc- KliArv 
HaleplUkis. Pa^llis, Ai-erw, Goiijidikarfi, Cliaudhris, Kalalw, Waddn: 
Domliarii, Kalavants, and Mhars Chjuulihilni and other impi: 
clasMSi. The use <'f lifpior is uiailo to j-icUl rovvuut- in t\ro wa; 
Uceiim-'-s an; ^raiit^-'d to the uiakcm uml sellers of npiriLs and 
tdldy ; and liccn*OH arc jjrantcd to pcrMJUK who wisli to tap 
trees. 'Hic syatuio of luvyiiiy a ft-c on the making of spirits a 
toddy waH introduciHl in 1802-3 (Fugli 1212), wlivu Ni^rth 
South Kaimra formed one collcctorati-. The fann waa i^vcry yi 
aohl for fach division to tbc higlu>»(t bidder. The furniur buUt-t 
farm to dittt-rciit ptTsous aud fjavc them permits allowing Ih 
to mako and sl>11 spirits and toibly. In l^tll-lt2 farms vevn 
by the Maclraa Coviimmcnt for five years for each diviiui 
acparut<dy. In l&(i(i-ti7. when the five years' fann came to 
und, the syatem of selling each shop scpatatcly wo^ iiitrod 
ander tho Bombay laws and mlcs. At prftseat (1882) one liq 
shop 18 generally fixe<l for one largo vill^o or for a group 
baulctt), Olid the ri^Ul to sell t^iiits and tuudy ia each nhop, or 




vitfh p-onp, nr in c\wh ffli>(-<livisiim, accordinfj to circiimsjtflnoos, is 
wjIiJ I>v jjuljlic aiiHii'ii to ihv hi^ht-^t biJvier. A.s re^-unls Ui€ 
rcvfoul- from pftlin-tap|iing liovnaiH, U'foru AngUHt 1$<S0 uo fee was 
Ivvit-tl fur the ri^ht to tap. Every iierson was siipposod to liavo 
tltu prinlegR of tapping pftlm-treed on landit for which h« paid 
fuuv.s3iiii.'iit. 11i«re watt do rule aijaiuat using tlio iuico uf tiH-«c 
Irt'os for home purnost'.s, hut tlit: hoIiU-r could not give 
nwuy the juict; or wll it to any one hut a aphit Qiid Unidy 
farrncr. No t«ppiii" fcis was U'vic<l on linuor-yielding tr««» ou 
tiovi^fDmoiit londtt, of which thv commonest is the baini or boetard 
Migo-poliii which grows in large numbers in the cvci"ot«u 
forifHta or ftdns iu Sirai. The privilege of tapping wax sold by 
auction along with the privilrg« of gatheiing fruit, honej-, and 
othiT forvst pHMluoi- every year, and the jtroceeus were crwlited to 
(Vinst rcvcnHc hh the kdne Inring una.-uH'i^cd Onveruniunt waste 
ftinimd part of tlie i-eaune*! or protected forests. WHien llieM>fann8 
wvru l>ought hy any tK-rsou other than a litiuor-faiiuer, the 
purchaser oouUl uot xell nix »urplu»i palui-Juicn to any penton oxcept 
thu linuor- farmer, though ho could «*(? as lunch as he liked for his 
hiiuit-' coiuumptioik He was ahto forhidd«n to make .tpirits fi-om 
pa1tii-juie«! tHpp<^^ ill hK own InncL Under the new sjttteiii, which 
WB^ intHMhiced in August l!S80, uo tree may he tapped without 
a lieeriKe. No heens^c to tap is iHsucil for k'.ss tliaii t^n tr^^Tt. A 
linnttu to tup uiititlci the holdi-r to sell thtijuieu drown by him. 
whoUier fermented or unfermented, only at the foot of the tree. 
A tux tit the rate of 6». (IU. '3) for each trtxi licuuaed to hu tapped 
IK ti'vietl for cocoaniit ami brah trcffs and at the rate of 3r. (Hx. 1^) 
for tUt* ami luvntard sjigo-paliiis. Tliis tax in recoverahlc in three 
iitxlJiltiients. The priviU-ge of tapping tre«* on Ooveriinieut laiidii 
i.- fiiniii'd, and the laniiur L* re^juii-eil to pay the aiithonKi^^d tree- 
tax on the naml>er of trees tappi-i) in addition to the sum offered 
for the fiu-ni. The privilege to make spirits from imlm-juice and 
to Hell pnhn-juioe and spirits at »hops is snld, the Collector being 
ull(iwi>il discretion to sndl the shops Meparately^ or by milt-di^'iidon.s, 
or ia groups, an he luay find most advantageous, 

The only intoxicating drugs sold in the di<>tnct are ganja and 
bhtiiuj. Tliey arc imported from BellAri and othur parts of tho 
country al)f>ve thu Sahyndris. Tho nuuihcr of sliop«i Ucuni^ed to sull 
intoKieating drugs wa« fifteen and tlie revenue realiaied was £278 
fltn. S7bO). The consumption of qanja and hhang wa.s 8J tone 
(22N wii.m), hi 188I-S2 the t^ital nxcise revenue from nil sources 
wa.-^ CI 1,1 H4' ( Ra. 1 .1 1 ,('10) and the oOHt of establishment \n the same 
year was £637 (Its. 6a70>.' 

Law and Justice receipts have Fallen fix)ni £1(351 to X704 
(Bs. lO.MO-iU 7940), and cxpemUtui-e has risen fi-om XII.My to 
£13.ny (Ks.I,U,49tf.Bs.I.3l.l30). The rise in espen-liturv is due 
to an incrcftfto iu the pay of officers and eHtabliAliment. Tlie incivaee 
Ls al^ due to CIil- system under whieh a portion of the »alarii<K of the 
revenue establitdimcot is debited to the head of I^^w and JuiUico. 

Chapter X 

fievenac and 


■ ThiOM nguree hn^-e bneu t«kcu Ima tbo ISfll-dS Abk&H Rfi|»rt 

.Bvenne and 








Fore«t receipts have ri^en from £33,844 to £41,350 CBa. 
Rs, 4.18,500), and chiu-gea froiu £3222 to £24,327 (ft*. 
'Rts.2,i',i:2'iO). The incretuw ut charges is pai-tl}' due to the iticreaftcd 
strength of the forest establish meat. Mid partly to large expenditHr* 
on accouut of felling tiuiber, pUatiitg, aun'o^icg, demaroating, oad 
imd roajiI<making.' 

TtiQ followinfj table shows the amounts realixed frotu the diffe 
asMHaud tax«» loviod between I&6S ood 1862. Owiuj; to the var 
of rat«.<i and iucideuc« it is difficult to make tjiy aati^factoiT^ 
oompaii&on of the results : 











ft law* Tar. 






Littat Tmr. 




/■mMf Tow. 
l»«a-TO - 




IwnM* Tarn. 







CuHtoiiis and Salt ImvH fallen from £ill,:t3f] in £30.790 
Rs. 6,I3,3(iO-R8. 3,07,900). The decrease in the revenue is chiefl 
due to tlic abolition of tlie land customs aiid to the MiUititution 
the excise ny-itein in place of the monopoly ayi^lem for the sale _ 
salt. A loi;^ sum won aJ»o rcidizcd by Halo of salt in atorc at th 
end of 1863-C4. The increase in the ehatges from £1577 to 
£1722 (Rs. -16,770 -H«. 47^220) b due to the roviaioiiot the 



>li)iUry charges have Fallen from £7076 to £058 (Rs. 70,^ 
Bs.&t>80). This repi-cscnta paj'ment'i made on account of pciudo 
to retired soldiers. Thp Inrgf expenditure of £7076 (Rs.70,/60) i 
lUti3-G-l w%.s due to the i)i-eM^ncc of a military guard for the custody 
of convicts employed on public works. 

Postal receipt* have risen from £060 to £10,629 (Rs. 9600- 
Ba. 1,06.290), nnd charges from £745 to £38GG (Rs. 74^0- 
Bs. 88,660). The receipts and charges ahovn in the 1S81- 
halance-ahe^t, brides letters, books, and parcels, include 
received and paid nnder the money-onler system. The incresM 
the 1881-82 revenue is also due to the sale proceeds of eiervie 
stamps creditod to the postal department. 

Telegrapli receipts have risen from £70 to £800 (Ba. 700- _ 
Bfi. 8000), and charges from £65 to £807 (lls.650~Rs.8070). M 

Registration iu a new head. The 1881-82 receipts amoanted ta^^ 
£1009 (Rs. 10,990) and the expcndituro to £848 (R8.8480). 

Education receipts have risen from £-18 to £395 (Rs. 480- 
Rs. 3950)> and charges from £17 to £1311 (R». 170-Re. 13J101. 
The increase is chiefly due to the establishment of now English 

I Detail! m girui ia Pirt 1. pi(» 91. 

















I«Dll .^ .1. 

























PttlCtlll ^ _, 




iiifiirf TaxM 




MbodlUoMI.., » .. 



Uiwirwea* ... ,_ 




laMtwi ~ 




Cmmtm tai Orhm 

1 <1,SH 



KFGlMlutiol - . 


Hwtnc ~ ."^ 


RahtBda _. .., 






















BiKlttnUon . 



»»'lno .„ _ 





PtitiU" Wgrla.. 



blui3L1l.f» .., 






p..llrt ^ 



IH"t ... „ 




MdlDOl .» „, 


Port .„ 




Jkila ^ 

"■ n 


Tti»fnpti ... ,_ 



a«ota .>. „ 



UnbtfuOim ... M 




EduoulDn ... 
i^JI«> ... ._ 
HtdlMl . _. 






. TMll .. 







*■■■■ ■•■ lAI 




Truntjet tlrOM, 











hraUM rut^d 





QrkndToMl „ 


»/»« j 

UmJ Ptiniti 














Police charges have risen from £12,750 to £12,9*0 (Tk. 1,27,500- 
Ks. I,2H,490). The increase is duo to the reorgamzation of the 
policu force. 

Me«lifal charges have riwrn from £1883 to £2306 (Ra. 18,830- M«ticai 

B«. 23,060). 

Th« 1881-82 receipts £320 (Ri. 3200) ajjainst £71 (Ri. 710) in 
1803-154 represent the eai-nings of the Kilrwar jail. The chargea 
Imro fallen fiom £4172 to £9»7 (Ra.41,720.KN.9H70). 

Trati«f<;r receipts have fallen froio £110.510 to £48,920 
(Es. 11.05,100- !U, 4,86,700), ai»l transfer charges from £146,698 to 
£146.2211 (Rs. 14.Go,980-Ral4,i2,2tH)). 

Iq the foUowing balance-sheets foT 1863-64 and 1881-82 the &d»iM« 
figun-s shown in black type on bath sidi-s arc book atlJuKtaients. 1863-64 
On the receipt .-^ide the item £527 (Ra. 6270) represents the 
a<hlitit)ual reveuuf the district would yield had nunu of iU land Ixfcn 
aUcuated.' On the debit oidc the .saniu iteuw, uhonti undvr 
aliijwanoca and assignments, included £27(R5.270) tin: rental of 
laniis granted to the Bilgi RAni during her Uftitimc and £500 
{ Us. 5000), former grants continued to certain tcniples and mosquca 
for religious and charitable purpascs: 

K/fiTAitA Balascb SuBtrnt, lXS-64 A«a jSSt-Si. 



lfioinba.7 Qfli 



District tocol fiiiKlM liuv*; ItcL'ti Cdllcctutl aincn 1663 to promoU! 
niral (Klufliitioii 8U<1 supply rotuU, wi-lLi, rvst-Iiouaes, <li»|KMisarit's, 
and oUitT iiML-ful worltH. lu 1881-82 thu rectTi[>t« aiii" 
«l0,.i05 (!U 1, 05,050) miJ the L-xpfiuIitiirL' to £10,820 (Rs. 1 
The local fund rcwuuc is .lcnvo-1 from thrvc fiourc««, a spt-cnU f.i> 
of one-nixteimtli in ailditiou to tlio laiiil {ax. tho prooet-ilji of cwt-iin 
subordinate local fumU,and certain miKcollaneoiisitenuL In 1881-:ii 
the Hpvciid lutid cvtu, of which t'wo-Uiml:^ ate mi apart as a niad 
fund and thu test as a school fand, yichk-d a ix-vviiuu uf £5iJ!«5 
(Hs. 50,05(1). Tlie .subordinate fnuds. includinj;a toll fund, a frriy 
fund, a twUlu-pound fuiul, and a tschool-fee fund, yieldo*! A,2.'tSS 
(lU, 25,880). Govuniuieut and private t!uLncri|tti'>iL-> umouiiU^^I to 
£!8:)a (lU. 18,380); and miscellaneous rewji-ts, including ct-rUin 
itema of laud ruveiiuc, to i'iH'S (Us. 3SU0). Tnifi revenu« is a-lmiii- 
istenMl by district and huImU visional committees partly of of!ictnl 
and parth' of private incmlx>ra Tho diiitrict committeea eon^i-t 
of the Collw.'tor, the assistant am! deputy collector, the executive 
enginwr, and tlie e<lneation inspector a"* oHicial, and ihf proprii-trtr 
of an alii'iiated village and six landholders as non-otficial. iJU'nil»_'rN. 
Tli« Bub-divisioDftl committees consist of an assistant colinetor, 
the luiludatd&r. a public works officer, and the deputy eilucatiou 
inspc-ctor as official, and the pro])rii'U)r of an alionattHl village and 
UuTci landholdwra ift uoii-official, members. The ftub-divi clonal 
comniit(f*8 Itrin;,' their requin^nienta to tho notice of tho district 
con>niitti.'U who prepare the budget 

For afiminiM-ratire purposes the district local funtlw are divided 
into two sections, one set apart for puUic works, the otlitfr 
iufttructiou. The receipts and disburseuieut^durin^ the year 18S1- 

K^iTABA tocsi. Fcsog, ISSi-SS, 
VvDUt} Wvaiui. 




Atnnn nL 


Tofrlblnliuf UuidOiM 

Tull> ... 


Qtiar(> Ksn 

Tiital .. 






GMablnhDiMil *..,•■ 

Ko» Wnrhs ,., 


OMiUlbutlQo lu P. Tr.l>cniti<Hinl 


UiwellMNeiM „, 



(M J 






BitablUinwot .„ .,. 



HnboDl ChM(M ... 


tdiMi.fMmiid ... 


«M ' ' 

f OATvmincqit 

OoiiitrtlniUeti4 UuDMiai 


SotMol-hoinca, Kvi* 







1 UixMlIuMDOa 




BbIum ... 








Sinoe 1863 the followuif; local fund worka have been esTriod 
oui To improve cotninuiiications 761 miii'-s of rond witJi eighth-six 
bridi;^ and cnlvert^ bav« been eitlit'r made, cleared, or rop^rcd, 
and portions planted with treea To improve tlie wat«r-»upply. 
109 wells and HiKty-one poudo have been uuide or repaii-ed. To 
help >'ilia^ instruction, thirty-six ach<»ol«, and. For the comfort of 
travfllefK, lifty-ftve rwit-housys liave been either built or repiurcd. 
Besides theae works nine dtHpt^nsArifw, Forty cattle-pouDds, twenty* 
fire stBj^ng bungiJow», and tliirty-iiv» iui<iceUaneDU£ public works 
havo beea made and repaired. 

In I88I-H2. under the proviaioas of the Bombay District 
Muiiicipa.1 Act XT. of 3S73. there were five town raunicii>«JititM eacli 
admin ic(t<:rt;d b}- a boly of commt-s^ioacrs with the Collector as 
president and the assi.itant or deputy collector in charge of the 
sub-divisioa as vice-president. In 1881 -SS the distiict mnnieip&l 
revenue amounted to £3822 (Rs. 38,220), of which £1833 
CRa, 18.330) were recovered from octroi dues, £727 (Rs. 7270) 
from, £255 (Rs. 2660) from toll and wheel Uxws, £320 
(Ba. aaOlt) from aswesscd taxe.t, and £687 (Rs. 6870) from 
mucflllaneouB aources. 

Tlie following statement gives for each mnnicipallty the receipts, 
ehorgesi, and incidence of taxation during the year ending the 3Ist 
BUrcb of 1882 : 













Kkrmtt .. 

Knott ... 



tin Jaw IMr.. 
1*1 AprU U70. 

OKb JlMldl IS6t 





















1 a 

t 4 

Tl»*l . 






ui stm 

KJHAttA MvxiCtPXL Details, /*?;-&?— «ontiBned. 





















Klfwir ... _. 


















Ootom . . ... 








BIB* „ 









TM>I ... 
















Bevenae and 

Local Fand*. 



^^pt«r XI. 

IBB) -1883. 







In 18fil-82 ihore were 113 Government sclioola or nn avei 
Olio tichool for every ton inhnliited villa^t'Sj witli diiyit iiiiute^ 
rolU aD(l an avcra$;c att«u(laiice oi 4742 pnpiLt, or 8 02 |)vr cobt^ 
54,9G2. tlic uialc population iKitwcun mx and fuurtven yeura ol 

In IStiO-^l under the Director of Public Instruction nnd Edoa 
tional liispcctin- Southeni Division, the education of the district 
coiiduttt'd l>y a local statf 217 atrong. Of these, one was a da 
edocationai ia-iiMsttor wilh giim;rul cYiarge over all the schooU' 
district, drawuig a yearly ]Miy of £180 (Rs. 1800). and th« 
masters and aK»tKtunt iitasierH witli yearly salaries rau^ig 
£3 12*. to £180 (IU36-RS. 1800). 

or 104, the total number of flovernment schools, in seventy -Bi| 
EAnarew only vna tau|;ht. in ten Hidustllni, ia five llindii-*<tA)ii 
Kiluare«o, in five MarAthi, and in the reuiainiug rfx both Eugli 
and Kftnareae. Of the seventr<£igbt lUuare»iM!hools four wer« ' 
girls and seventy-four for boys. 

Excluding superintendence charges, the total expenditure 
account of thu^e schools amounted b) £417G (Hh. 41,7t)0) of wt 
£1410 (Rs. U, 1 00) were paid by Govemtnent, and £2766 (Rs. 27.6t 
from lo«al and other funds. 

Besides Uovcriimi-iit .scJhkiIh, there were twn primary nchc 
in.<p«!ted by the Kduojitioiial Di-jwrtmeiit, of wliicli one is ail 
lo the jail and the other to the police hood-quortera. There 
no private schools aided by Guvenuuetit. 

Before Goveminerit took the education of the dixtrict under tl 
core every large villar;e Iia<I a school, kept ^■nerally by a Shi 
Bifibman anii attended by lioyn undi-r tifteen. Tbe?*« prii 
ischoola suffered ^eatly by the introduction of state educatiim. 
18S0-£1 only eight rvmalnod with an attendiince estimatetl'l 
ft-bout 150 pupil«. As a rule the teachers of private achoolsarei 
who have fuilcd in othor einployuienbt. Though poorly trmi 
tliey liavo nn excellent 8y«tA?m of teaching reckoning tHbUw or 
TyVi/ru'* and the elementary rules of anthnietic. Their ttaching of 
readiuL* and HTiting is less suecesaful. Tliey have nn *L\ed fees.aud 
depoDif on what the parents a»d guardians ore inclined to pay. In 
addition to theii- fees they levy hui&II contributions onee a lorttiight 
ajid receive occasional presents. The entrance fee which is olfenxJ 
to the teacher in the name of Sara'svali, th« gotldesx of learning, 
varies from Sd. (2 a*) inlhe case of the poor to 2i», (Re. I ) in the cam 
of the well-to-do. When a boy has finished liLs lii-st or ujulnt course, 
and 19 ready to write uu paper, the U'aetier receives \\4. to'ix. (Irmna- 
Jl«.1). Such of the parents aa are friendly to tlie teacher otavs 



picjbuxl with their cMIJrcu's progress, on Dasara, Divall, or on some 
other great holiijay, or ou a throa'i-^^trdiDg or othur iiuportaiit family 
ccrcrauny, prusvnt the master with coah or a turban or n pair of waist- 
cloths. Vitom those limited sources of incomv a private teacher nmkos 
£8 to £12 (Ra. &0-Rs. 120) a year. B(>,v» of nix to «ight are tauj^ht 
rwkoniug tahles. Thvy tht^u learn to writu hy lI'acin^ luttwrs ou a 
sanilc'i board and by writing characters with wet ohalk or khadi on 
a htack board. TIa-y seldom It-arn to wril« -kv]\, hut mental ariih- 
mctic 13 taught to pcrfoctioii, and this part of their ttochiiig has bocn 
adopt«!ii iu Ooveniment achoiils. Tho bo^*:* go to tcmplts or restr 
hotWM fiharmjiMfat whoro tho schools arc hekL The position of 
the masters, aiid Uie religious tilemeiit iu some of their teaching, help 
them in their competition witti the purely secular instnictioii given 
in Uoveriiuidnb t^chuolfi. Tho course of tttudy in i\nx^ ^chook is aoou 
finished, and boyg gonewiiJy leave thm- teachers before they ara 

In 1S65.66 th«r« were elfiveii Oovernmeut schools in tho district 
with 830 nomca on the rolls ; of these threu were second grade Anglo- 
vernacular schoolM and the rest vt^macular sdiouls. Thu lintt tbree 
Government Anglo-vernnculrtr schools wcro opened at HaliyAI.Sirsi, 
and Kiimts, and the tirst Urdu school was DpuDetl at HaJiyitl. In 
180G-67 the miml>or ro3« to thirty schooU with 1714 namo-a on the 
rolls and an avcnige attendance of 133-1. pupiU Iu 1867-68 the 
DUnilx>r of sclmoU ro»o to forty-fivo, the nnmlwr of names on the 
rolU to 2100, an<l the average attendance to ltil7. Iu lt<4j8-()9 the 
numlser of schools had risen to fifty-five. In 1871-72 thei-o were 
flixty-six schools. 2845 naiDCti on the rolU, and an average 
at tt-n. lance of 2234. Out of the sixty-six schools six were 
^glo-vei-naculor schooU, two vnvxt Ui-du schools, and five were 

girU' ttchooU. In 1872-73 the number of schools rose to seventy, 
le names on the rolls to 3231, and the avcrngo attendance to 
3365. In 1874-7fl the number of schools rose to eighty-six, the 
fiAmea on the rolLi to 3970, and the average attemlance to 271H. 
During the next four years (1874 • IHTS), there was no increase tn 
the nuiuIxT uf NchoiU, but the immeK nn the rolls rose to 44f31. In 
1579-80 the nuinlxT of schools ixw«i to nine-ty-slN, tiie names on tho 
tolls to 41176, and the average attendance to 35d!<. In 1880-61 there 
were 103 schools with 63:^3 names on the rolla and an average 

, attendance of 4505 pupils. Compared with 18(I5-fi6 the retunw for 
1880-81 give an increase in the number of schools from eleven to 
103. and iu the nnnica on the rolls from 830 to (i32g. 

Bi'foiv lS(J5-lj(j there wore uo girls' schools in tho district. In 
18G0-(j7 two girls' sciioohi were opened at Kumtaand Sirsi with forty- 
five name-s on the rolls and an aviirage alt«ndancD of forty-five. In 

, 18C7-68 the number of girls' KchooN rose to four with 181 names on 
thu rolls and an average attendance o£ ninety-eight. Four years 
later, in JS71-72, the number of Kchools rose to five with 195 names 
and an average attendance of 117. In 1872-73, when one of the 
five schools was closed for want of siilhcicnt attendance, there were 
179 names and un average att-endance of 123. In 1880-61 the 
ouiub(;r of four ftchool?; hodnot increased, but the names ro^cto SOS- 
Sad Uie average attendance to H?. 

Chapter XT. 

In (traction. 




Chapter XL 





The 1881 cenms Tctnrns give for the ohipf raeeo of the AU 
UiH following pronortiun of porsona al)l*t to read ami writu. 
382.097, ihc total Hindu poputation. 6207 (miUcs .ilt»0, fc^^ 
217) or 1-62 per cent b«low fifteea and 1138 (males 1112. fe 
26) or 0'29 per cent almvo lifteen wcro under inslroction ; BOJ 
(malts 756. feraaiea 53) or 0-21 per cent below fifteen and 17,*"**' 
(Wttlwt 17,149, femaJvs 1V8) or 452 p«r cent al»ve fift«oii i 
in8trucU;d; 131.525 {males (J5;330, females GG.IOS) or :J4-31 
cent below fiftwn and 226,091 (males II 2.007. femalrs U.'l.^ 
or SB-OS per cent abov« lifteen were illiterate. Of 24;2S2, th« 
MusbIuiAu population, 58G (""Jes 533, females 53) or 2'4I pt:r 
below liftecu and 140 (males 132, females 8) or 057 per ct-nt 
6ft««n were under iustruction; 63 (maloH 55. females 8) or 025 
cent below fifteen and 1232 (males 1197, females 35) or 5-07 
cent above ftftccn were instructed; 8673 (males 4321, for 
4852) or 3571 pc-r cent Ix-luw fifteen and 13.688 (inuIeM GO! 
females 7518) or 551*& per cent above fifteen were ilUtcrMe. ' 
14,509 Christiana, 261 (males 2S3. feuialet 48) or 1^3 pet 
below fifteen, and 45 (males 40, feraalos 5) or O'Sl p« cent al 
fi^Aen were under instruction ; 20 (males 17, fomalea 3) or 0-13 
c«nt below fifteen and 512 (males 452, femal«B 60) or 3'd2 per < 
above lifteen weru iustnirted; and 5127 (males SSiSO, females 2501 
or 35'32 per cent Kiclow Bfteen and 8524 (males 4550, feraalea, 
or 53*74 per cent above fifteen were illiioroto : 

£jiS2AJ SavcATtos BsTUBjr, 1881. 




CnmuxL . 







tinder tiutniotioo^ 


B*10ir tIKwn 







Abon UMWI 





- H 


IiutRiiibd' - 








Abot* AfUM 















Abort OIlMB 













Before 1806-67, no returns wet-e prepared arranging tlio poi^ 
aocordinc to ra«o and rcli^on. The following statement bho^F 
that of the two chief races thu Hindus have the^rger proport toa ot 
their boys and girls under inatroction : ""^^^ 

Pupiu BrJUvx, tS6G-e7 Ajm tSSOSt. 







ToW ... 












Of 6037, the total numl*r of papiU in Government schools at tha ClUkptnr 
end of December ls81, 2290 or 38*6 percent werr BrAhm»ni; iintreo 
&07 or 8'6 por cent tradL-i-». mclutiiug 318 Liuj^iijats, and 61 
Jftios ; 1022 or 16*32 per ctnt cultivatore; 451 or 7^ I>er c*nt 
ntisAOs; o44 or 901 per cvnt tfcrvaot classoa; sixty-nine low 
CMtes; 181 or *2-0 per cent other HinHus; 712 or 117 per cfiat 
UutialmAna; 244 nr ^71 ]>cr cent Christiniu ; and seven Jews ; and 
one Parsi, Of 224, tlie total number of girls enrollwl in 181*0-81 
in the fonr girU' schools, 202 or {)0-17 pisr cent were Hindos, two 
were Mosaliniiui, and twenty Others. 

The t'ollowiujj tftblea prepared irom special returns fumishod by SebooU,' 

the Bducotional Ue[>artm«iit show in detail the number of aciioola iM4-i88I 

and papilii with their cost to Ooverumeut : 

KXfAKA SoaooL RsTUKts, JftSS-ee, IS7S-74, xm ISSO^J, 


Hi^iiii ■ 

PL'ms. 1 






ie»-T«.l U»04L 



tan-7i. iKMi. 

■l|hwlM>«l .. -. 


ABg[o.nTDWui«r ... 

IbUl .. 






























FCVUt— (dhMiuaI. 













Bt^tAttt ... ^. 
Aiflo-twikr ... 

ToUl . 






























Cmv na P<:tiL. 




18ei«l. 1 ISTtJl. 


Bl|ti (dMOl ... 

BkflUhMlMK.1 ... 

Aacto-T«nMmlu -. 
Totel ... 


It. >nd4.. 


ft tini 

4">* H 

1 IU| 
1 4 M 

M S t 

« 1 I 

au t 

« tsu 






^^^^" (Bombaj 0«c 


^^ 2U 



diftptar XL 


JC^jTdJU ffcffoo^ fXfffKxr, lSeS$S, JtTS-74, Am iSSO-^Z-^ontitmad. 



Rmrnm. ^^| 


IhmMpkOtte. ^B 



iMMi. tm-14. 











£ ^H 


KIlhwhMl „ 









ftiStWi Bheol 










Aoflo-nnwnilu ... 







IbUl ... 
















w I J 



Rsciins— MnHMi«<. ^^H 


P«a. T«W. ^1 





liSML U«M*.' isn-Tt. 




C. «. < 









HIibHaool .. ... 







- .' 




logUab Mtwul 











laal»4«naralar ... 






. - 




T.iUt . 


4 1 






N» 4 1 



4 sj n 





Kit 4 1 







SctibUnliltK ^H 


isn-rt. i»»o«i. 




■ ST3-7*. 


OcWrnMi t. 


















^^^^^^^^H| ' 












AdVlo-TMBMIltftr .. 





























Om* to 



OOTDfvcntnt. ^^1 



i$so«. taot-«a. 















BISh WhMil 








blXlbk KlIMl 











AmrlfhTMiuciihir .. 



























41 W 






A coiupflrison of tlic present (1881-82) provisioii for tcadiiug the 
town and Uie couutiy populatioQ givos the following result : 

Id K4rw^ there were ten Oov'crnmcnt schools with Qii'd namco 
BDi! au svorage attetiiJnitct: tiF ulx>ut (y'A'A. Of ilic ion OoveiTinieut 
sdtools three were Kdnaruw schools; three wcro M&riUhi Hchoolg, 
two for boys anrl one for girls ; two were Urdu tschooU ; one was a 
J&il School ; and on« a PoHcu school. The avonigo yeai-Iy t-ost to 
each pupil WA9 Q*. 2)</. (1U tt-l-8) ia the Mar&tlii schooU. Ma. fid 
(Ra 8-12.0)111 thf girW school. 6*. 41J. (Rs. 3-3-0) in the Urdu 
echools, and o*. Wid. (K». 2-15-8) iu the Eiiuareao schoola. 

In Ankola there were two Govciiiincnt schoola with 167 names 
and an avemge attendance uf 13^. 0£ tlio two xchooLs one was a 
Kanarese school and the othi:r an Urdu school. The avera;^t; yearly 
cost for each pupil in the KiUuij-hw school waM 9«. 3|d. (IU. •1-10-3) 
and in the Urdu school U 'M. (lis. 2-10-0). 

Iu Ktuiita thei'e were foar Qovoniuient schools with 449 namea 
and an average attendance of 315. Of these four schools three wore 
for boys and one for girls. The average yearly coat for each pnpil 
in the hoys' schools was &s. 8J. (IU. 4-i-4} and in the girU' school 
12*.7Srf. (Ra(}-5-I). 

In Hoodvar there were two GovKmment schools for boyn with 1 9S 
names and an average attendance of 150. The average yearly corft 
to each pupil was 3». lOJA (R3. 4-7-3], 

In Bhatkal there were two Uovemment schools with 202 namen 
and an average attendance of l*j3. Of the two schools one tauglit 
Kdoarescand the other Urdu. The average yearly coi^ltocach pupil 
in the K^arese school was 8». d^t^ (Rs. 4-0-4) and in the Urdu 
school 7ir.5td.(R3. 3-11-9). 

la Sidditpur there was one Kdnai-cse school for boys witli seventy 
nauiex aud au average attendance of thirty*!ieven. The average 
yearly cost to each pupil was 10*. 9jrf. (Rs. 5-6-4). 

In Sirdi there were four Government schools with 341 names 
and au uvci'age att«-ndunci; of 2(^2 piipiK Of the four schooKi one 
was a second grade Anglo- vernacular school, one an Urdu school, 
iKod two Were R^nare:ic schools one for hoyn and one for girU. The 



OMi t^-^wMimtd. 



0Uh> Fund*. 



imii. is*Mt. 









AnclOTtnaailK _ 
1 Boyi* ., 

OMU ... 







a «^ d. 
• 11 






<*. It. 




MM t» 









4ar IS 






[Banbay Omit 



town SchMJa. 

I Scboob. 


average yearly cast for each pupil in Uio second cnide 
veraacukr nchool vroi Vis. |<J. (tU. 6-8-7), in the UnlaadxMl 1S«. 
(lU 0-1-0). in the Rdnarese boys' 6s. 2^f. (Rn 3-1-11) and ia 
girls' school 12«. 8Jrf. (R*. 6-5-6). 

In YclWpuf tbcro was only onoGoTCmmcnt KAdatcw school U 
boys, with eighty-llvu namus, aiiJ an avei-age attendance of fo 
five, Tlic yoarly cost to ouch pnpil was [+*. 'i\d. (Rs. 7-2-2). 

In Haliyal there were three Government schools with 8S 
oamea and an average attendance of 200. Of the t)in.-c !tcht>obi on< 
was a seoood grade Anglo-vernacular nchool, ohl' an Urdu >%hc 
and one a girls' ttchool. llie averago yearly <,*oHt to each pupil iu I 
second grade Anglo-vernacular school waai I«. &1({.(R& 6-11-^), inl 
Urdu »cIuM>l 9a. ^d. (Ka. i>tf>5), and in the girLs' school )2«. If 
(Ka. 6-6-11). 

RxchiRivi? of tile nine towns of KArwir, Anlcolo, KiimtA, Iloaif 
Bhfitkal, SiddApur. Sirfsi, YellApnr. ajid tlaliyil, the dt^drict 
Kftnara %vft3 providin! with fwventy-four nchixils or an iivnragu of asi 
school for every fifteen inhabited vilta^^ Tlie following statvuw 
ahows the distribution of these schools by suh-divisions : 



















BMcUpnr ... 











In 1880-Sl, there wero four libraries one each at Kiirwftr, Sii 
Kunita, and Ualiyiil. Thu K^m-flr Oeiiural Library and ^Fii.s«un 
was founded in May IS64. In 1880-81 it containod 1701} bool 
with thirby>cigl)t inombcn whiMt- monthly subscriptions vatiud 
1 1^ to 6a. (8 a«. - Rb. 3). llie Siral Ocnural Library was founded H 
July 1870, In 1880-81 it contaiiidl 300 bmlwand bad forty iiu-ndw 
whose monthly suWriptiotiH varli-d from Gd. to -is. (•!««. -R^. 21 
The Kmnttt Native Oi:nf:ral Library was fouudtnl before lS7o. 
1880-81 it contuiiivd 1 50 buuk^.aud had twenty-five members whc 
monthly .-iubsflriptions varied from J«. to 4*. (8 a*. - Rs. 2). "~ 
Haliy^ Library contained sixty books with a few subacribers 
paid fur by tbp mAmlntcUr. 

No newspaper vt publiidi^ iu the dietrict. 




CoMPAiUED with the noif^hbouring districts of Belgaum and 
DhAm'iLr, KAitara i.s urilu^althy. Jn apite ofauavonigu rain fat! of 
130 inchL>^ thv coast !>ul>-tltvitiivai) are more healthy than Uie fureat- 
ooverefl uplands. Of the fc^iMrish inland tnictii ttiu valleys of the 
KAliita^li and itjt trihutarieit hxk p«>riiaps tlio lucMt unhealthy. 
Throui^houfc the district, tispt^riaJly above the SuhyAdriH, the two 
raost iiuliealthy seasons of Uie yeiu- are June and July the first two 
raiuy mouths, tuid the four cool mouths ft'om November to February. 

The moet prevalent disease is remittent and intermittent fever. 
In ISOl Buchanan noticed that about 1750, and af^n in 1800, many 
people had fUed of fever in North Kiinara. It waa like onlinory 
fever for three days, tht'n the patit>nt became delirious, and died on 
the ftfth day.' About 1830 tever prevailed to some extent iu the 
uplandx ; Init from I8:)5 to 1K60 tho farent-coveml uplands wcro 
healthy at all times of the year, and fever was as little known as iu 
Belgaum or DhArwir.' For about eight years betwpen lAGO and 
1867 KSnara suffered severely from aw outbreak of fever. The 
people hflioved that the fever was due to the flowering of the 
Lomboo^i which takes plnco about onoe in fifty yean*. According 
to the Sanifcory Oomroifwioner, Dr, Leith, who was deputed by the 
Bomljay Government to invRxtigate the oulbn^ak, the fever was 
somctimcd remittent, but mostly intermittent o£ tho unual daily, 
third day, and fourth day types.' Many of tlio hospital admiKsions 
were relapde cases, almost all with enlargement of the Bpk-en. In 
Homu cases wli«re there had boon little or no fevtr, tlierp was 
swelling of the spleen, and in several cases of children tho swelling 
was enormous. In protracted cases theii* whs great wart m 
blood and often tlropsy. The fever was occasionally complicated 
with ili&rrhnsL In all these points tho disease resembled the usual 
malarious intermittent fever. The fever attacks were readily 
checkLt) by trratmeiit, bnt there was a grent tendency to relapse, 
which was natural so lung as the person continued in the malarious 
locality. The outbreak began in 1860. It abated in 1861 ; but 
in 18)i2 auain incrBiiseil in severity. The epidemic spread over 
the whole district ; the only places free or little aflcctod were Tadri, 



) BadMoan'i MyMte. II[. 10S. 

■ Colonal AndentNi'B Snivry Report. ]54af Snl February 1^2, para. S. 
*Dr. Liilk*iTopoi[r»phiiwl aad Sanitary Keport ga North Kiiior*, lOth Palrnary 

» 81<— 28 




Cbsf ter XII. 




Kunita, Bon&v&r. and Bhatkal oo the sca-coost. In the Q[ 
no jt\act: (vscajN-d tliw ilin^asu and it was nearly equftlly ftevere 
all tlif suli-divisions. From tliu cases that eamu nmler his ol 
tiuii Dr. Lvitit fouiid lliat on t1i» tuica<x-<ni!i sciiisUj oiid (iiu 
Iwariii^ ahi ur Tormiimlin toiiiHalosa fwrcst, ilie ratitj of Kick 
2^'G ; Ouit on trap rock or argUlaccoos schist beai-in^ vSa 
t«ttk fori^sl. it watt H'E) ; aud that ou ihe laterite nenr cho Sar 
covered with hirpi or Strobilanthua, it was 33'7. The circuujfet 
fiKist favtiuniUc to the pruductioa of fever were tlpnsH forest, 
valluys.ra vinos, aud swiuiipy riw-land. In ltt6* Uie ellVcL'i of thct 
break of fever wrn; .so severe tliat in blie aplaiid.s many \illage«a| 
towns wan) desolate, At Sim tliv (kwi biinlt-rwi the tnius '" 
of bu»iiu-ss, and m-YL-rid iiuttvu inercliaiit^ who ho'I livi^d tln'ra: 
years left thi? plac« to escape the aickuesH. At Sirai ihu fever 
accoinpaiiiod bj' cholera. At Ualiv^ the fever raged so vtolc 
tlwt the towu was almost destfrteil' Few people wore skwii in 
atretics, and those few, iu Diso coses out of teo, were gaunt i 
hoUow^yed. Fifty to a hundi-«l hou<w« were entirely di-si'rt*d, 
people either 400*1 or tl*J. Uan^iiomo new hou-^cs w«ro falLIug 
aeeay liefore llu-y had lieon iidiabited or even tinishitl. Srai-eelj 
houac but had its sick and dying, Tho outbreak iaste*! for 
years, the fever ri;hixiug only during thu hob motiihiL^ The m< 
eating classes suUered Toss Inau tho rest In conoectiou with 
outlirirak it i>i »'ortliy of note that apart fnitn the Ktati.'rtks i 
diiwa^ie there is a ifeiieral belief ainonjf the intelli^c'nt people of' 
district that outbreaks of ttmall-po.\, cholem, and fitver 
perioil it-ally imd in ord<?r.' After an outbreak of fever.tlinngJi onlioi 
fovcT Is alwaj-g prevalent, there i» cenerally a lull of two or 
yean*. Before 1860 small-pox raced furioufily in nuiny porta 
the district. U wa.s followed by cholora. and, while cholera contini 
sinall-pox dlraost disappeared. Shortly after cholera died awiiy , 
fever of the woi-st type broke out. Alter tin? fevyr liad spei 
there wa.s a hit! for .-^ome years and then sniall-pox ap[ 
wan fatal Ivftworrn 1S72 ami 1874. For two yeai-s more small-t 
eontiijued thoujjh witli lerw severity, till, in 197*1-77, in the 
of faiiiiue cholera broke out and small-pox disappeared. In 11 
cholera i^avo place to violent fever, which has since continued md 
than usually fatal though mnch less fatal than in 1878,^ 

In lftS2, there v/bs ony ci^il hospital, aud neveu grant-in-aid aij| 
on« Government dispensaries. The number of ^tients treated fni 
34,692, of whom 33,803 were out-door and 889 in-door patients : 
cost was £S 1 m (Rs. 21^80). The following detoila are taken 
the 1832 reports : 

The K£rw^ civil hospital ha» a building of its own. Tho 
commonest diseases are uialariou-i fevem, syphilis, aQectioD.<) of U^^ 
brcathiog Ryutem, liowel complaints, rjiWu, and iikiu diHeftHCi!!!. |^H 
1S82 there was no epidemic disease. Lleven major operations amH 

' The Police Supcrititon^Ient Mr. CmnpWI's Aiary, 171h J»uum7 I8M, 
* C«Uw*l Auiiftrauti'* 8un'«T BvfArl, IM «4 3H F«bnMi7 1872, pww, P. M. 
■ Ur. A, R. >U««lt>iui]d, cM. * CainpoR lh« Duntli i{«tum« at p. 23?. 



bis aftcr-dcaUi examinations were made, and fifty-fonr pnmary Chapter Zni' 
Mid wight 1-e-vacciiia.tionH wen* pcrfortiu-d. 5iJit:J out-door and 375 Health. 

In-door patients were treated at a cost of £S62 10«. (Ba. 86S5). 

Tbo XumtA dispeusai-y was openod in 1807 by tho tuuDicipolity, 
and has a good buiMiiig of its owii. Tho comuioitt^^t diseases aro AVmM, 

malrti-ious fevei-s, worms, skin diseases, affoctioai of the bmuUiiiie 
Bj"st»!ni, rheUDiatism, and syphiUs, Thcro wan a mild epidemic oi 
amall-po.t m April May awl June, iu which of fiftwa cases two 
proven fataJ. There were tJiirty-eicht major opei'ations and 298 
aucceswfnl vaccinations. 6010 out-d-x>r and 13tf in-door patients 
were tieaU-.! at a cost of £+04 (Rs. 4040). 

The Hoiidvar dispensary isio a [lurttua of the old sub-judge's coori- lf»uU>ar4 

ItOltM. The prcvading lUduasC'd arc malariou« fever, rheumatisni, 
aflcctiouA of the hi^e^hing nystem, iKiwel vomnlainta, and Hkin 
diseasi'3. Thorp was no epidemic. The nutoticr of cnildren vaccinated 
van »«vi:nty-(tix. fl+Sf) oul-tluor and forty.four in-door patients 
were trt'ttted at a coat of Jb72 8*. (Rs. 724). 

The Supa dispensary vrtut established in 1866. It haa a 
building 01 its ou-u. and is support«il fruiu local fundN. Tim 
prftvjiiling disfascs arc malarious fevfi-s. skin diseases, and bowel 
com plaints. In 1882 thcix- was no epidtmie. Only sixteen children 
wore vnocinnloii. IS.W out-<ioor an<i ttiiixy-six in-door patients 
were trcatwl at a cost of JC104 1*8. (Ra 1047). 

The Haliydl dispensary wa>i opened in 1863, and has a bnllding HaKydt. 

ofitaown.* It is sopportcH by the municipality. The commonest 
*ItMr»L«t>j( nre tnalai'ioti.H fovtirs, nllcctions uf thr htfatliing .system, 
bowel (complaints, and tkin diseasi-M. 128 children wer^c vact^iniited, 
and 3:173 ontnloor and twenty-one in-door patients were treated at 
a cost of Zm 8*. f Rs. i)«4). 

The YelWpnr dispensaiy was opene<I in 1S63, and is suppoi-ted TdUpKr, 

from Incal funds. It lias a building of its own. The pn.*vailing 
(Iisen.«i.*8 are uialarioa!^ fevers, bowel complaints,, and skin disoases. 
Twenty -two peraous wei'c vaccinated and 2441 out-door and ninety- 
two in-door patients were treated at a cost of £157 4« (Rs. 1572). 

'nw Sirsi dispensary ia support^J by tho municipality. It is Sini. 

held iu a building of iis own. The commonest diacaaca are 
malariooB fevers, worms, Bkiu diseases, syphilis, and bowel 
complaints. In 1K.S2 there waano epidumic. Seventy-two children 
were vaccinated, and 6523 oul-door and sevonty-nino in-door 
patients were treated at a cost of £311 14*. (IU 3117). 

The SitldApur dispensarj' was opened in 1873, and is supported Stditar 

from local funds. It has a building of its own. The commonest 

diaeaaes are molaiious fevers, inteistinal worms, skin di^eaaea, 

*iomt of the breathing system, and rheumatism. 2:136 out-tloor 

forty-foui' in-door patients were treated at a coat of £110 10». 


The MondfTod Oovcmntent dispeniiary was established in l864r. Mtndo 

lb has a building of ita own. The chief diseases are malarious 
fevent, rh(>uiiiati.'<m, syphilis, and aflections of the breathing syntetD, 
bowel coHiplainta, intestinal worms, ulcers, and -skin diseases. 


iuJinti P«oplB. 






There was no epidemic. 2190 oiit-door and sixty-two in-do 
pstienta were treated at a cost of £78 12*. (Its. 7!W)l 

According to the 18S1 constis f^Sl persons (malce 4iC4>, fenulf* 
307) or 0"I9 iK^rccut of the pcipulu-titm wt-rt iiiimii. Of the UiUl 
numbur, 741 (nuitu^t 420, females 321) weri} Ultulus, SS (tiiuti»$Bt 
fciualea 29) MusiUiiii!iti.'«, and 32 (inul<r» 15, rnmalcs 17} Cliri^tiou- 
Of 831. tho total uuiuUt of inliroi iwrsontt, ys (luales 00 r,' 
32) or 1179 pvr cent were oi unbound udnd, \¥i9 (ti. 
females 165} or 38'oO per cent were blind. So9 (males 207, t<jiiiHi>-< 
152) or 43'20 per ceut wei-u dt-af and duinb, and 54 (taal^s 3t, 
fetnaltw 18) or 6'4!) per cent were lepen. The details are : 








XatkL. \ 









Wnd ■■■ .. .- 

litr*n ,- ... ^ 

TMkI .. 























In 1882-83, under the suptTvision of the deputy saDitarr 
commissi oner, the work of vacctimtton was carried on by t" 
vaccinators with yearly ualarios varying from £16 I6«. to £2H 
(Ra. ItlM-R*. 288). Tliey were di.stribul«d over the ruriil 
of the district. Besidus the vaccinators the medical otBcers oi 
dispensaries carried on vaccine oparatioDH. The total number i 
p*r*wns vaccinated was 12,034. besides fi.t2 re-vaccinated com| 
Willi (Jo7I) priinar)- vaccinations in 1869-70. 

The following statement shows tho aex, religion, and age 
persons primarily vaccinated ; 

Ka^xamjl VAcctMAfttm Details. ISC9-70 4n> IMtSX 


■■uWdt TuTIKITUl 
















latB-to ... 









In 1882^, the total cost of thewe operation*!, exclusive of Uionw 
performed in dispCBsaries, was £682 8«. (Ra. 6824) or abont la. 3ltL 
(lOJ fu.) for each successful ca-w. The chargea included the 
following items : Superviaon and inspection. £322 U (Km. 3222) ; 
eatahlishment. £348 18*. (Ra. 3489); and contingt'iiciLM £11 da. 
(Rs. 1*3). Of these the supervisiug and inspecting charges wer« 
met from Oovemuient provincial fumU. while £360 4*. (Ra. 3S02) 
were borne by the local fundu of the different sub-divisions. 




V Three formn of caiUe diMAse are known In the district' : Idtp-og or 
foot-(liscn«'. n>aJiiimg or great disoage, and dtsndnrog or tliruat- 
dl-wnAe, The Uignig or foot-diseasp is geuerally first visilile in tie 
lower part of the feet, which ilecays if capo be not taken. Sores are 
found in the feet between the toi'S. and aoiiictimra one of the hoofs 
fall-* off. and large maggots nr«» frfonentiy found in th« soi-es. This 
foot-dbH.'ti»e in accompRitied with ulcers iu th<; moiitli, and the whole 
body i« !*oinetiraes aHWrt^l with soiv.n. In oi-dinary attAcks tho 
snitual lives for a week or two. Tbc disease which is caJled, 
mahdrog or gi-eat di.seaAe ia usually accompaniwl with dinrrhnoa 
or watery purging and for a dav or two lipittle flows from tho 
animal's mouth. 'The stftniach dries and the animal !>eeomes very 
thin. The dLsifiase lasts a fnrtniyht or three weeks, and ib Reneially 
fatal lothcdisease known a.siV(fn(2urcN;ortbroaL-diaeaH« the aniiunl's 
neck swell.'* ; it appears in much diatresa aod rofiues food and wattr. 
Th« dideatie lants his or seven days and tnHs fatally unless strong 
rumcdics arc taken. 

The total iiutuher of deatljM shown in the Sanitary Comrtussioner's 
yearly repnrte, for the wvi-nti-en yean* mdinj 1882, is 195,259 or 
M) avprajfe luurtaJity of 1 1,480, or, aceordiug to the 1381 ccnstia, of 
kweoty-soven per tliou.sand of the population, Of the svorsge 
nuiulN'r of deatliH tifJOtS ur 5751 per cent were returned oh due to 
fevers. 9 17 or 276 per cent to cholera. 237 or 2*00 per c«nt to small* 
pox, 9S0 or 8'Ul per eent to bowt-1 eninpliiints. and :li57 or 27'49 per 
cent to mi«cellaueotis diseasea. Deaths from violentx- or i»juric« 
averaged 2IH or TflO per c^nt of tht- avMragH mortality. During 
the twelve years enrling H82 th.- numlter of biiths wo3 roturnoa 
at l3S,l>iHj, or an average yearly birth ratt^ of 1 1.508. or, according 
to the 1881 cettsiis, twenty-seven per thousand. An examination of 
the returns shows that fever wliich during the seventeen years 
Ctntcd an average yearly mortality wf CyOli or 57*51 per cent 
vas helow the average in twrlvi; years and above the average in 
thetivcynai-sendiiii; ISal. Three years. ISOG, lgtJ8, and 187S. had 
less than 5i>W deaths, the lowest total being 4825 in 1873 ; six 
years. I8(i7, ISGO, 1S70, 1871, 1872, and 1874, hwl betweeji 5000 
and eyOO deaths; and three yeare, 1875, U7<&, and 1832, between 
(iUOO and 7u00 dL-atlu. Of the Ave }'cara above the average 1880 
Wl 7181 deaths, 1881 had 7244, 1870 had 8867, 1877 had 10,6G2, 
aud 1878. the year of eicuasive rainfall (132-89 inches). 11.5*2. Of 
tho deaths from eholvra, wbieh amounted to 5390 and avcrogod 
317. 2804 or 52-02 per cent happened in 1S77 The only other years 
which were over the avoroffe were, 1876 with 929 deaths, 1866 with 
859. and 1869 with 531. in none of the other years were there 
mow than 100 deaths and seven yyars, 1871, 1872, 1873, 187't. 1878, 
1880. and 18S2, were free from cholera. Of the deatlts from small- 
pox, which nmount':>d t*i 4021 and averiigt?*! 237. 1170 or 2909 per 
cent happenett in 1872. Besides 1872 five y^'iu-s had a more thou 
average mortalitv from dniall-pox. 1871 with 702, 1877 with 473, 
1S73 with 43S. 1870 with 329, and 1871 with 284. Six years hod 


Chapter ZU. 




> GoUMtor'i LoU«r 2316 ot Sth ScpteuUr WOk 




lo88thanahun.]ml, IStiT. 1803. 1869,1876,1678. mul lSS2,nii<Uhre 
years Iiail lens thru tcu, 1^79 wltli mglit> lui'l ISHu an<l iHtsI vit 
one each. Of the deatlix fitim bowel complainbi, which nmtMint 
to 11i,160 or 950 a year, eleven y&ut^ were below tlie average, 
six, the nix years ending 1879, ircrc above the average, 
sxaallest number of deaUui from bowel cotiipUunts in any one of 
■eventeen years waa 547 in 1867 an<i tlu^ Urgust wus 2:iiri in 1*77^ 
Injuries, with a total mortality of 8723 and an averagu of ill 
varied from I6Jt in 18«<) to 30+ in 1KI}6. Other cauiwiwith a tot 
mortality of 5:1,670 and an average mortality of 'tI157 varied 
5015 in 1877 to 1350 in lS(i6. 

Birth return.^ are available only for the twelve years t-ndhif; 188! 
Purinjf those tWfK-i' years th" num'ior of birth* avoraged II^C 
Tlic yearlv totals vary from a lowest of W057 in 1S76 to a higboit < 
13,204 in'1881. The dutaiUare': 


DKATta, zaoc 




























IMS .... - 








IW ... .~ „ 








wn ._ ... „ 








un ^ ._ _ 

• H 








UII ..1 ..4 » 








im _ .- - 








UT4 „ 

















UN ... 







11, m 


vn ... 




sat II 





UTS -. 



11, IMS 






tm ~. 




10(11 . tM 




ttW .. 









MSI ... 









ToUl ... 























U-ifO ' 

■ ThiM* fignfM KTc ol doulrtfol Monncf. 



Kafwar,' in tlie extreme nortli-frest of the district is boiiDded on 
tho north \>y Goa »nd Kupa, on the cost hy Ankola and TettApur, 
en ihu south b^ Aokola, and un the weat hy the Arabian sea. 

It contains sixty -one villagoa vltb an area of 281 sqnaro miles, a 
IMpnhitioD of 47,742 or 170 to the square mile, and a yearly land 
reveuiieof j:11.071 (R*. 1,10,710) ■ 

Tli(>re is n coast line of (>ii];htvou miles. IvOukiDg north from the 
rooky outstanding brow of Karwar houd, a strotch of sand {ringed 
■with CRSuartna ti-ees runs thre^ mitcH from KArwAr town to Kodib&g. 
£a8t of the atrip oE saod lies a plain with patches of rice-land and 
cocoa pnlm!i and maugoe gardens each with its red>tiled hntnextead. 
Behind, from a ruggwd background of granite hills, coTOred with 
forest and rich andergrowtb, apurs swuup forward almost encircling- 
KiPwiiPj and passing on lose themselvea in the sea. Beyond 
Kodihjig winds the broad Kitlinodi which, as it entora tbo sea. throws 
np a bar of sand impiuisable to any hut sinalt craft. To the north 
of the Kaliniwli etanda thu fort of Sadashivgad, and, from 
Sadaahivgad, about two uiilea tu Majali, a fishing vilkge near the 
Goa frontif!r, stretches a sandy shore green to tho water's edge with 
cocoa palms. Along both banks oE die Kifliuudi broad belts of 
rice land, broken by groves of palms and other fruit trcct), stretch 
east to where the Sahyddris cloKe the view. To the west ia tbo 
light-house island of Ucrgad, and about four miles south-east, Anjidir 
risen steep from the <%•», dotted with trees and the housoa uf its xmatl 
Portuguese aottloment. To the south-east the line of tho coaijt is 
broken by several large buys. It is fringed hy a n&rruw belt of 
ooltivatod sandy soil fnim which hero and there cliiTti ritte and form 
& plateau orer which thu Arliail ]>ass road rnns and which risea 
(MStwarda in a series of hilla to the Kaiga section of the SabyAdris. 

Ou the plain the soil is sandy, and near the bills it is much mixed 
with granite. On the banks of the Kdlinadi and along the aea- 
aboro ore hirgc trnots of gojni land, a black alluvial deposit strongly 

Sab Oivisioiu. 



■ 1%« nctimu an ufMct, aoJI, climate, utd VKt«T have bcca contributed by Mr. 
B. K. C»dy. C. 8. 

* A» tho wtinU •lialrict ku not bMB mu'v«yo(1 (nb-dtvuiMt (l«t«ils «{ tho Ar«a of tbo 
diffnMHt -t~rTT of loil uid of enps u« Dot srukhla. 

■ Un nlMUvUon poiralatiaa and r«T«gnw tlgtum are thmugliont for 1981. 




BVDi visions. 


chargCFil with salt antl Liable to be flooded at high tides. To bring 
these gajni lamia under tilta^ a stroug nail roust be bailt to ken 
oat tbo sea. A heavy nuofuU i* wanted to Hweet^n the land wid 
thoa, without mach maDuro, if duo cara is takdD and the aeason * 
fuvouralilu, ri«;U erops aru ralnoiL These reclamatioDK are costly 
thejr pay if once in three years a good crop is secnred. Many 
plots of hill land tie waste fnim want of laooar. 

K&rw&r has a moist climate wliose warmth is tempered by Ui« 
sea hrueze. It ia nerer col J. Fever ia rare oo thu coa»t, but, a 
Boon as the hills begin, ihu torcot damp caoeea ague aiid ffver. iS 
K^rwdr un the coant during' thu ton years endiag 1879 thu rain 
varied from 780 inches ia 1873 to 19273 inches in 187B, 
averaged 116'ti inches. 

A.loug the ooa»t all the vrtAer is from wcUa and id good. IdT 
8l]bo the welU yield good water, bat, exci>pt on the ooaat, wells am 
few and the chief aiip|ily is from the uuwholesomo water of llic 
nuniorous streams. The KiUnadi crosses the sub-division from (^*t 
to west It enters from the aortband flows between forest-cuv- 
banks, along a bed of wcky boulders, in alieroate streams and jkhjIs- 
Fiirther west, with many a curve, it pasae«i out of tbo foreat and 
winds across an open tract with villages and 6elds, the vill;^o» at 
first scattered and poor, than larger niul bettor tilled. At Kadrn, 
about twenty miles from the sea, the limit of the tide, is a laniliog- 
place connected with the Bombsy-Karn^tak road tlirough tiio Aiuhi 
pasa which is fit for carts. 

The north of Ktirwur has uuiie of tho befdnui gardens, the pride 
of Kdnara, the haiuliwDrk of tliu Uavt}; Bribmana, who have nut here 
takuu thepUcuuFtLu le^SHkilful Konkads, Qhadis, Hitlukki-Vnkkal-s 
andPadtis. Throughout the sub-divisiontbe villagosare nut gatherod 
into atroots with bouses, ehups, and markotii. The houses art 
scattered along narrow laue^s, Htauding in shady cocoa palm gar< 
eomo of thcia tiled and tsomc of thorn thatched, each with ita 
bathing-place, and vattte-shed. Heri' and there is a well ba 
t«mple, and a few vill^fos have a Uomun Catholic church. 

According to the IS81-82 retnrns the farm stock inclnded 4 
plooghs, 1*2 cartfl, 7766 bullocks, 642.1 cowa, 1791 she-bafbloeoi 
3729 he-bu:ffaloes, 38 horses, and 232 sheep and goats. 

The whole sixty-one villages of KirwAr were settled' bofr 
1868-70 and 1871-72. The result of the survey was to miso t 
assessment from £,i9G1 to £10,704', that is an incruoso of £573^! 
or llo'50 per cent. The sixty-one villages form three survey 

' Up to tliejcM' lS7S-73the «arv«y acttlcmasU **bioli were iutrodnced abotx tli« 
Sabj'iilrw weM ga«ratkt«c<l in wmd* owum for Ui« hsiiaI ttrm ol thirtj vnb* «nJ in 
Other naei for ■Jaerter pmiadi vuying f»m twcutj-five to thirty yean. Af ur lS72-n 
owin^ to the tuit* which wore tlien bruuglit t^iirut (iovtrauivni tio jjwunntsaJBL 
^veD eltlMT in the ■ub-dtmiODi buluw or iu th« auli-iiiviMoua abuT« the St 
fuwaow rUtw were vBnctinncil ■nil iuliflducoil wiiliuol iKitiKgu.TnwUedfciri 
of ywtn, *ai tbo ««ca«ineiit waa ui>tlaot«4l from year to year. Un4«r tiova 
ROMltition «1G0 of tb« Itftb of October 1881, tliat the «Dila of th« dilTctrat l« 
Btigfat Ml atmltahla intcTVAb, RU*nkaU<a*liave bcwn fruited in the iltfl«r«nt groups' 
wfaiah lutve been w-tllod itniM IS72-73 for |>erio(U ritiymg fruin iwelrc to Ourtf ytU9. 


bloolcs, tlio first of wliich was setitlei] in 1809w0, tbo Micond 
in 1870-71, anil tbe third in 1H71-72. The first block, which fas 
settled in 1669-70, has eighteen villageA including the port of 
Korw^,' with an area of 2U,022 acres and in 1871 a pnpiiI»tion 
of l7,o9o. All nve eithrr near tlio sea and the liigh road from Ktlm-^r 
inland or near tlio Kalinadi river. Tlio riiln^s containeil 78i:t 
acres of rice lami, 1 159 acres of ^iiJeR, and oil acres of dry crop. 
In addition to those there were 1^121 acres of pntan or sandy soil, 
giouerally near the aea. The re«uU of the Burvoj was to raise (be 
msemmenfc from £1935 to £1051, an iocreaae of 109'35 per cent. 
The highest survey ml«3 are, ISa. for garden land, lOt. 12«. and 
\&f. for rice Und, So. Sa. 7\d. and 3*. I0\d. for jtutan huid^ and 
l)x. for drj-orop. The old ns^^psfimcnt vms exceedingly Dneqnol. 
In the caaa of large and inOueutial holders the snrvojr increase waa 
very great, and in the case of Htnall holdorH the survey freqaontly 
caased a reduction. A large prop<)rtion of the land is in the hands 
of Brahinnnfl, who rarely cultivate thomiielvoit and who nro bard and 
exacting landliotders. Ordinarily thoy sublet their kuds from yt-iur 
to year. Tho seKlemont of the eighteen villages was the first 
aurvey actUemeDl in liowlarid Kdoara. TKe introduction of tho 
survey was keenly opposed by the richer landholders who denied 
the riKhl of Government to revise and cuhaoco tho BMOaameDtv TLo 
ijnefttion was decided by the High Court in favour of OoTemment . 

The Kocood block, which was settled in 1870-71, included twenty- 
eight villages with an area of 201 square miles and a population tn 
1871 of 1 1,033,' The block ist divided into two groups one of thirteen 
rillagcs at aome distance from the port and from communicationa 
by I'ircr or road, tbo other o{ 6fteen villages mixed with or clos3 
to tho eighteen villages which were setttod in 1869-70. Tbe result 
of the Butttcmnut of the twenty-eight villagen was to raise the assess- 
ment from i 1573 to £.'J!t.'(7 (if an increase of 150'28 per cent. ITio 
tnaximuni rat^^s for tlie fifteen well placed villagee are the aacne as 
thnso iixpd fur the eighteen viltagus settled in 18C9-70. The 
ktgbiMt survey ratea for the thirteen remote villages &ro 16a. for 
garden land, 7». and 8«. for rice Jaud, and IJ*. for dry-crop. Of 
129,221, the t-otal area, 11 0,-125, or 89'32 per cent are anarable 

Tbe third block, which was settled in 1871-73, inclndefi fifteen 
villages with an area of forty-Beren square miles and a popntatioa 
of 63.:6.' Tho result of the sarrcy was to raise tbe nsKessment 
from £14t>0 to £271<> or an iuoreua o{8l}'l5 per ccut. The htgbost 
nitoji are, lft«. for Rsrilen land, 8#. 6(f., 10»., I2«., and IBs. for rice 
laod; 2*. Hid., da. 7f[d., and 'Ss. lOJc^ for jtulan laud; and lit. and 
li*. for dry-crop land. 

Tbe l»ai population returns show, of 47,742 people, 40,916 or 
85-70 per cent Hindus ; 389G or 8-16 per cent Christians ; 2909 
or 6'Ov per cent Musalmikis ; aud 21 Jews. The detuita of tbe 
Hinda caato« ore, 11921 Bnihm&ns; 890 VAqIs, 162 Vaisbya V4Dis, 

Obapt«r Xin. 





*y Soport, 169 of 21«l Feb. 1871. * Hiu-rey 
• 9urv*j Report, OS of 20th Ja 

■ «ie-a9 

» Sarny Report. 1«S of ?Irt Feb. 1«7I. 

rBomtiay i 







G-nrl 29 LiitgltjalR, traders and merchants ; 405 MarlltlukSi 
KiohevAn, »ntl 22 ItAJpula, wnrlilco claa^s ; Gl'(9 Kol 
203-2 Padtis, 2010 Ilalvakki Vakkals, 1585 Kunbis, 799 Ghiu 
soothskTors ; i-lC Karo Vokknla, :J0 Jaius, 14 Nadors, and 2 Cbiitzir 
busbandiDen ; 1328 Snti^rs, gnU] and silver emitlis j 382 Sutrin. 
CftTnentcrs; 164 KtimWra, potttifl ; 165 LobAntj blackstnilh 
Bhiiupis, tailors; 27 Oanndi.^, ma^ns ; 10 Kisin, copperM:. 
1243 Pnt«Ui3,8ilk.copd makers; Sr TeIi«,oilmeii; 5436 Biiai. 
and 4037 Eoni&rpAiks, palm-tappers; 46U Gaiilis, cowherds; l-.i 
Kolis, &11 Hnrkanlras), H.S7 Oitbits, 7i8 Kluirvin, 7lSAmlni.i>, II 
Bliois, 107 V&^s, and 101 MoKeis, fishermen; 378 R&IW ' 
and yy BtiAnd^ri Viiiantris, nmi»icions; 227 KalAvant^, i^i; 
dftiicvrn ; 1376 Dovlis, temple atteadaiits ; 1320 It.'^iidt?, HLTTuib 
230 Parits, wiwliermen ; 210 Hfti^imii, bn-rbera , "S Uanids, liaske 
wearer*; 158 Jojjfis, 4-> K&nph&to JogiSj And 5 Th^kurs, bee 
65 Ghamg'itrs, shoemakers ; 1 29 ChcbalvAdis, 304 Uii^rs^ and ' 
Agora, depr(»93ed classea 

Ankola/ on the coast, is bounded on the north l»y KirwAr ^ 
YolUjjur, va the south by Kmuta, ou the east hy Sirsi, and on 
vest by the Arabian sea. It oontaiae ninety vilUgca with an area 
of 3(!7 square miles, a population or 34.139 or 93*Io to the »{u 
mile, and a yearly land revenue of £9l>tii> (Rb. ^6,000). 

The coast line begins at Ilarvada, a small Gshit:g villain tirclrt 
miles Honth of KAnara, and .stTCtchi3s about eixiccn miles to 
Qan)];&Ta1i river. There are no navigable rirers in ihis part of i 
coast. H»t there are two iidetit at tiehkeri, about two mitea 80li| 
of Hnrrjlda, and at Ankola. At high-lUIe bouts tinder one ton 
khoHdis) pa^H up the inlot abnat thniu mih'S to tbu Hntikeri brii 
on tlioA'rbail road. At Ankola, about four miW south of Bolikei 
boats of ono ton and undftr pnss about tbrvc milt^ inland, 
the fire miles between Harvilda and Ankola the shore is j^ fii 
belt of sand, pleasant for walkers or ndura, lined with groi'es 
cocoa palmn. and in pUrea brokua by rocky ridpfea which ma 
the sea. In tlie five miles between Ankola and the Gangarali bit 
rocky cliffa overhang tbc shnre and the eoost road runs about i 
mile inland through vice-fields and ov«r latonto -plateiiua. Three 
five mill's inland stretches a plain oivcrcdwilh nee field*, cocoaoi 
palms, tnangoe, cashownut, jack, and other fruit trees. Then sisi 
nilln begin, coven-d with stones, coarw grass, and bmshwc 
Further east the hills grow steeper and are more thickly wnodc 
Id nil suitjiblu spaces rice-Bolds are laid out in tiers, and, in the de 
well watered valleys, which, betu'tft>u spurs, run into the base of 
Sakr^dxis are Ini-ge and valuable bolvlnut gardens. West of t\ 
Yelwpur border the forests are nut of much value. Xear Bolil 
and Ankola tbo liilU nro bare asin former years large areas wt 
deared for wood-ash tillage. 

The coast villages nro healthy and froo from fever. BeUkfiidM 
especially ia a fiarourito resort for Europeans. Towards 1^^| 

* Aakota wu a petty divialaa ot Kamta op to the ywu I8$t wbea h w« mad* a 
■•pamtc nib.itiviMnB. lu tuvrj detail* *ro given witti E omta. 





BahjrKrlHB tho climato bftoomofl moist, hni,, aiKlfovomli. Aflhve and 
■omo other pLicea hav» bo bad a uaino that it is difTicult to get 
Iftbourora to go there. A3 Ankota formed part of tCumta till 18HI, 
■o fiopnrato riiuL rvturoa uro avail»blo (or taa uub-divinioiL 

Along the coast nnmerons wells yield h good uud pure supply 
6f water. Tho GanjyAvali flow-i from the YellApttr frontier 
dividing AnVoIa from Kiiraia. It is nayigablo for cniEtof oDoto fivo 
tons C-1-2U khandiB) about Tifteea miles to Ontidbfile. Its wutor is 
d( no na« for iri-igation, as nborn the limit of tho tido its baoha 
Kire coTured with forests. Among the Sahy&dri hills welU yield 
good water, but tho chief source of drinkiug irater is tho rivuMs 
which flow ont of the bitl sidus. Their water is clear and beautiful 
to look at, but it is fall of regetaUe mutter and cnusee fovor and 
other sickness. Th«re is no lack of water for irrigation. As the 
tiUmnto doe9 aot suit cattle, the wells are worked cot by bulloclu 
but by a wooden trough which mores upoo a pivot, or by a luatbt-r 
basket scoop called <iot-t«, which is swoDg through tho watar by a 
man on each side of the pond. 

Most of the land along the coast is sandy and requires much 
tnanaro to yield (air return. Between tho sea and tho hills are 
many barren tracts. The Hoil of rest of the intandei is red. 

According to the 1861-82 returns the farm stock of the ninety 
▼niagea o£ Ankola iucluded 4715 ploughs, 35 carts, 10,86o bullocks, 
10,006 cows, 1395 .she-buffaloes, 24.69 he-baffaloes, 8 horses, and 
124 sheep and goats. 

Thu 1S81 population rtturns show, of 84,189 people, 32,781 or 
9t['8d per cent ITiuduH ; 1013 ur>2'9t} p(>r cunt MusalmAas; and 
393 or 1'1'j per cvnt Christians. The details of thu Hinda castes 
are, AiOQ Dnlhuuina ; 53t> Viulx, 205 Vaishya VlLtiis, 102 Xarvekar 
VAnis. tJ2 Toliigu VAnis, and 17 LingAyats, trader* and morohanta; 
794 MArath&s and 3 Rajputs, warlike classes ; 8221 Halvukki 
Vokkals, 1553 NAdorn, 1218 Kunbis, 1101 Kai^ Vakkals, 577 
FAdti.s, 290 Koknas, ■iV.i Giim Vakkals. 05 GliAdis or soothsayers, 
and •{ Jnins, huiihandincn; 1521 8oniir8, gold and silvor smiths; 
260 KumbArs, potters ; 194 SutArs, carpenters ; 1>1 Shimpis, tailors ; 
60 LobArs, blacksmiths; 21 Jingars, saddle- makors; 519 Telia, 
oilmen ; 2307 KumArpAiks, 640 UhandAris, 194!^ QalepAik^ {juUn- 
tappflrs; IG Dhangnrs, shopberd*! ; 934 KUArvis, 929 Harkaotras, 
507 Gabitit. 248 Ambigs and 111 Bhoia, Bahermeu; 120 UAUor 
VAjaiitH:^, musicians; 245 KuiAvauls. singers and dancers; 606 
Bandis, servanta; 199 Parita, washermen; 110 HajAms, bw-b«rs; 
98 Uerlis, aeryants ; 13 Lambania, carriers; 101 ChamgArs, shoe* 
makers ; 1502 Agorg, 180 BAkadti, 178 Uaslars, doproascd cbuwes. 

Kumta, on the coast, is bounded on the north by Ankola, on 
ihe ea^t by Sinti and Siddapur, on the sonth by UonAvar and on 
ths wast by tho Arabian eea. It contains 120 Tillages with an area 
of about S30 Bqnare miles, a population of 58,578 or 255*16 to tba 
Bqoare mile, and ayearly land revenue of £12,122 (R8.1,21220). 

The ooMt Una which begins sooth of the GaogArali rirer oonaista 
of loog stretches of sand, (ringed with cocoaout gardenSj crossed 

Chapter Xti 
3ab DirisiOBt. 







(Bombay Gi 


apter Xin. 



by frequent rocky bighluids and lieftdlands nnd hy tidal oreelct.| 
lolAiid the pWn riaos in plauus intn spars ao4 blovka of hilh 
to 700 feet hij^li. Closer to llie SahjAilris tUe hill* are biglier i 
Bieeper, separated by narron* ralleja which run to tbo roots of 
Sahv&dri rauge. In ibe ceolre of thu tnb'division are a I 
bush-corercd latcrito piat«au8 700 to lOOO foct high. Tbo hii 
lauds on the coast are ooniparatirely bare, but eight to Iwelre 
tnlaad tbe hills are covered ivith forest which beconiM doasor in 
Deighbourhood of tho Sabyddri bills. Along the coust a bolt 
floorishing coooauut gardens has behind it a stretch of Eairly f«rti 
rice land. Beyond tbp rice land is tbe central plain orosaeil by nn 
fields with a tew patches of sugarcane. Farther inland rice gtvai 
way to rd^ 

The coast villages are healthy. It ia hot In tbe somimr i^ 
there ia little or no cold wcntbor, Tho di>n«o forest and iimKf 
rainUI of tbo eastern villages maku tbom ItiTuriHh. At K 
the coast, daring tho tea yenra ending 1379 tbe rniufoll yu: 
96-2 inches in 1877 to 201-28 inches in 1S78 and averaged 162^ 
' inches. 

Throughout the sub-dirisioD there is no lack of water oitfacr for 
driiiking or for tho ^olds. Tho wuter on tho coast is good. Iii tb* 
foroat villages the supply ta abundant, but the quality is bad. 
Boaidea wells and streama many villages have a good f^iipply <£ 
poud water. From the cotist to the Sahy^ris every inhabited e 
aurebas ila well, and numerous rivalets and watercourses, flowing fi 
tbe hills into the Tadri and Gnugfivali, are ased for watering 
9Uggi or hot- weather rice-crope. 

The Buil of the uoa4t villages is sandy, further inland it ia ni 
mixed witii aand, and in tbo estrenu' oust it is rod. The rice landt 
of tbe cooat villages aro fairly productive, many liulda yielding l«u 
crops a year. The SatyAdri garden lands are fertile, the chU( 
products being uocoauuta, rico, butolnuts, peppor, sugarcane, aad_ 
pulse. ^H 

According to the 1881-82 retnrns, the farm tttook amoanted 9^M 
4900 ploughs, 146 carts. 12,010 ballocks, tl,2H cows. 21»10 abe- 
baffaloes, 2)83 he-bufFnloes, 11 horKes, and 2.53 sheep and goau. 

Between 1873 and 188:2 the whole of the Kamta sob-division^ 
including the ninety vitlngvs now in AnkuH has been broagl^l 
under the siiTVoy Bottlement. According to the sorvey, the 20^ 
Tillages of Kututa and tbo ninety villiigca of Ankota have between 
them 37,S25 occupied and unoccupied arable acres assessed al 
£20,288. Couipared with the old rates, the survuy assessment oa 
occupied laud lias cansed a rise from £14,403 to £19,700, that ia an 
increase of £5207 or 36'34 percent. Tho highest survey acra 
rates vary from £1 to £1 4e. in gardeo laud, from 7$. to 13tc. tu 
rice land, and from 1 £«. to 1 {t. in dry-crop land. The details are = 






1(4*0 ilvxDC^ ^psr«r 






Bl-wvot-, 1 
















un-n ... 
af»7t .. 
wM-n ... 

lrtT-78 ... 
ic^v-i* ... 
ueosi ... 

T.Xkl . 



























Of tlie ail Hurvt'v blocks tlio first block of fortj-oino viilngoa Trhioh 

^fras sellktl in 1^72-73 biu an nrea of 37,90<) acres or fifcy'iiiQQ 
nileB aud u population of ^1,020 or 5()6 to Ifao icqaare mile.* These 
irillagcs, incluiIiDg tbc towuit of Kututu, Aukulo, luid Gokarn, are 
either dbju- tho sea or cloee to frequontod and wolt-made road.i or 
DATigaliltj rivtrra. Rico is tlie Btaplo crop. Somo rico lands yield 
two crupH Id lIio year eitlier botli of rice or a first crop of rice and a 
Mcond crop of pidso or brinjaU and Bweot potatoes, imd froqoently 
•TBry tbiiii yuur a crop of siigarcaQe. Jinchiit or rdgi is tite chief 
dry-cn^ip. In tbo gnraeo binds cocoaouts are tbo principal prodace 
bac mitny villa;j^-d grow tbo bcM-pidiu alone or witU cocuanuL p»l ms. 
JdHueo, ciLi^howuiit ood jock trees, and uitdif or Alexandriae 
lagrola grow in great numbora in the gardens. Tbe water is from 
poudd and lees commonly from streaniB and wolU, Ovor the whole 
sab-division tbc niinfidl i^ bo heavy that the ground iii lodon with 

The result of the aun'ev rates was to mifie the as<tcs?mont from 
.^4834 to £5422 (Rs. 48,340 - Its. 54,220), an iorrraae of l-welvo 
per cent. The highcHt survey acre rates for the diffenmt classes of 
Villi^s are, £1 for garden land, 10«. IS^, and Vin. for rice 
land, Sjt. for pulan^ land, and lj«. for dry-crop land. Tliis 
comparatively emali iccrcasc was due to the fact that in former 
tames the villages were strictly managed. At iba same time there 
were many ca«e9 of nncqnal assessment. 'Vhe greatest decreoso 
was thirty-two per cent in the rillaRe of Kulbag. the survCT reducing 
the assessment from ITii to £oOO (Ks. 7320 - B«. 60UO). Tho 
bigbe.<)biDcroiuc vra» 611 per cent in the village of Bilchoyungi in 
wliich the asseasmeat was raitted frtim £2 to £13 (Rs. 2a-Ka 130), 
The former ineqaslities were cbietly duo to tho corruption and false 
..rcprosonlations of village and district uflicera^ The aroa of 
alienated land was ^24 acres assessed at £1S7 (fls. 1270). 

' Sui-tey Bepon, 109 dt SSlli Ff bniary 1878. 
* Pulun or akitta U ■ nodjr ik*A boU wbicti 

gicwa GOOOMiut tisM. It can bo 
HMi) to mtov rio« iry Hrajiiuif off the aDc(*c« layer vl uai. 

' Tbtt TilUue of rnugubJiL ia a ■pMik] cue of Trsad. It wm gnnt»i1 »t tlw 
begtnuiiii; <■( Hritiab nila to oim Lin£«ppa. tb«fatli(tr(ifa wht«r lutmodSiibAnlTintlKt 
UoaiiAt uttk-H oti An MaMiRUsnt of £8(K*-S0|. SuMrAv ti^ fktM NfiraMntBtiiMU 
ttliUiiivd It rwluvtiuu of HPCMmcnC in IKUl'iin wlica he wu nvtiiilatdAr. At tlio time 

■ - -"" 


Sub DiTisioni. 






TliQ aocond block of twoaty villages in clow to and miX' 
the first, bluok of forly-uiae villageei. Tbe survey tBte» we: 
iu ]873-7'l,' Tkeareaof tbow twenty villages id 4l,'S7i ■ 
Bixty-foar xqaare milea and tlio populatioa vta 720& or i 
iho aqoaro mile. Tbe distributioa of tbo poputatiun is 
unequal Tbo intaud tracts noar tbe bilU baro few pt'oplv, 
near tbe coast tbu pressartj is orer 300 to tbo Bquaru mile. 
tbe ataple crop, hqu tburc are also SS4 acres of excellent 
and betelnat ganluus. Tbt> a390!»nient was raiuod from £13' 
£21301 {llij. 12,430-R8. 23.010) or an incrcatw of 81-37 per 
Tbti bigbest survey acre nites are, £1 ^3. for garden laud^ 7«. 
10s. We. 12s. and 13ff. for -rice land, and I^b. for dry-crop 
Tbero wcro no cases of reduction, thoagb iu many (Ntses the 
rat«a are loss tbau ono-tbird of tbe rates iu tbo first gton.\ 
fortj-oine villa^a. Tbe imrrease varied from twsnty^five par 
in the rillago of UJgeri to fifty-foar per cent in Udlar. 

Tbe third block, nbtcb was settled in 1876-77, inelndos fi 
ono villages.* Gxc«|>t. a few among tbe bills in tbe 
nortb-east, tbe villages of tbis group aro citb«r on the sea- 
on or at a sbort distance from uie uaDgitval). The total arrta ni tlw 
▼illa^s is 92,019 aorea or 143 eqaaro miles, and tbe populatioa 
the time of the surrey was 16,338 or 113 to the aqoaro milo- 
in tbe other blocks tbe density of the popnlatiou varies 
from an average of 513 to the square mile in the coaet villa; 
twenty in the hill rillaff«s. Somo of tho villages are cn>s* 
tbi: Kilnv4r-£Iiilili road through tbe Arbail pass. Tbero is maolt 
traffio on this Karwllr>Hubli road nod products Btted fur lucal use 
And fodder command high prices. Rico is tbe staple crop. aSid 
much of tbe rice biud hears a second crop either of rioo or of jvaUe. 
A crop of sngarcauo every third year is not unaommon, ami fiM 
fields of cane may bo seen up the OaogAvali valleyB. Tbo jjurdun 
lands OD and near the coast are exooUoQt and rdyt is the staple cmp 
of the dry land. The result of the survey was to ruiae tiw 
OMOBsment from £3300 to £4480 or an iucreiiso of 35'7^ per oenU 
The btgbcat snrvcy acre rates are, £1 for garden landj 7«. Sit. lHa. 
lis. 12j. nnd 13«. for rice land, and IJ*. for dry-crop. 

The fourth block, which was sottlod in 1877-78, ineludeathe laails 
of twenty-two villages, with an area of 2(j,078 acres or forty-ttro 
sqoaro milos, and a population of 4737." Most of the villages ot 
ibis block lie between the two tidal rivers, the Tadri and Gangival^i 
ftod somo villogcs contain ^ajni or salt rioe land. There were 4US 
ocroa ot garden land, somo of it of suporior quality, growing largo 
numbers of cocoa and betel palms. Tbe result of tbo surrey was 
to raiflo tbo assessmeat from £1889 to £20-16 (Ks. 13,690- 
Efi. 20,400) or an increase of 49-I5 per cent The higbcat survoy 
Acro rates are, £1 ia. for garden land, 10«. lU^. 13s. and 13«. for 

of tnrrcy SSBacrw tbo vholo arable rtm of Die village vraa occotiMd. Th« i 
•Mraiaedboin £7to£{n(]ta. 70- Ra. 900) or ui iacreue of IMS psr c«nt 
'tiwev B^rt, 403 of 3rd Uwcli 1874. " Survey Report, 466 o! 4tli Apnl t$77. 
> Survry lUport. m vl 80th April 1878. 



!oe land, nnd 1}». for dry land. The formor rates li&d beeo 
BXtromoly □noven. In some villagoa tlio new rntcs cmtHoJ a 
cx)D»iileni])le fall; iu tlievUlo^ of Joga the n>iiui.-tioii vtas t)urtr>ihree 
»■ cent, whtio, with now rates sliglitlf lovor than thoso In Jaga, the 
Burrey caused a riso of 153 imd 1U9 per cent iu the Tillages of 
KolgiiiKtula and Ksrebail. 

Tht> fifth block, which was settled ia 1870-80, included sixty- 
oig^t vil)ngtt3 with an area of tt8,940 acres or 13i) Miiwre milea.' 
OC tbo sixty-eight villages TCbieh formed this bluck five aro on 
lu» north of tho Kumta river, two arc ia the hilly north-east, and 
BUty-ODO are in the south, some on the coast near Kumla, and 
otliora on tbo valley of tho Kuiutn rivor ap to the hills. Population 
"n denso ou and near the coast, about 13!) to the square milo; 
rice if) tUo staple rain crop, and souo lands where the water 
iiupply U abuudant yield a se<xiud crop either of rice or of pnlse. 
The cocoanut and betelnnt gardens of eomo villager are exceedingly 
^utl, with as many as 600 to 800 botolnut trees on an acra ThB 
Tillages aro well placed as regards land and sea communication. 
There was no record of the area formerly under occupation, and tho 
old rates ware exceedini;ly untH]ual. The result of tbs survey waa 
to raise tho asse'^gnipnt from £2.d2i to £39410 or an increaeo of 3&'0i 

£er ceuL Tbo highest survey acre rates are, £1 4«. for garden 
Ad, 7a. 8}*. 10a. ll«. l£a. and ]3«.{or rioo land,Bud t^ir. for dry. 
crop land. The inorcaso is less than in the other Eumta groups from the first a majority of the sixty-eight Tillages wore 
much more closely nuinaged by the Madras Goverament thau tlia 
▼ilJages further from tbo head-quartera of the eub-dirision. 

Tho sixth llucic, which was settled in 1879-80 and 1680-81, 
inclndod eighteen villages with an area of 87,845.^ Except four 
vill^ee in tho centre of the sab-division, tho eighteen Tillages o£ 
tliis block are in tlio north-east atiiong the hills. Ktce is the staple 
crop, bat in some villa)*es the garden land is particalnrly good. As 
owing' to their outlying positi'Xi tho former rates were extremely 
Inw, tho result of tho survey was to raise tho asaeasment from £SSO 
to £1&&S or an increase of 00'8a per cent. The maximntn acre 
rates are, £1 for garden land, 7ir. 8^j>. and li}g. for rice land, and 1\8. 
for dry-crop. 

Thf ISSl population returns show, of 58,758 people, E5,102 or 93-77 
per rent were Hindus; 2W0 or3'57 percent Jlnsalmins ; 1530 or 2*60 

Eir cent CliriatiaDN ; 1 7 Parais ; and 10 Buddhists. Thu details of tho 
indn castes are 11,327 Bnlbmaus; S(i4 Vlinis, 131 BbAtias, 119 
Taiahya VAnin, 61 Lingiiyats, and 8 Gujardt Vduis, traders nod 
merchants; 020 Mardtb^, 50 N^yers, and 29 llajpuM, wnrliko 
classes; 8983 Halvakki Vakkals, 5140 Gam Vakkids, l'J54 NAdors, 
&d3 Siidii-s, 369 Kure V'ukkaU, 216 QbMis^ soothsayers ; 122 Kniibis, 
D2 Jains. 56 fadtis, B? Panchanis^Us, 28 An Manithits, and 22 
Obotris, Kasbandmen ; 1928 Sonfirs, gold nod silver smiths ; 663 

' Somy Roport. 310 of 7tfa April 18S0. 

* Stirrer RBport*. *^ of ZMh April 1680, ind 9S of 4th P«1misrr 188b 

Chapter Z 





rBcinli«7 1 



1 8n1) ffiTisions. 





fint^rs, carpentcra -tGl KumbArs, pottors; 101 Shimpia, 
47 LohflrB, blacksinitUa ; 29 KiiaSJs, ouppemmiths ; 12 
masons ; o28 TeUfi, wlmeo ; 67S6 HulE-palke, 19G3 itbanc 
292 Komirpaikd, palm-tappeni; 807 Onalis, rowlierd-i; 39 QoUi 
cowkeepera; 28 Dhangars, ehopbcrds ; 1713 Uarkiintras, 
Amhigs, 712 Mogcn, 680 U^biu. 301 KbfLrviH, 'iH Hbois, waA\ 
Kolis, fisbermen ; 470 HAU«r VAjaalrii, 101 Derdif^s, aod 
Bband^ri VdjiLiitnii, luusictans ; 207 KuUvants, ttin^rra 
dancers; 1066 Bundis, servanU; &87 Parits, wasbormon; 
Baj&ma, barbers ; 119 Padiyllnt, scrmntH ; ft4 Derlis, 
attendants;.^? Korchama, catlle-broederfi; 13 Lamb^ni», 
77 Oos&via and 61 Jogin, bcggarn ; 160 ChniDgArs, Hbocnuike 
9S Miidignrs, tanners; 22S8 Alukria, 556 Agars, 186 Chhali 
157 Haalars, and 132 Mb4r9, dopre&sod clauos. 

Hona'Tar is bouadod on the oortli by Kamta, on tbu castj 
Siddfipiir and Mnistir, on tbe south by Kuoddpnr in South Kini 
and ou the west by the Arabian sea. It oontainH 140 Tillages it 
an area of 'H6 Kqoare miles, a population of 85,GSS or 19^ to' 
Square mile, and aland revenue ot £15,072 (Ra. 1,^9,720). 

A littiu to tho north of Kumta a hj^h laiorito pUtoaa beg^Ing. i 
as it atpotohes Boulh botwoou Manki and Murdeshvar, jrrailna 
uncroachL-8 on the coast bc-tt of gardun uud rice land, till, at lidsar 
it. laavwt but a very narrow strip of saud between its base aod 
sea> Beyond tho Honitrar crook tlio latoritc plat«aa again sligti 
recedes and U cooataotly broken by rocky spurs nmning- to 
coast. Tho ptatonn disappears to tho north of Mardcshrar, 
again appcura botneea tbo ShinUi oraok and Bbatkal. The 
TillaffOB aro like thoso o£ Ktimta, bnt ia somo villngos north.- 
Honirar large tracts of Intc rioo laud niu a considemhto distal 
inland. The gnb-difHsion is wotl natored by unfailing atf 
Near tho middle it is divided by tho QursappA river, nhoso 
hare many rich villa^s filled with oocoa-iMtliu jrurdeus. In 
north of tlio sub'divisiou from the coast eastwards, separated 
valleys with gardens and rice lands, harren and treelen 
platMQs ri&o OQO behind the othor till they lose themselrea in 
Sahy^dria. Near tho spurs of tho Sahy^dris. which here «n. 
steeper than in Kumta, the forost bozins, and, as in the rest, 
Kioarn, grows deeper and richer in me upper alopcit of tlio hfT 
In the ftouth of the auh-diviition the Intcrito uplands nro soon 
in a series of hills covered with a thick, though stunted, growd 
trees. The centre of tho potty division of BhalkaL is Tory wild 

Except iu a few of the ockstcrn villages the cHmato is good, 
the eastern villages, dui-iug the eold weuthor uud the rainy moaV. 
fiovor ia prerolcotj and in the hot wcotbor the heat is most oppresall 
At HoQiivar on the coast during the ten years ending 1870 
rainfall varied from 91*48 inobea in 1877 to 164'6I toches in If 
and averaged 13d'S-'J inches. 

The Shir&vati or Gersappa rivor crosses tbe snb-division 
cast to west. In the east it is divided into two small cbuanolsi, 
of which i^aiu breaks into three branches. Tho water exoepfc] 



hi higher roAcb is nndnakable. Aboat tliirty-aix miloa lioutb-cast 
t Hoodvar, tbo SUiravati forma iho fomoiu Oersappa falls with a 
pop of about 830 feei. The north of JIooAvor u wcU sappliwl 
nth strtntBB many of which flow tliroughout the year. The^e 
trcftin* (low into Iho ChaudAvar river which at Haldipur, turning- 
I right uugica to the s<m, flows into theOcrsappa or Sbirdvati 
iver at fioniLvar. South o( the Shin^vnti aro uumetoos small 
iTolett a few of which lost throughout iho year, and at ShirlUi 
nd fihatloil tburo aro rivera whuse wator is drinlcahle above ttta 
imit of the tide. The vilkgos have many welU aud « iscarcity of 
rator ia tieldom felt. 

In tlic coast villager the soil ia sandy, and the villages by tha 
Ide of the river Shir&vntt have a dark allaviat soil locally known aa 
ale OT black. Near the hilU the soil ia red. The saudy coast soil 
Dqutres muob mnaure. Ia the hilly tmots whore there ia earth 
tloo^h hakal or dry crop cultivation is carried oa. Tbo chief 
iroducts are rice, sugar, cocoajiiit<t, betclnut», and pepper. On tha 
oast and river banks cocoa-palms mixed with Wtel-palma aro 
iirguly grown. laland, the chief prodacts of the TalleyH and of tho 
Mibyitdri spurs, are betolnats mixed with plantaiaa, pepper, and 
tetol-vinmt. In the lowlands rice is mncb grown and occasionally 
f he better rice lands. The dry-crop tillage is of littla 
1 .Lid IS chiefly confined to Jiachni. 

According' to the 1831-82 returns, the farm stock amoauted to 
9*i7 ploughit, 29 cnrtft, l.'>,g4'2 hullockii, 15,780 cows, 3718 she- 
laffaloes, 44^0 be-bnffaloca, 13 horset;, and 5o2 sheep and goats. 

Of the 14-2 villagoa of Houivur, up to tho 31st of Doocmbcr 1881 
ly thirty-8evoii had bueu brought under the survey Hcttleuient, 

!m result of tbo eurvey of these tbirty-scvon villugeti was to raise 

beaMe88mentfrom£lJl87 to£69d9 (It^. 61,870 • tU 60,690) or an 
lOTsase of 12*63 per cent. Tho maximam acre garden rates vary 

ron> £1 to £1 4tf., rioj rates from lU. to 13«., and dry-crop ratiM 

re 1 i«. Tbo details ore : 

HoxATAtt Sctvsr Details. 






OCTUplnl. 1 Aimtile WhW. 














tsai-si .. 

tSIO-TT ... 

r?ui ... 




















16,311 TIU 

The tbirty-sovon villages which have been surveyed form three 
locks of twenty -seven, nine, and one villages each. The first block, 
'hich was settled iti 18^0-81, contains twenty-seTon villages 
iclnding the town of Hou^var, with an area of 27,121 acres and a 
apnJalion of 23,o4S or 581 to the square milo.^ All of tba 

1 Survey Reixxrt, 800 ot Sth April 18S1. 

a Bt«-3ft 

Chapter ZIH. 














BbKl III. 

Tillages of this block ato on tlu» eoaifc. "Hi* Soldo, •■ « rale, in 
well tilluil uud tliu crops good ; the people are piroeperoas. Uvng ik 
'WolUbaUt lioasGa, oacfa in a soparftte cnclocmre with a oleanl; v 
grain>yar(l in troat Thougu, except in Ilon&var, csrt« an 
oon]muni€a,tion is ene;, botn by water and along good forjt-pn 
Tbo result of tlio ftun'cy was to raise the aaeeasnaent from £4iOS 
X^96 or un increafie 4'&9 of per cent The nisxiniam rates an^ 
for garden land, !]«. 12«. and 13«. for rice land, and 1|8. for 
crop laud. 

Tlie second block of nine villages, wlucli were brongbt 
survey settlement in 1881-8S, baa an area of 20,760 ncrcB'. 
villages of thia block ar« in the Dorth of the sub-divisiuQ. 
(w the most part arc somewhat inland. The garden Uad 
sxooodin^ly good. Boads nm from Houflvar to Siral hj 
Devimani and Nilknnd passes, but they carry no groat trallic. 
rosult af the surrey was to raise the aasfoament from £137U to KM 
or an increase of 2S'78 per ooat. The maximnm rates are, £1 
for garden land, lis, \%t, and IS*, for rice laud, and W«. for 

Besides thoBO tliirly-six villnges, the village of Manki, four mi; 
eonth of Uoniivar, with an area of about tlurtccii sqnaru mill's ai 
a population of 44H4, was Bpecially eottled in 1876-77 in cimnectt 
with certaio laud procoodinga. The rt-sulL of the Burrey 
laise the assessment from £G06 to £di50, that ia au increase 
or 'l^'S per cent. The maximum aero rates ivcrCj £1 for 
landj lis. and 12ir. for rice land,and \\s. fur diyKTop.' 

The 1 881 popntation returns show, of 85,625 pooplo, 74.42£ 
86-02 per cent Hindos; 7443 or 8'09 per cent MosalrnAnsj 
37.14 or 438 per cent Christiaus. The details of the Hiodn o 
are. 13,0U0 Biahmang ; 28* Vinis, 83 Vaishja VAnis, 29 Lingiyai 
and 16 Mallars, traders and inerchauts; 4286 J^r^thjbi, 45 "iiAj 
and 80 Rajpiits, warlike classes ; 3865 GAm Vakkfrls, "^ 
Halvnkki Vakkals, 2427 Sudire, 827 ChetriB, 270 Jains, 171 
Vakkals, 04 NAdors, and 51 Padtis, hosbandmen ; Vyj^ Soo&rs, 
and silver smitLa ; 922 Sut^s, carpoators; 393 Kiimbars, poil 
33G Cfeuindis, masons ; 66 LohArs, blacksmiths ; 18 Ka 
coppersmiths; 10y4 Telia, oilmen ; 151 PataAlis, ailk-cord makors; 
18,420 Ilalepdiks, 2034 Kom&rpitiks, and 643 fihandAri-t, palm- 
tappers; 2016 Dhangare, ehepherds; 277 Gollaps, oowkecpers; aoi 
3a Gaulis, cowherds; 3140 Khltrvis, 2209 Mogers, 877 Aiiibijrt, 
591 Harkantras. 191 Gabits, and 123 Bhoie, fishermen; -yAl 
S^paliga and 7U1 U&ller V^jantris, musicians ; 96 KaUTonls, 
Bingers aad dancera ; 169o Bandis, Borranta j 767 Pariti, 
washermen ; 462 HajAmg. barbers ; 137 FudiyAra, servant* j 
4 Lambfinis, owners of bullocks; 14^ Jogia, 21 Dasas, and S 
Thfikurw, bofffi-ars; 311 Madigara and 117 ChamgirH, leather^ 
workurs ; 18(57 Xfukris, 700 Haglars. 692 Chchalrfidia, 25? i^kiH, 
and 106 Bokads, dopi-e^cd classes. 

>3iinF«yIUport,«l ot3tJri M*y 1881. *8nrray Report. 2831 of tod May IST?. 


\ Supa* in the north of tho district, is bonnded on tlio north by 
tid) ia li(.-lt*aam and Dh^rwair iu Dhdrwdr, on the east hy Kalghibt^ 
in Dh^rwiir, on the south b; Yellfipnr and the KfHinadi, and on tho 
"wast bj the Soh^&dris and Goa. It contains S69 TilUgoe with an 
ana of 979 sqaaro tnilex, a population 61,1^4 or 62*46 to the square 
mile, anda jearly land rerenne of £10,669 (Rs. 1,06,690). 

Tho north and out is aa open plain ; tho south and n-cf^t, except 
Bome rice plots and gardens, are tu]l of hills and foresta. Tito Supn 
forests, some of vhich aro the finest in Kiinant, oro both leaf- 
ttheddingand evergreen. The whole sob-diyision is waving uplands 
Beamed by tho Eifi&adi and its tributaries. MoRt of tho small area 
under tOlagc ia hold by Shenvi Briihmaua and Mardth^. Some of 
these Mar^tha husbandmen aro detail and Bomo are wood-ash tillers 
living near the Sahjiidria. The chief crop are rice and augorcane ; 
COCoaoQts and botolonts arc alao grown to a small extent. 

As meet of the sub-division is sarroundcd by hiUs and forests^ the 
cliniato is cold and feverish. There ia a heavy rainfall during the 
Bouth-weet monsoon^ severe cold in winter, and moderate boat in 
Bummur. At llaliyAl in the north-vant »f tho sub-division during the 
ten years ending 1879 tho raiufall varied from 29'70 inches in 1871 
to 6'iiO inches in 1872, and averaged 47'8 inches. 

The aub-dirision is snpplied with nnmemna large and small 
streams, some of which lai^fc tbroaghont the year and others dry in 
the hot season. Dying and dmd leaves, though they do not lessen 
fts clearness, make tho water of many of the unfailing streams 
dangerous to drink The K&Haadi runs in the south with doep 
pools 200 to SOO yards wide. On the banks are the Dandeli foreste 
irhich for nearly half ft centnry baTo been famous in the records of 
sport Besides with stream wa.ter the north and south are fairly 
BUppIiod with wells and ponds, some of which last throughont the 
year and others for eight months. The wattsr of these ponds and 
wella is nnwholcaome and aiiKuited for drinking. 

In the north and east is a black and fertile Boil which yields crops 
without manure. To tho south and west the soil is partly red and 
partly white, and the crops depend on the water-supply. The chief 
products are Indian millet, ragt, gram, sami rice, navani rico, peas^ 
Btjgftronne, castor-seed, and cttena. 

According to the 18$1-S2 returns, tho farm stock included 8035 
pIoBgbs, 1376 carts, 18,961 buUocks, 20,011 cows, £109 sfae- 
Doffaioes, 5598 he-bullaluos, 147 horses, and 1616 sheep and goats. 

Of the 271 villiu^es of Supa 248 have been settled between 1864 
and 1882. According to the survey rctams those 243 villages havo 
59,062 ooonpied acres a&aes.ted at £9080 and 7899 nnocoupied 
anarahle acres assessed at £<199. The highest acre garden rates am 
16x., and rico rates vary from &9. to 128., and dry-crop rotes from 1<. 
io Sf . The details are : 










Cbspter Zin. 



ScpA Sntrsr i>«r4JU. 





1<ITD40 .. 



















Of the four survey bloclcB iuto which the 243 sarveyed vill 
are dmdod, th< ani block of 126 Tilbges, with an area 
49,697 acres were brought under survey aettlement between 1 S63- 
ond 1866-67, twenty in 1863-64, EtHty-four in 18fi4-65, ff.rty-fl 
in 18<j5-GG and twenty-ono in I86fl-07.> Tho villages of this bL 
which includes the town nf Haliylil, are in the north>ea$t of tho sot 
diviaion on the borders of Belgaum and Dhirwdr. The Tillagee art 
tittle more than clearings in a CTCAt forest. Rice is tbe ataple crop, 
the liQflbaudry is good, the fieliLi being ireU and carefully tillod mm 
manured as plentifully 08 the supply admits. At the time of thij 
survey many of the upper classva, the headmen and account 
of the villages and their relations, were fonnd to be thririn]/ at 
expDDM of the poorer bosbandmcD. Nearly every village hod 
three or more excellent tiled houses, most substantially built, 
with niassiro beams of squared timber. These hoasea wer» alinc 
always the property of toe village officers or their relntions. 'Htf 
houses of tbe poorer husbandmen were either small tiled dwellingi 
or thatched huti). In 1863-64 the people were aufferiog from •, 
terrible epidemic of fever which was especially severe in '' 
neighbourhood of Habyal. Except six acres in one village, vi 
at £1 8s., there is no ufienntcd laud in the 1S6 villagee. 

The survey ebowed that of a total area of 44,663 occnpiod 
12,839 acres had not formerly been brought to aceonnt. The tfii---t 
of the Hurvey was to raise tbe asMKsment from JC$4S7 to £671i 
(Rs. 34,S70-B8. 67,L7U) or an iuoreoeo of 92-62 {ter cuut, Thfl 
higbesi acre rates are 10^. 1 19. and 12«. for rice land, ud 
1|«. and i*. for dry-crop land. On Account of the uaeqnalnott of 
the old ratoa the increase of assessment was far from uniJEorm. The 
assessment of one or two villages was either reduced or very Uttl» 
raided, though the aencssment on some holdings was greatly 
enhanced. In many villagcK where the whole asmsameot wu 
increased the rates of indiridual holdings were tedooed. Many 
village lieuduien and ncconntanta and tlicir relationR had to naj 
much more than before, oa tbe survey showed that they bad taken 
advantage of their position to lower the rates on their holdings and 
•ocretly to add to their area.' 

<Snnr(7B«poita, 442of3l*t December 1664. 124 of >9th Uay 1800, and 814 nf 
14tb NOT«nib«r IMT. 
■A« Ml ciiiiu{>Iv, istftMrilUgvof tbbblook, tbirty.««vMi acrei mBiiedUlU. I 

e second WocV of eixty-two villageB, wiflian areaof 149,960Arrf« 
a populnlion of 13 Hi, waa settled in 187^-73.' Kxcept eigLt in 
the ffoat the viUa^^os of tluji bluok Htretch in a long Btrtp from near 
Hali;41 hy the soutH of Bidi in Belgaam waat to the Sali^&dris and 
the Portuguese frontier. This tract of oountrjr covers nji area of 
140.960 acres eqnalto 234 square niilea, but the caltiratcd and 
amblB area fonn;! but a fraction of the ivhole. amonnting to only 
7601 acres or 5'07 per cent. The rest is forest, most of it of very 
good qnality. The population amounted to 491(3 or twenty-one to 
the square mile. The climate ia wet, the fall of rain increasing 
toward!) Iho weitt. Rice ia the chief crop and rdgi is the only dty 
graia which thrivos. In the west near the Sahytldris tnoch hot- 
Tre&ther or vainf/an rice ia grown in lands watered from anfailing 
Mtreams of which there are manj. A Bmalt quantity of sngarcans 
was growQ.butin npito of the good water-supply there were no 
Tnure llian fourteou acres of garden land. At the time of the 
survey the people were Buffering severely from fover. The villages 
of thia block are well prorided with roads. The made rcrad 
from Uhdrwtlr to Goa by the Tindi l^a skirts and crosses the 
northern boundary. This road is joined by another rood from 
Dhiirw&r which croBsos this tract, running ptisl and west by Haliyfil. 
The villngca of this block anj also crossed from north to south by 
tha road from Belgnnm to Kadra on the ElUinadi by Supn aud 
tho Ansbi pass. Other roada Iced through Khtiu£pur to Bulguum 
•ud to Kandighad, a large market in Bidi in I} There are 
tho ecToral small local markota with a demand for produce. Tho 
people are ignorant and greatly nnder the power of the village 
Accountants or shdnhhttga. At the beginning of British rule Sopa 
was one uf the moat deserted part.a of North Kdnara. Though most 
of it has since remained ibrest it ha« Ijettn well opened by roada. 
The result of the survey was to raise the asseasmont from JU77 to 
£965 or an incroAso of (i7'24 per cent. The highest acre rates are, 
168. for garden land, 8«. ds. and lU. for rice land, and Iv. l\s, 
1J«. and 1}». for dry-crop. 

In 1879-80 the survey was introduced into a third block of 
twcniy three Tillages wluoh are mixed with the eisty-two villages 
settled iu 1872-78.* The rates are the same aa those fixed for tho 
visty-two villagoa. Of ihe total area of 30,690 acres only 2304 
acres or 750 per cent are arable land ; the rest is nnder forest. In 
ISSO-SI the Burvey was introduced into a fourth block of thirty-two 
rilhiges mixed with and close fco the giity-two villages of the firsb 
ftod tho seventeen Tillages of the second block." The rates aro tho 
same aa those 6zed for the sixty-two villages. 

The 1881 population returns show of 61,154 people, 54,553 or 
89"i0 per coot Hindas ; 3864 or 6'3 1 per cent Mniiidm^ns ; 2734 or 

wer« cntn-ec] in the n«oounbi tuitbe holding or mr; of Acullivktor. Atthe llm«nf tlia 
•urrvy tiio aomiiu] holder wm found in povMMioii of only 2)( kcrcs for wbiah bs 
Mtd tho pdtll U>. 4. Tbe wh«I« of th« remuniaj a4|i ncros wcr* h«U by th« /xUU 
tree e( rent anil wttboat uiy entry in the aooounta. C'^IqikI Aodcraon, 443; Slit 
DMcmbvr 1S64. > Sorroy Report. IM of 3rd Febrokry 1872. 

> 6*TT*j Roport, 451 of Sill May 1880. * Surrey Report. 4fil of Slat May 186l. 

(SiapteT XI 


(Bom bay 1 





St.' FA. 






4-47 por cent ChrietiMia ; and 9 Jows. The details of the Hi 
casiiM are, 1967 Bnlhinans ; 7452 Vibilt, 647 Liijg&vatB, 
Ninrekap Vfinis, 122 Komtigs, 1 12 Lid VAiiis, 42 Telajfu V.S 
aDcl 35 VfushjH Vilnis, tradors and morcbatiU; 21,1ii2 Monttl 
and 119 Rajputs, warlike classes; 809S Kuul>ui, 1240 Hulvakki 
Vakkals, 761 Jains, 500 Sodirs, 386 Kare VakkaJ:;, SIO 
Pancbams&lis, and 126 CbetrU, bnsbaodman; 76G SouAre, gold and 
silver emiths ', 34^ Kumbilrs, potien ; 315LobAr8,bUckamifeha; 
Jinuaj^, saddle- makers ; 191 Shioi pis, tailors ; 101 SoUrB^carpant 
22 Qanadis, maSODs; 96 Telta, oilmen; 812 Bhandkris, 
tappers ; SOS Dbangars, shepherds ; 1181 Gaulis, cowherds -, \\ 
Kabhers, 71 EMrriit, 63 Bhois, and 8 Ambigs, fisbcrmca ; 353 Mini 
290 Karavs, and 14 H&Uor Y&iaDtris, nuisiciaits ; l3()l Deri 
templo nttondante; 608 Bdndis, servants; 422 J'arit«, wasbermc 
171 HajfiinB, barbers; 122 Lnmb&ais, carriers ; 860 Vadc 
eartb-workors ; 9G Buruds, baskot^noavera; 148 Jogia,M Gosii 
and 24 Ooudlialit<,boggars; 267 ChameflTB, shoemakers; 27 Dhc 
taaneTfl ; 1038 Mhars, 417 Hastars, and 325 ChclialvlUUs, depr 

Yella'pur is bounded on the north by Sapa and Kalghatgi 
Dhdrwdr ; on thu eant by Kalghatj^i, Bankapar, and H&ngal 
Dbim&r ; on the south by Sirs! ; and on tbo Treat by K&nm. 
contains 174 Tillages with an area of aboat 589 square nules, 
population of 36,314 or Cl'6'> to the sqaaro mile, and a yearly land 
reventie of je9559 (Rs. 95,690). 

The east and the Mandgod petty division in the north-east 
bordered by plain country. But except a few detached fields 
gardens the greater part of the rajlmlatdAr*8 charge is forest, 
west is full of forest-clad hills, occasionaUj orcesea by streania 
watercourses. In the valleys ant) niong the sides oF the waterco 
are rice and sngnrcBnc fields as well as betel and cocoa 
gardens. The south, which is also hilly, is rich, and where 
available, contains excellent bet-el and cocoa palm gardens. 

The oLimato is bad. In the hot months the heat is moderato, 
during the rainy months iu spite of severe cold and damp ).be 
fairly healthy. But in cold montlis fovor is general and fatal. _ 
YoU&pur, in tbo cc-utro o£ thu sub .division, for the ten years ending 
1879 rain roiunashow a fall varying from 67*53 iochoa in 1877 
139 iochos in 1872, and averaging 90'57 inches. 

Tbo chief rivers aro the fiodti and KiUioadi, which uro joined 
many small streams. Somo of tbcso stroiuns How tbroitghont tho 
year, but daring the hob weather the water of most of them becoaea 

In tho east and in tha petty division of Mandgod the soil 
blackish and black, chiefly growing rico and sugarcane. In t 
centre of tho snb-division, which is under the mi&mlatddr'B cbargo 
mre betel and cocoa palm gardens. 1'hc soil in the weet ia rod and 
tlie western valleys have many Bne gardena. The staple proda 
tfo rice> betelnnte, cocoanate, and sugarcane. Small qoanlities 
pepper, cardamoms, and i^autaiiu are aUo grown. 



I faaVita.] 



Aaoording to ilie 1S81-82 returns the farm Btocl indoded 4985 
ploughs, lOlS cftrts, 15,875 bnllocks, 1 7,272 covs, 4533 abe-bufFAloos, 
5044 hc<buff&loo)i, 125 honKS, and 957 itbeup and goats. 

The aeUletnent of 173 villages of Tellilpiir with an area of 6S9 
sqnare miles lasted from 18&6to 1881. The result of the surrey vu 
to nhow that 44^562 news m^iead of 32,079 acreit were under tillage, 
and to raise the assessmetit from £o703 to £9298, that is on increase 
of £3S95 or 63'03 per cent. The highest surrey sere garden rates 
Tary from £1 to £1 Ss., rice rates from Ta. to 10«., and dry-crop 
rates from Is. to 28. The details are : 




Srim. 1 














M ... 


1« ... 

at ... 




UTT-n... .. 


Tm»1 ... 





































Of the six survey blocka into -which the 173 villages of YolUpur 
are divided, serenty-tbreo villages with an area aboat 100 square 
miles and a population of 11,4{K) or tteveDty-two to tbe sqaoro mile 
irepe settled in- 1886-67.' The villages of this block ibllow tbe 
DbArwitr frontier in a strip bik to eight milps wide and abont 
twpuly'iwo miles from north to south. The people wore ulmotit all 
liosbftudraen, and abnnt two-thirds of the area was forest. The 
coiiuLry is generally a mixture of foi-est and open putches uf tilbtge 
fifty to three hundred acres in size, the lowlands being ordiuaruy 
under tillage and the nplauds covered with forest. 'Jlie naaiu road 
from Hubli to Knmta pasKes through the town of Mandgod and 
tbenco south throngh the Mundgod potty division. This road is at 
present the main line of cotton brafHc, soYOral hundred carts passing 
daily in tbo exporting season. This traBic creates a great demand 
fur all kinds of fodder. Though there is no important trade centre in 
Mundgod, there are several Ioch.1 markets. The large country towns 
of Hdogal and Bantuipur in Dh4rw&r are only a few miles oror the 
border. The Kumta and Hubli road with its thousands of return 
carts, oither empty or bolf-ladon, offers excellent opportonitiea for 
the disposal of produce. Of all of these villages rice is tbe stnple 
produce. The dry-crop tillage is poor, as the rainfall is too heavy 
to fiwx. any dry-grain bat rngi. Sugarcane to some extent is grown 
in all villages, and a few villages have a small arrai, only thirty-four 
acres in all, of betel and cocoa palm garden watered from pnnds. The 
people were generally well-to-do. For somo years before the survey. 

' SwTcy Report*, SM of nrA April 1697. ud 814 «f Uth Novtmbw IM7. 








ijrter XIIL 



Stock III. 

especuUly st and near Muadgod, tb^ had aiiffered sorely £roni le\ 
Ti'liich boforu 1863 bad bcon compamtiv-ely Httlo known. 
exprieuce of tlio five years before the Rurvey Memeil lo show 
tliu foTL-r ytoA most <Icud)y in places uuch u Mnndgod wbero 
was a mixture of tillflpe »ud of forest. The surrey measurcmeu 
ahow tluit the aroa under tiltagowM 25j3S5 acros, not 1^,1 17 
as before n^luniod ; iho acttleiuonfc raised the asiteeaitic-ut fnim 
£2281 tfl £3846 (Ra. 22,810-Rs. 8«,460), nn incTwise of £l.v 
6861 per cent. The higbeat survey acre mteis ari% £1 for j/u .■ 
land, Hi. 9a. nod 10«. forrioe landj and \%8. for dry>orop Land, lu 
twcnty-thrw) of the Borenty-Uire© villages of tUiu lilock, in yVv^ 
rates introduced between 1820 and 1625 wore in forc^-, 
aHceftmeDt vas reduced by about three per cont and in the TCiii<uiu:'i 
villages it waa raised by 101 per cent. The old returns showed 4\ 
aoive of grant or wim land, whioli gradual. ULorooclunout tm 
increased to nine acre^. The 4^ acres of eQCroacIunent won, 
recorded oa Government land and brongbt nnder asMSsmcnt. 

Most of the second block of twenty riUogoa which -wore K^'^lM 
in 1869-70 He to the south of the Mundgod petty division.^ K>i .. 
where the minfall is too great for good dry-crop tilla^ and lis 
tract is essertiaily rice-growing. As a rule tillage is coti6ned lo 
tlie neighbourhood of villagea, moot of the aroa being covered «-itL 
forest which is generally fairly froe from uodorwood. TLis^ and ibo 
Qoiglibouriug part of Sirsi vaa exceedingly fevor-strickcn dnring 
the four or Bve years before 1869-70, Almost all the villages an 
within a mile or two of the high-road from HubU to Sirbi and ' 
Kurata. At the time of the Betticmeot the t\-holu of ibo occnpied 
land was in acvontecn of the twenty villages. The remaining thrw 
villages, in consoquenco of the fever which firat broke out iu 1 ■ '^, 
were dvscrtcd and waste. The area of the twenty inhabited vilUifii 
was 16,421 acres of which S431 acres wcro occupied, 078 acm 
wcro fit for tillage and divided into suialJ sur^'ey nombers tml 
aHsc^sed, and 11,259 acres were unarahlo, being chiefly cover-"'! 
with forest. Thf popnlation was 2022 or »erenty-nioe to the sqaon 
tnile, a fair average conaidoring how largo a proportion of (he art* 
was forest. The snrvoy men™ rem on ta sliowed that the area . 
tillage was 3431 a^res, not 29-ld acres »» entered in tho old tv. 
The now sottlomcnt raised tbe assessment from ££25 tu 
(Rs. 5260 - Ra. 5880), or an increase of 1200 per cent. The higuw. 
survey acre rates aro, £1 for garden land, 9«. and 10*. for rico lanti, 
and l}s. and 2s. for dry-crop land. As seventeen of the twsoty 
Tillages were surveyed and assessed under the Madras GovoratDSat 
in IBSS-^S) the increase of the snrvoy assessment was compar&tively 
small in spite of the large incronse in tbe oecnpied aren. 

Tbe third block of the twenty-foor villages which wore settled in 
1872-73 hare on area of 14S square mdes and a jwpulntion of 
4357 or thirty to the square mile.^ Tlie villages are email and 
are separated by largo stretches of forest They lie west of tba 

* Sorrey Roport, 1898 of «th I>ec. IS71. < Sorny Rtport, IM «( Sra Fsh. 1872. 



Vnndgoi] petty dirinion and to tlie soutli of the Ha1i'y£1 niitmlatd^s 
elur]c:«, and on tha north-w^gt aro bounded by K&tghatgi la 
Dhfirwilr. Tlie block includes two groups of yillngea separated by 
four or 6to mile*. The first or Inr^fer KToap stw'iclies from tha 
Db^wir (rantier to the towa of Yell&pur, on ettcli side of tlio main 
TO«d from Hiihli to KixvAx by tho Xrfcail -pass; the second or 
siuulk-r in-ou]) Lies soutb-weet of YellApur oq both sidca of tho 
Blaign hill pus. Rice Is the main crop. The ^1 of rain is vpry 
IteavT nt YvllApor and lighter aear the Dhirw&r frontier, and again 
heavier to the south-west near the SahyAdris. The dry-crop tillage 
is poor, especially near the Sahy&lris. The gardens are fine, betel 
ADQ ooooa palms grovring frcoly in the moist bottoms with little or 
no vatenng. The higbeat survey acre raids were fixed at £1 4«, for 

rden land, 8«. 9s. aud 1 0«. for rice land, and \». 1 \a. 1 Je. 1 }s. and 
for dry-crop land. The result of the eurrey measurements was to 
ohow that the area under tillage was S566 acres, not 44)!)4 acres as 
entered in the former rolumB. And the result of the settlement was 
to raise the assossment from £751 to £1329, au incroase of £57B or 
7fl*90 per cent. These villages liave 80,428 acres of Government 
unaraMe unasaoBwd waste, ahnost tho whole of which wae forest 
land of fair quality. 

The fourth block of sixteen villages, which were settled in 1677-78, 
are mixed with and border on tho twenty-foor villages of YelMpur 
which wen; settled in March 1872.' They are at no great diiitanca 
from the towii of YclIApnr or from tho JCumta-Habli trunk road 
from tho uousb to Hubli. Th» iiru'a of the viUages of this block is 
40,177 acres or sixty-three square miles, and the population ia 2193 
or 34*8 to the squaro mile. This very low pressure of population 
ia doe to the &ct that about 37,000 acres or abont ninety per 
oent of the whole are forest land. On the arable area the 
preesnre of the population ia 4386 to the square mile. Tha 
ahnndant rainfall enables oU the vilt^rcs to grow ezccltoDt rico, 
and, in ttte lower rico lands, can be raised in rotation 
with rieo every third year. None of these villages are distant from 
large markets or from oommunic-ations. The most oiit-of-tbe way is 
not more than Sve mileti either from the town of Yell&pnr or from 
Knmta-Hubli high-road. Most of the 339 acres of garden are very 
superior. Many cocoa palms and betel plantations have 800 to 1000 
trees to tho acre. Popper vines are commonly trained op the betel 
stems and in aomH gardens cardamoms are grown. The highest 
acre rates were fixed at £1 8». for garden laud, 8*. to 10*. for rioo 
land, and In. IJir. l^x. and Ijs. for dry-crop land. The resmlt of 
the survey measurement was to show 2591 acres under tillage, not 
2055 as entered in tho formor returns. Tho result of tho setilo- 
maat was to rniso tho assessment from £648 to £9 17, that is an 
increase of £269 or forty-ono per cent. From tho extreme inuqualitT 
of the old assessment this iucrosse was very nnovenly distrihutea. 
Hren in neighbouring Tillages there was a marked ditfcrcuce. Tha 
village of Joglepal shotred an increase of 12*5 percent, its neighbour 

> Sum7 Roporl, iieufSOth A|iril 1878. 

Chapter Znl 

BUei in. 


a 616-31 




duiptor XIII. 

uuka r. 

Mxk VI. 

Ambgaam AH iQcrnue o£ 232 per coot, SDlcosarlialH an increaMJ 
12i>'8 p*r cent, nnd Tutgar of ouly 8'3 per cent. 

'Vhs Bfth bl(x-k of sixteen ritlngea vrliicli nrero settled in 1879J 
has an area of 40,673 acrea or ^ixt^.tkree sqaaro miles and a pops 
tion of only 128? or twenty to the Hqnare mile.' Tho scantiness tx I 
popnlatioQ is due to the fact that 38,1^0 acres or oincty-Cwo pcr< 
of tlie area vas under Forest, Tbe pressure on the 261 3 arable ac 
waa S2l to the square mile. The sixteen villogos of this block \ 
mixed with and border on the twoaty-four rUUges settled iu M 
and the irixteen settled in \fi7S. Most of the tillngv is in 
magniHcont Snhy&dri forcsia. Rico and gardoa prodacio ore 
etaplo crops, Bugaicano being grown in a three-yoar rotation 
ricv in tho loiver lands. The garden ctiltiTatioti^ partiotdarly in 
rillngos Dcarthe Sahyiidns, is sptvinlly oxoeltout. Ilia gnrdan 
are bcttl-palms not imfrequcntiy ouc thouanud fall-ffrown t«_, 
the acre, some cocoa-palnis, the black pepper vino Tvhion i.i comnioa 
mined up the betel stcma, and cardamoms and plantains wbif 
are grown under and between the pnlms. Tliese gardens are al« 
in do«p moist valleys between hilU covered with evergreen for 
Many of them are so moist as to want little watering; thei 
are watered fram tttrcnms wliicli mn throughout tho year. Mostj 
the gftnleuB are owned by Unvig UHUiniana,whobriDg labonrl 
tho oi>ilat and live in their gnrdentt nil tho year round, ieolalod, . 
often iu most feverish places. The higlieitt survey ftcrC rates'* 
fixed at £1 tix. for garden land, 8«. to lOx. for rice land^ and W 
1 Js. for dry-crop land. The leanlt of the survey measnrei 
won to show that 21 60 acres were under tillage instead of tho 1^ 
which w«ro entered in Iho former records. The now rates 
tho assessment from £414 to£iJ64, an increaaoof £470 or 113-S 
oent. In addition to the largo area of encroncbinont which 
Borvey mcasunstncnti^ brought to liKht, the luadri of eight of 1 
Tillages betoiigod to tho Uoudli munastory and had before 
aMCssod at BptciuUy caey rutuit. The sarvoy raieied tho asaessiat 
in those villages fruin £47 to £176. Id the remaining ei| 
villages the incrcaso under tho now assessment varied from 
seven to 277 per coat. One of the most marked cases of int _ 
wa.s tho villngo of Arfanjl, tbe iU!¥088mont of which waa raised ft 
£-18 to £116. Tho village of Arlmil is the great halting plucej 
cartH coming from and going to ICumtn and K^rwar by the Arl 
paea. It hod eighty<six acres of excellent cocoanut and bcteli 
gardens, besides 270 acres of good rice land in much of wl 
sogarcano was grown. Tbe old assesemeDt barely gave \a. the ; 
all round uu rice land and 8^. the acre on garden land. 

The Rixth bloclc of twenty-four villages, with an aroa of at 
iifty-five square miles and a population of 3200 or fifty-eight to 
sqiiare mite, were settled in 1830-81.^ Most of the viltBgt>a lie to i 
west of Y^lltlpur on the alopoa or at the f<$ot of the .SahyAdris. At 
elcreo-twelfths of the area was under forest. Uico waa tbe st 
grain and niytwaa the only dry-crop. Tho gaxdons contained bet 

' Stine/ Beport, 341 ol 13bb April 1880. * 8tirr«r lUport, W& ol 2ard Mardi : 




klma, cardaiDOmSi pepper, and cocoanuta. The gardena vera 

iccodingly ROod, tho groat ob^^taclo to cultivation being the want 

Ubour. Tbe climate ia feverish &ud tryiatif to strongom. The 

i survey acre rates were lixed at Si 4». and £1 8». for 

iDSj 7«. 8s. and 9s. for rice land, and 1|«. for drr-crop land. 

gorveT measurement raised the occupied area from 32S6lo fil79 

res, aod the Betttemcnt raised the astiessmeat from £JQS4 to 

\7&4, that 13 an increase of £650 or o9'96 per cent. 

' The 1881 popniatioa retnrns Hhow, of 36,31'i people, 31,S4>5 or 
)0-8lj per cent Hindus; S\-iG or 9-48 per cent Musalm&nn ; 1322 
IT S'&i per cent Cbriscinns ; and one .Jew. The details of tho Tlindn 
Mtea are, i>220 Brrthmans ; 463 VtiniH, 287 Lingdyato, 2^7 N>^rvek&r 
TAoiB, HJ8 Mallavs, 83 Komtigs, 75 Teltiga VAnIa, and 4« Ldd Vdiiis, 
raders and mfirchauts; 4^1 Marthas aud 85 Rajputs, warlilcQ 
llaaaes; 2305 Koabis, 1238 Kare Vakkato, 1238 PaQchamft&lifl, 635 
lalvakki Vakkalo, 477 Sndirs, 223 Gdm Vakkals, 16B JaioH. 81 
tadtis, 63 Chetris, 06 MtUis, and 43 Ghadis or soothsayers, huBbiuid- 
lon ; 067 SoD&rs^ gold and HiKer smithR ; 23S LohiLrit, hlucksmiths ; 
21 Sntars, carpeotera; 103 KumbArs, pottorB ; 87 !^himpi8J tailorfl; 
16 Jingars, aaddle-mukers ; 28 Uauiidia, masous ; 191 Telia, oilmea; 
43 Pattidlifi, eilk-cord makers; 789 Kom^Tp^iiks, 494 UalepAiks.nnd 
IthsDddns, palta-tappers ; 627 Dhangars, aliopherds; I>07Gaulisj 
iwherds; 114 Uollare, cuwkeppers ; 523 Kabhere, 34 Khi^rvie, 28 
bois, 20 Ambits, and IS Uiirkuntniit, fiahcrmcu ; 476 Sappnliga, 
<94 ^(augs, 2o9 Koravs, and 7S Hilllor Vdjantriit, musirianft ; 
'21 lUadis, servants; -178 Farits, wai-liormou ; 302 jJcTlis, tcmplo 
teodauta ; 161 Ilujilins, barbers; 366 Lambltnis. carriers ; 1504 
addara, earth-worltors ; 198 Bnrnds, basket-weaver* ; 149 
llthkiiris, cacechu-makers ; 514 Jogia and 86 Gos&via, beggars; 78 
/bamgilrs, shoemakers ; 5 Dhors, taonors; 607 Beds or Talvars, 492 
Uh&rs, 186 Chohalvddia, and 110 Haalars, depressed claaaea. 

■ Sirsi, to the sonth-east of KArwAr, ia bounded on the north by 
TalUpar, on the east by Sorab in Moinur and HiioKal in Dbfirwar, 
m the sonth by Sor&b and port of Sidd&pnr aud Kumtn, and on 
ihe west by Ankoln and Knnita. It contains 290 villugea with an 
Hca ofaboot 779 square miles, a population of 62,400 or SO'IO to tho 
iqnare mile, and a yearly land revenue of £17,176 (Ks.l, 71,760). 

The ©aat of the snb-divifiion, though hero and there eroesed by 
orr hills, for K^aara, ia coui]nrativeIy level. Kear tho c«utre the 
ntrface is brokrn by frequent raugefi of hilU, which become steeper 
ovards the Sahy&dris in the west. Thu neighbourhood of the 
Bahytfdris and the country as fur east as the middle of the anb- 
.Tiflion is covered with trees. Further east, oxoopt aome scattered 
ccn patches, tho forest becomes gradually thinner and the 
more stontei Especially near tho t^ahy^driB is n large area 
)f nnusually rich garden land in deep moist valleys between blUs 
povered by evergreen forests. 

Daring tho hot weather and the raina tho air is cool, pleasant, 
and fuirty healthy, but between Octuber and March it is very 
loverish. Tlio rainfall i^j much heavier in tho west than in the eaat. 
At Sirs!, which is about the centro of the sub-division, during the ten 

Chapter XIZZ. 








ipter ZUL 





yaun ending 1879 tbe raiohll Taried from 64*82 incliea in 1871 to 
J lU-12 inclie4 in 1871, and fircrogod b'iScf inches. 

There are many monntain torreot^ some of rrhith last thnmgfaoiA 
the year, Imtj excppt tlie Y&rda irhich flows Along tlio soath>i«8 
border, and the T adri which has its source near Sirsi, there irr i.) 
rireni of nny sine. Villngeii are well supplied with ponds am! 
Md warcitj either of drinking water or of wator for bbu ficlus .r 

In tlie oentro of the eiib-diTision the soil ia red and grows dorkv 
tomrdfl the oast ; the soil in the valloya is a rich loam. I'ho staplA 
crops are rioe, kHlti, mug, sugarcane, urid, Bengal gnua, had 
castor-oil seed. The gnrden prodocta are bet«taots, cardomooifc 
ooooaniits, and black pepper. 

According to the lti8t<82 retumH, the farm stock induiW 
6634 plonghs, 14Q3 carte, 22,947 bullocks, 24.5Ud cdwb, 8^<i sht- 
buffalues, 3573 bu-buffiiloes, 77 horses, and 1617 afacep and goals. 

Of the 295 villngee of Sini, 201 were settled between 1869 : 
1881. The KurT(.>y rvlurni) Hhow that theee Tillages hsTe &3,3 
arable occupied and unoccupied acres, assessed at £1 1,002. 
Borr^ mcasnrcucQta raised the area under tillage from 29,71(1 
44,607 acres ; and the settlement increased the iisaeMtneut 
e7M)2 to I10,M7, an inct^SBe of *3065 or 40-85 per cmt. 
highest survey acre rates rary from £1 4<. to £] 8«. in 
land, from 8«. to 1 0«. in rice land, and from 1 )«. to 2s. in dry- 
land. The details are : 

SiKSi Scnrsr DrtAtu. 




SniTrr. H 




iso^ J 









» " 

» ... 
It ... 

M ... 

»1 .. 

Ifi»-T0 ... „. 

ISTT-rs „. _. 


Total .. 





























The first block of aixtf-fonr villagea with an area of 22,359 scm 
was settled in 18(Jf)-70.> The villages of this block begin fromlhf 
eixtromo Bonth-east comer of North K&tam and run along the 
Dhirwfir frontier to Mainnr. To the east, the country is oompara* 
tircly open and well peopled and several fair tnarket townii sve 
within cosy reach. The bigh-road from Hubli to Sirsi and 
Knnita paH<u>H two to three miles north-east of some uf tbetMl 
Tillages. In the south they are ctose^ by the made-road from tlilH 
market town at Bauuv^i to Sirsi, and the western villages are within 
two to fonr miles of tbo town of Sirsi. The rico lands for the moid 

'Survey Beport, 130So( KUi I>cocniber 1S71. 


part dopond od tho rainfall wliich cither falls direct on tlio land or 
more often is led by small watctoouracA from higher g-rouud. In 
tbesu viUagea aru tho bctoUiut nod spicu gardouu, the most ralunble 
branch of coltivatiuD ia W««t SireL The roeult of the BelllBmetit 
was to roific tho aKs<oMm«Dt from X2SD0 to £3319 or on iucrmsR of 
44"30 percent. The highest survey acre rat«8 are, £1 •Vn. fory^ardt^n 
landa.OA&nd 10*. for rico land, and IJ?. and 2^. for dry-crop land. 
Fifteen of the villages have £<itiji or groves generally close to the 
villages with wild palm treos n'hoso jaioe is tapped, a little wild 
popper, coffee, and other minor forest prodacts. Some of these 
gravea were regularly occnpied and entered ttn part of an estate, 
tarff or kkaia, at a Sxed asssessmeot ; others were unoccupied. The 
asHt^Ksmenb of h11 thoRO grovee was nrvised acoorditig to their area 
ond tho Dumber of produce-giving trOM they contained. 1\e 
area of the occupied groves was 2tjI4 acres and the aasesi^ment 
was raised from lUl to £56 (ito. 310-lla. o60), and the area of the 
unoccupied groves vras 613 acres. These, which were formerly 
Dnanseesod, now bear an asseesmcnt of £24 (R8.240). 

The second block of thirty-nine villagOB, with an area of 31,-123 
and u population of 4307, were brought andcr survey scbllemcnb in 
1872-73.' These villages lie close to the west of the sixty-feor 
TiUagett m-ttlod in 1 BH^-IO. The high-road from Hubli to 8irsi and 
Kumta crosses most of the villages and iu Sirsi and BanavtUi they 
faavo tn-o convenient markets. This triu>b ia esscutiully a rice and 
{garden country, bt'lel and cucoa palms and black pcp|>er all growing 
to perfection. Some uf the garaecB are watered irom poods ; in 
others of the best idud lowest placed, the natural moisture is enough 
without any watering. The only dry-crop grain which v* mnoh grown 
IB niyt, and hiUi, Hi, scsaiuum, and castor-oil seed are grown in 
small quantities. The rainfall is abundant, the direct supply in 
some cases being sufficient for the growth of rice. In low moist 
^aoes and under ponds sngarcane is raltied ia rotation with rice. 
The reeult of the settlement wss to raine the assossment from £762 
to£l&47 or auincrpoBo of I05'71ner cent. The higheat acre rates 
Are, £1 8v. for garden land, Oa. ana lOa. for rice Und, and 1 Jd. for 
dry-crop land. 

Tho third block of twenty-nine villageA, with an area of 41,006 
acres or sixty-Qve square uiilcs, of which only 2266 acres or 9'5 
aquare miles were cultivated, and a population of 1318 or twenty to 
the square mile, was settled in 1877-78.' The villages lie to the 
Dorth of the second block and are within the limits uf the forest. 
The pooptfl are few, the forest areu ia large, the climate is anhealthy, 
and iho ontlot for prndnce is fair. Excullent crops are raised 
chiefly by Uavig BribtnauH. The garden lands are of a very high 
quubty, aa garden cultivation improves towards the forest and 
bowards the moist west. The result of the settlement wan to raise 
»e aanoasmont from £226 to £493, an incix'ose of i 18-14 per cent. 
Tlie h ighest surrey acre rat«s are, £ 1 8«. for garden land, 8s. for rice 
land, and 1 ^s. for dry-crop land. 

Block r. 


Block rrt 

1 awnjr B«pvrt, 93 ol SIM Juy. 1873. ' Survey Bcport, 417 or 2Qtti April 1878. 




BlMi iV, 


Tlio fourth block of thirteen rilla^a, mduding tlie town o( 8>l 
vilJi an area of 13,763 acroa, aud a popalBtion of 5025, wns settl 
in 1879-80.' Bico is tbo etaple crop; sugftrcane is fre(jaentl 
grovu in noo lauds, and tbo gardens parlicnlRrly in the wrntt 
nnuHuull; rich. Tho twa\t oi Ihe settlement was to raise tlur 
aMfigsnieiit froiii £043 to £6ld> nn increeae of 60'64 per cent. The 
highest SDfvc; acre rates arc, JCl .6*. for ffardeo lacd. Us. 9tf. and \*H. 
for rice land, and \\n, IJ«. and 2s. for drj-crop land. 

The fifth block of fi(ty-»ix villages, with an an>a of 71.687 acrei, 
was settled in 1880-81.** The rillftgo* are mixed with or near tho« 
settled ID former yean. Rice ie the chief grniu prodnce, and suL.'^r. 
oano is to some extent raised in the lower rico lands in occaHii.iial 
rotation with rice; the ouly important drj-crop ia rJi^i. In the 
gardens the betel pnlm is reiu^ to great perfection, as many 
thousand trees being often foond iuaeiugle acre. The high- 
loading from Hnbli by Sirsi and tlie Dcrimani pius to Kam 
aroaa«s the southern villages, and the high-road from Slrsi 
Tellilpiir passes through t-lit; northern villages. Rice and betelnu 
the chief exportable pi-odnce, are, as a rnle, fetched from th© vill 
bj travelling dealers who often work in connection with a 
moDoylonder. The result of the Borvey eetlleuicnt was to raise 
saseasmenb from £3660 to £4S90 or an inoreaso of 19*29 per oe: 
The highest survey acre rates are £1 Ss. for garden loud, 89. and 
for rice land, and l^s. and IJir. for dry-cropland. 

The 1881 population returns show, of 62,400 people. 58,962 
04*40 per cent Hindus; 2081 or 4'29 per cent Mnaalmilas ; 
757 or 1-21 per cent ChriBtions. The dotaiU of the Hindu 
are, 1&,190 BrAhnmns ; 1203 Mallavs, 1088, LingdyatB, 1050 V 
Ml Telngu Vflniii. 163 Komtign, 29 (Jujar^t \kms, and 191 
YtiniB, traders and merchimts ; 341.1 Mar&thds and S6 Rajp' 
vnrblco classes; 3842 Koro Vakkals, 1517 Kunbis, 951 
VakkaU, 799 Nidoru, 5(!9 Arera, 527 Kot Vakkals, 45« 
PancharasSlis, 3t2 Hanbars, 273 M^lis, 251 Jaina, 206 Sfida 
166 Sudirs. 90 Nonbara, 89 Padiis. 79 Chetris. and 9 Ghfidiji, huabai 
men ; 1222 Sonars, gold and silver etnitlis ; 007 Sut^rs, carpeuto 
324 Kumbfirs, potturs ; 210 Shimpis, tiulora; 102 Lohdra, b" 
smiths ; 54 KiU^rs, coppersmiths; S2 Jingara, anddlo-makei-s ; . 
Gaundis, masons ; 147 Jeli^, oilmen; 35 [^mosi&lis, shopkcepura 
8845 Halep&iks, :1U Hhandin.o, and 115 KomArp&iks, palm-ta 
439 Dhangars, sbephercla ; 104 Gollars, conkeepers ; 70 ( 
ootrherda; 553 Kabhors, 323 Bhois, 179 Mogers, 117 KhArvi 
Ambigs, and 45 Hurkantraa, fishermen; OdfOevdigs, 310 
y^jsntiis, and 81 Komvs, mu-iioians; 1697 Parits, waaheriuen; 
885 Bandis, sopvants; 129 Hajinoe, Imrbers; 85 Devlia, 
attenduuta; 323 Lumbdnis, carriers; 70 Knrchanis, catUe-bi 
688 Vadditn*, earth-workers ; 1.12 BurudK, basket-weavora; 
and 144 Diisaei^ beggars j GCl CliainearH, shoemakers; 3578 
1078 ChohalvAdia, 641 Mukris, 505 Haslars. and 307 Beds or TtU 
depressed claesca. 


♦50 "^ 

■ Simr«]r B«poii, U 1 of 13Ut April 1880. * Survoy Bvperl, 4«2 of 31»t U«y 


Sidda'pUTt in the soatli-eest of the district, is bounded oa tho 
north by Sirsi, on tho oftflt by Sorfib in Mnisar, on tho south hr 
SigAV 'm Maisur, a.iii] ou the west by Hou£%'ar aoil Kouita. It 
OootoiiiH ninelTp'-fire villa^s with an area of 239 iM^nare milve, a popo- 
t&tioa of 3d,6oti or 140'1I) to the square mUe, and a ycurty loud 
revL-nue of £9054 (R». 90,540). 

SiJdijiur is covered with hills in the weti, which in the Bouth- 
wcet are thickly wooded and in the uot-th-wost aro buro. I'he 
valleyn amsng the western lulls are generally full of gardens. The 
cuDtre of the sub-dirisioD is a series of low hiiU cros-icd by rich 
valleys and many unfailing niroams. To the eaat the hills are foir 
aud the coantry Btrotchos in wide plains which are fairly wooded and 
in parts dottetl with sugarcane and rice-fielda; the exiremo south- 
«a8l is hilly and thickly wooded, mostly with eTergroon fofostfl. 

Except in the west, where fever prevails dnring the lat^r nuns 
And the cold weather, the sub-dirisiou is fairly healthy aud during 
the hot months tho climate i.4 agreeable. At tho Btation of Sidd^pur 
in the centre of the auh-diriaion, during the ten years ending 18^9, 
the rain returns show a fall varying from 73*70 in 1876 to Il6'€0 tn 
1S7S, and averaging 95*62 iuches. 

llie Buhorangi or ShirdTati, which Sows along the sonthem 
boundary, is joined by fonr or five streams before at Kodkani it 
leaps over a cliff estimated to be 800 feet high. After leaving 
Eudkani it ilows wei^t by Gersappa till it falln into the sea near 
HonSTM. Tho rirer Hcmagoni in the west, which below the Sahyfidris 
19 known as Tadri, flows through tho villagos of Motali, Balur, and 
Uncbali. On its way through tho old Bilgi sub-divudou it isjoined 
by several streams and falls into tho sea near Gnkarn. The varda, 
coming from Maisur, runs through tho village of Balehup towards 
Banav^iai in Sirsi. Theeo rivers aro little used for irrigation. But 
tnauy of the smaller streams are of great value in wateriag garden 

In the west villages the soil in the uplands in red and tn tho valleys 
iaa rich alluvial mnnld. lu the east the soil is rod in places, but is 
notTeryricb, Tho chief prodact* aro in tho rico lands, rice, eugar- 
rane, Bengal gram, and kultl; and iu the gardens, betelnuts, pepper, 
oordaoioms, betel leaves, lemons, and oranges. 

According to the 1831-82 returns the agricultural stock included 
34JU ploughs, 412 carts, 10,397 bullocks, 9931 cows, 40S9 she- 
buffoioee, QSi he-buffaloes, 24 horses, and 1033 sheep and goat4. 

Up to the 3l3t of December 1882 none of the Biddapor rillagea 
had oeen brought under the survey settlement. 

Tho 1881 population return* show, of 35,658 people, 34,709 or 
97-83 per cent Uindas ; 1827 or 2-32 per cent Musalmfina ; and 132 
or 0-34 per cent OhriatianA. Tho details of the Hindu castes are, 
9260 BrtUunaoa ; 514 Maltavs, 182 Ungiyats, 78 Telagu and 4 
Vaisbya VAnis, traders and merchants; 441 ManlthiU, warlike 
e]ft«««3 ;2795 Kare Vakkals, 1380Kot Vakkals, SS6 G&ta Vakkalf, 
170NA«lorfi, 154 Kamtis, 103 Jains, 71 Kunbia, 35 Fanchams^Si 
aud 32 Chetris, busboudmea; 772 Suoirs, gold and silver woitha; 

Ckspter ZtlL 




goaility QwrttMi, 


flhVterZIZZ. 486 KnmUn, pottera; 411 SaUra, oarpenien; 167 EisAn, 
bVIUvlKiflnB. ooppersmitliB ; '87 Shimpis, tailors ; 82 Oaandis, masona ; 693 Telis, 
vwwnmiw. ^jj^jg^. 29 Pataflia, mlk^ord makers; 7233 Halepdika and 68 
' ^[St'' BhandAria, palm-tappers j 286 GaoIU, cowherds; 89 DhangBn, 

shepherds ; Sfi OollarSj cowkeepers ; 367 Bhois, 195 Mogers, 35 
Eh^rriflj and 8 Ambigs, fishermen j 363 Sappaliga, mnsiciatia ; 188& 
Parita, washermen ; 245 B&ndis, servants ; 119 Haj&ms, barbers ; 
14 DevHSf temple attendants ; 126 Lamb&nis, carriers ; 21 Korcharaa, 
cattle-breeders ; 70 Vaddars, earth-workers ; 63 Bnmds, basket- 
weaTers ; 171 Jog^is and 80 IHsaa, be^ars ; 183 Ghamgirs, shoe- 
makers; 2879 Hhirs J 393 Haslars, 467 Mnkris, and 197 Chchal- 
T^dis, dei^eased olassea. 

Aghna'Bhl, or tho Sia-dostroyor, at tho mouth of the Tadri (Siaptw XXT. 
rirur, ikbout tlin^e miloa auutU-ohat oE Qokarn, is said to lio one of Placasoflnterast 
the oldest Havig- eottlemoiitji in North KAiiiuu. It has temples of AoHKiaui 
KAmoahvar Blufaidov aod oE Goupati.' Tko nvcr nt Aghnishi is 
cousidored so holy ag to cle&Dse from the deadliest siua. 

Aligaddo, a sniaU village oa tho loft month of the Kilisadi, Auque 
which, with tho village lands of BAd. Bcitkul, Kiijiih4g> Kodibdg, and 
Eoiiai form tho modoni town of KArwitr, is of intei-ost as it seoais to 
btt tho orif,'-iD of AligJij oiie of the Portugueao oamea for tho Ktilioadl 
III 1314 tho Portuguoso traveller Barbosa mentiouB the Aliga an the 
rirar which separates the kiugdom of Dccca&i that ia Bijdpur from 
the ktugdom of Narsinga that is V'ijayanagnr. At its mouth was 
tho fort of Cintacoln that is Chilaknl or Saddshivgad.' In 1580 Do 
BatToa dMcribcs Kdnara as bogiuning at a river called tho Aliga 
which runs wort from the Sahytidriit, wfaoro wna a fortress cnJIed 
Sintooora which jotted out opposite tho island of Aiijidiv.* Tho 
latest known oppenranco of tho namo Aliga is in a German Atlas 
dated 1753.' In. other Portugaoso works of the sixtofnth century 
iho K^inadi is also called the rivor of Chitikal' and the river 
uamcd Ciutacora.' On tho coast of Weeteru India it waa qhuoI then 
as it still ia to call tidal rivers by the name ol the chief place of trade 
on their banks.* 

AojidiV Island," in north latitude 14:° 44' and cast longitude AitjmiT. 

7-i'' lu', wiLh in 1^72 a population ot ^27 Portuguese Christians, 

'Thit o)uk]»l«r oWM mDob to addiUuDS ta^im by Mr, R. S. Otodj, CtS.t Mid 
Mr. P. K. D4 Soon, Auutut VtaUr KirvAr School. 

>Th« lapod is ttikC Kim, Uie lo'linu Cunid, whom Shir had barnt for cxcitios 
lut, ooald Dot BSter Qoluuii iu bi« aocurteil atat*. lie ther«(or« set np a Una at 
rtgk~4thi. ukI Shiv bajos plMMd. brought dowu the Oaogw, the niotteru AtjhnAjihiiii 
or Tadii, in which CupitrbBtfaad. purifleil bimMlf, «iid entered Ookaro. 

1 SuJn'a BotbotOS. « Decadw. IS, ZdS. • Stud»r^ BarbOM. 78 note I. 

■SnUidiuv, II Zia-MS. I Tbrvo VojagM of Vitaoo da Omm, S42. 

■C(MDMr« in the ttixt*«nth (leatwry tho liTsr of Cbitiktil, the nwr of AnknU, the 
river o[ uirzi, and Uic rwct ol Kombatem or Kamtat (Snbdclioa, II. SM -348) t and 
at proaeut the Kilrwii tiver, Cbe Aukola river, the HoaATar river, and the Gtraapp* 

*Uu^ of thia Booouat la token from an artido bj Dr. ti«noa da Cniiha in the 
Journal ol 4b« Bombay Brwcb of tbo Boyal Aaiatio Soei4t]r, XI, 28b-3ia Th* natM 
Anjidiria of dentitfnl origin. AMwrdiMto ono aooount itta Jc/yotfefM or tho Karly 
lalaad : aocurdJBK to a aeoond it ia Ajyadv^a or tho Talaad of CUrilincI-bultvr ; 
■ooording to a third. At^tdvipa or the Pire lalaod* ; and accordiiig to a fonrth it ii 
^WWiM or the lalaod of bhegoddeea aU. It ia said to hare been called the early 
iala&d Ucansc It nu IU e»ilOBG« Moie rHMhariu nelaiBod the Evakaii ina ma 

a 816-33 

(Bonb^ Ouetter,] 






Itea Gve milm sooth-'WMt of E&rwjLr 8n<3 two milai fnini Uif] 
mainland almost immciliatelf npmi&iic tbu villago and pnri n|i 
Bioghi. Tbe islund belongs to the Portugoeso. It is irregular ml 
shape, aWut a mile from DOTtb to Houtb and onc-sixtb uf a tcilil 
from Bast to weHt. The south-west and west of the ialaod u«| 
Steep and rugged and th« approaoh i« no rockj- as to bo daogerva 
to all kind» of res^eU. A small cove in Che middle of tm 
OP !andw»rd face, in about twenty foot of water, gives anchor»^ 
to Tesitels of Hs much as 1()<X> tons burdeo. It aUo s&rvfiuj 
shelter tor native craft dnriiig heavy northerly or we«terJr gt 
The stmit or ehauuul bi-lwt-eu Anjidiv ftud tLo maiolnod in 
for ehipK, being hix to scvon fathoniB dci?p, without shoals or 
Cloeo to th<* oatsido uf the island the depth of wutcr is um ti) twiJl 
fatboms. To tho oaat of Anjidiv, near the KArwAr coast, are H 
rocky isleta which, with another about four miloB to tho eontfa- 
nake a fairly good roadstead where If necessary a ship mny (niJ 
ftbeltcr during the south-west monBO0ii.t Tho rocks of the isL 
are granito and Intcrite mixed with fine red oartli. It* western < 
sea tide is barren and rocky, hot the east, or landward aid0_ 
eoHched with cocoa-palm groves and groups of mango, jnck, i 
apple, orange, and lemon trees. Xrom tbo Karw&r coast the 
of rampart^ a few white honaes, and two chnrclieft ahowing ar 
the lofty paling, mako tbe view of tbe island piotorosquo 
interesting. Tbe air is dckly and the people suffer from fe 
Tho i-tland was fort!6«d by tbe Poringuose in 1505, and ngnin im' 
1082.* Ilie present fort, which was built in 1662 Bnd, on tbe whole. ii_ 
in fair repair, i» a large fuor-Kided building with five biLitiuna. 
wall is of stone and mortar and is pivvided witb b&ttlemonta 
embrasures or gua-openingn. There are casemates under the rami 
aod some of tho eastern and southern 1>astiooi are Curnialiod vil 
orillona Or projt^rting towom. There in a balcony for the guard,^ 
lATge powder-room, a tnagaune for ammunition and provisiot 
a mansion for the governor, a house for tho gntekoppor, a nuij'H 
houBe, two redauhts, fivo bastions named Franoiaco, Antoait 
CoRceicao, Uiamanto, and Luoibreira, tbrco batteries named Pob 
de Dentro, Peca, and Footaiohaa, and several small huildiuga. Tl 
entrance gato leads to a courtyard, and within the fort is a pond i 
spring water. 

lu 1872 within the fortrosB there w*re 527 people and 147 bon$e|^| 
All aro ItoEoaJi Catholic Cbristtaos. Tbe pamh choroh, which is^V 
fair repair, is dedicated to Nossa Souhora das ^rotas. Most of the 

tea ; aod it ia ttdd to havt l>u«n cmHmI Uh clarified -but l«r UIuiil IxxuxiiBa it >sp{)nt4 
PaiathDntm with clarified biitt«r for a hon»-%toriiica. Tlir liv« i>Ur>ilii. whirh waatlia 
popalar dcriratton uiionfi th« early Portuguew tCxUnhcda [ I<ki8] in Katrr'a Voru,'**. 
IL 887 i Barro* [I37III in Vuca da tiama'* Three VoyuM, 244 ; and Onlla VaUe (1^1 
VUggU, II. ISO), M Imin nnjt th« TuUv for fit». &• Kt* ■•■and* bcias &n|idiv, 
Dovgad or Ojfter Koclii, KumikgAil, Dukiio, Mktjl Ctiipdgad or MhAr, tb« Iwt amBll 
rock to the HiMith of Davgad. Tbo gnddnu Aja, who a««)Ming to tho fMiftii 
■ccnnnt gnvo bar nam* to tho Ulaad. la said to hava fl«d from it to Askola wli 
th« Ainba dcatrorod kcr tompU. 

> Jour. B. 1). R. A. Swo. XI. ««« ! Taylor'a Sailiaf Diraotory. 1. W?. 

■ SM below pa(« 2M. 



people are dencendeJ from the PortaguesegaTrisonandtlie Portugueae 
coovitita from Goa, Daman, and Diu> ytho, dnrin^ the eightdoath 
centiii-y were confiued in the island. Almost tho whole popoliiLion is 
gettlea oa the eastern shore. They mako their liring by growing 
cocoa- jislios and by fishings largo namhers of fish twing canght, dricMi, 
•nd sent for »ate to the mainland. The womeo spin cotton threod 
Bud yarn, and knit cotton sacks which arc much nduijd aud Eetoh 8a, 
to ] 1a. [U!i.-t-R3.5^) a duzeu, which roughly represeuU alxJut una 
month's knitting. Tho island baa no rico-tand, the little rice that is 
needtid for tucal use betug brought from the mainland. About twenty 
vears age a small crop of ragi asod to bo ratted, but it has been 
disooDtianed from want of labuor. A contrahaud trade in cheap 
Horopean winea and soirita and in Qoa salt used to be earned on 
lietweeD Anjidir and itinghi on tho maioland, but within the past 
few years thu emaggling has been pnt down. 

Daring the first years after the arrival of the Portagnese in TndM 
(1500- 1510), before they gained Goa., they set great store on AnjidiT 
U a stotioD for repairing and watering ttieir ships.' After the 
capture o£ Goa in 1510 Anjidiv cea.ied to hare aiiy importance to 
the Portagnese. It remained almost deserted till in 168>2 a fort 
W&9 hnilt. and the island made one of the plea3aat«at Portuguese 
fcrttficHtions in India. Apparently about this time tt had \ 
population of over 600 of whom about 200 were the garrison, with a 
eommandaot, a quartermaster, an adjutant, and a anrgeon. Therff 

Ka Jesuit seminary and college and a Portugnese school. The 
;h of 8t. Brotan had threo resident priesta and the chnrch of 
Lady of Dolor had one. A malarious fever broke out some 
_ in Uie Koveiiteenth ct^utury BJid greatly thinned tho popnlation, 

some of whom sought refuge in Panjim in Gon., where there la a 
aottlemeot still known as Anjidiv. In the eighteenth oontury tho 
iiland isobiofly notif^das a convict station.* The present strength of 
the garrison is six sepi^ys under a natire subattem from Goa on £3 
(Its- 30) a month. Thu two churches arc still in fair repair though 
niDch neglected. 

The island is supplied with water from two pond«. One near tlia 
middle o{ the islaud is about thirty feet square, bat its water ia 
nnwholesome and is not used for drinking. On a slope about 200 
yards to tho went of this pond a. nnturitl spring flows throoghout the 
year into a granite cistern about throe feet in diameter. Be^des the 
cistern, churches, and fori, the only ohjoets of interest are two old 
aad ruined encloeures, one at the north and the other at the south 
end of the island. According to tho local stijry these enclosures 
coatikiu the graves of the 981 Bngliahmeo of the first Bombay 
Ajmy who £ed on the island in 1663 and 1604 In one of the 
enclosures a broken pillar perhaps marks the grave of the general. 
Sir Abraham Shipman/ who died on the oth of April 1064. 

^□jidiv seems to be the island of the Aigidiui, mentioned by th« 
ptian geographer Ptolemy (A.D.laO) and by the Greek author 

Places of Int 




i See below pogeffiS. > Sec below [>■«• 2S7. ■ Sec Wlow payi S5«. 




[Ouptar XIV. of th« PoHplns {i,i>. 247).' As in Utor times, Anjidiv -was probobl 
BBofinterftBt. '"P"'"*''"'' *" t*"** Greek traders bccaaao of its imfailing s]irinff 
ffood water and its HnitAblencse as a. plnco of ail) fnr vcsacIb tmdr 
between the Bed Sea and the MalaljAr Couat. No oilior pL'[orcti» 
Anjidivhas been traood till, in 134S,t)ic African tmvellcr Ibii Uitl 
poaacd fi-om Siudibar, Apparuntly Chittikul aoar Siidit.-«hiv{|^, to 
•nuillor island nenr the maiotand, in which was a tentpli?, a. 
mad n pond of wator. Ibn Batuto lauded on tbo ialaad uid mw 
Joffi marVed with the signs of ivIigioiiB war&re, leaning ngaiiub 
wall of a temple between twoidolfi. Ibn Batnla apoke to him, 
he gATe no answer. He looked abotit to see nhat tae Jogi lived o^ 
tlie Jogi shouted and a cocoattut fdl on him. Ibn Batata off< 
him money j the .logi refused it and io retam threw him ten ru^ 
or dinars. lbs Batata asked him what ho worshipped. Ho loo: 
to th« akj and then towards the west, apparently meaning that 
worshipped the Biin and the i«ca. Bnt Ibn Biitnta, like n pioi 
MusalmfiOj claimed him as a brother believer, oxplaimD^ tlwt tho Ji 
looked to heaven to Hhow that he worshipped Allah and that ^ 
looked to the west to show that he wotshipped the t«mp!e of Me>«a 
aad believed in Muliammad the Prophet of (lod." Daring lh« 
fifteenth century, in the dcvoli^Dient o£ tlie Arab and Egyptian tndv 
between the Red Sea and the MalabAr Coast, Anjidiv became a plaw 
of call for tho Rod Soa traders, who Btoppod to lake wood b 
w«t«r,^ and, at a lator date (1 5S't), Sidi Aii K^apodlian says that 
the Arab voyages tho first land Righted from Aden to MalabllT 
Azodiv.* Before the closo of the fifteenth t'eiilury the Arabs 
roinod the Tlindu temple nnd built a mngniScent slone condnitte 
lead the water from the stone ciatero in the upporpert of the i9)< 
'mentioned by Ilm Batuta, to the shore for tbo conrenienco of 
According to Caetanhcda the Moors of Mecca bad treated the pco 
of Anjidir, who were idolators belonging to the kingdom 
Vijayanagar or Narsinga, so badly that tboy abaodonttl the islun 
Onstanheda says the Moors destroyed several fine tomplfs and o ' 
buildtngj? ; they probably use^l the Rt^no^ in making the oo' 
aqueduct which supplied tho shipping with water.' 

On the 24th of September MD8, Vaaco da Qama, the Admiml of 
first Portngnesc fl^t, anchored at Anjidtv on bts way from Kali 
to Europe, bocauBP he was told lhn island had good water.^ 
island is described as thickly wooded witli two tree stouo ciateru, 

I MeCiindle's IVrinln*, 1.11) ; Ikrtiii*' Ptilnntj'. 213. Th* tAXt tif PM«my tn-wt bi 
nftka tfa« wlaEid uf tlin .\igiiIioi nno nf thn .MntiiivH. Rat tt un Knrdlj btt AlSmm) 
from the iiliuw uf tho tamo niuiw intnUanoA in thu Pniplna a* on Cbe oOMt Mai 
Nxiiirn nr lIonAvAr. doR »lN>ve n. AH not« 3. 

>Lc«'i> n>iinatuU, ](H-ir.£: TnVa Cktliaj-. H. 416-'ll«. Ilm ttktuto'a SbdHiar 
ni*7 paaubly bo Sid<llii[nir aa «ld city cloM to Ui« taotv aMdvrn KmItAiL 6«* 

■ I'lthnd in Ua Ciinh«'« Ani«divA : Jour. Bom. Kr. Boy. A«. Soe. XL S90. 

*.IimrniLlAtiatieSaei»ty, hm^, V-2, 4.%3. 

* Cutenx and Da Ban-M in VaCiinW* Anjnliva, .Tour. D. B. Ray. Aa. Soc. XL _ 
CbbUts c^b tbe ftqunluot aiianoiuiil am) imperii work, ami DeRarraa njcEuata Uit 
WAJ mad* by "qmc |Kfw«rliil priuco. Tlic uature ot th« work and tb« tJ>»ta<t9 uf i 
tw(«rotu« t< it in rhn Ftntuta *nffgMt that it vaa msul^ by the M<Mt» ol U»«<« in ' 
latter part of U)« hn rt<>enth or ^rins tbe Hfteenth centory. 

*C*rtaDhei]aiiiK«iT'R Voyaow, IL386-3H7. 

T Owtaaheda in Reir. II. &6 : MicUe'* LtuimI, L tcUi. 

Ooe of them six fcot deep fed iritb excellent spn'ng WAler. 
GxoopL on gTMkt days, wlien HinditB camo to wumbip threo black 
Stones, tbcro were no people on the island ; oolr ft beggar, a Jogi, 
vho lived in a stone grotto and ate food and ncB (jiven him by 
pUBin^ ship9. In a rccoss in Ibc chaDcel of n boaatiful tjtone-bailt 
but ruined temple, which vas thatchud with strav and palm lonves, 
vrore tliive black stones in charge of tho 3ogi. Vmoo da Oama 
spent twelve dajs at Anjidiv cleaning and repairing tho tnttums 
of hiR ships, taking wn,l«r and fuel, and hiyiiig in Htores of figs, 
cocoaiiuta. and fuwls which he was able to hny at the rate of Lbree 
for a penny (six fora eiWcm).' TiVhile at Anjidiv Vasco da Oama 
reoeirted an embtteay of twcWe well-dre&sed men vho came in two 
boats from the mainland and said ihey had been nent by their chief 
with a supply of sugaroanes. One day a swift boat pai^iied the fleet 
and an old man rn chr bent bailed the Fortugoese in tho Caiitilian 
(oogao. The Rtranger was asked to come on board the admiral's 
ship, and Da Gama, who snspected treacbetr, pnt him to the tortorc, 
and fonnd that ho had come with some ressels-of-war from the 
Bij&pur goremoT of Qos in the hope of snrprising and securing the 
Fortugneso fletit. Thin man, though the accounts vary, apparently 
WOH a Jew. He waa taken to Europe bj the Portagnese, Ix.-cqiuc & 
Christian under th9 nam^ of Gaspor du Gams, and was afterwards 
of mnch nerrice to tho I'urtuguesc.' Tito Portuguese irefe delighted 
with Anjitliv. During their early voyages, before they wer« estab- 
lished at Goa, both on coming out and on their return from tlie 
llBlAb&F ports, their uhips stopped at Anjidiv to repair and lay in a 
supply 01 driukiag wutcr.^ The fondness of the early Portuguese 
for the i-iland, and purhaps tho fame of the neighbouring dincing- 
girls of Goa and KAnara, make it probable that Anjidiv is Camoens' 
(1517-137!?) Floating Island which Venus prepared ns a i-oating«nlac8 
for her beloved Portnguesa* On the 7th of Augoet 1500, Cabraf, the 

* CuUahtxU in Ken-'n Yoy^t*. 1 1. SSG : Ouper Corm'a Three Vojvgea of Vum 
d* OajDA, S38 1 ttuil Oct BamM, I. PL iL 2&&, in 1>» Ctuitu'H Ani«div», Jovr. Bon. Dr. 
Bn.Aa.So«. XI.L>D& 

* PcUili *ro j;ivcii in tliu nift^rj- Chnpt^r. CorapoFO V* CunhVii AaJMliva io itmr. 
R a R. A. »«(•. XL 2W; 3V7 ; Kerr's VcvaffM. Li. 3s8.3!*0:Thrt« VoyagM of ViMo 
da GuDJi, 34 1 ••£,2. * Kerr'a Vojut*. Xt. 3m. 4ua. 4», i56. 

' L(iii»il. Caiitol.X. Tliat Aujtdiv wu C^nuNiu Iileot Lore haalicta aDa|{Mt«d 

bfQuttm{l73&it vihu Ui«ui!ht Ui« fwicy of miikinf it a Floating leUad hiul ita 

adgin tn Tiammya'e dwrita of typroadtJiw the PortugBcw by cpVfriiHC His Tcaaela with 

bo«|^*ndI«>nirf«(M«a))ov«p. 101), !UJi)ltl*(Liui>d, II. 3SA, 3£S-Sei)»iMnwto<l(Hibt 

wbtthn* the liknd of Venoa had anv oritfioftl anaRU th« i»liin(U o[ the Indinn H««. 

It mty <veU Im Ihal Cactsra'a eJEplMiaaaii of th« PliMtiiijc laluid U funciful. Bnt th* 

auv with whlcli Camooai gtrva the faiator; (if Dn Onmn'* tlao^iTa and oaoape from 

KalUiab uid ttien dmcrfliest caaotlj aa it nappcntal, liow joyful in their racapo (nun 

Inuiuroiu lUlikat tbo Indcn «[ Ui« fl<«t, vith cornat ojrn soagUl cape or b«y, 

ftrlccui «aay«t thoir waUry way, aonght cape or 1^ iram whence tlieir boata 

sdghtbrin^toahMlthfnlbtunty of tfaaeryatal tpriag. Tb«y taw the Ouatina vtMnre 

vi Uie III* «1 Lova, and mnootbty loil o'or furrowed tide, rij^t to tlt« iilo «7 joy the 

Kiiiili iiiiiU. nnliirinii Ui«liny. a infn rctruit, where not a Matt ml^libHhakc itatintter- 

ugpinianao'cir the •il«nt lake (Mioklo'il'OBiail. [1. 325-320). ConaidvrinK how cIiMriy 

WMc Uox* of Caswctis' kcu)) to Ui« taoto of V* Gama'a -^ytfft tli«r« Mtma no r««aon 

to doaU Ui»t It waa tito thankfatneaa of Da Gkina'a fl««t io raeh a gad-Mot idanil a* 

Antidiv. with ita pMoefnl harbour, kiiully i>oople,- palm gnxru, and beutifal watar 

■ud [ciltajM tiM rev«l( oitbe mors MODre aalfora of f utnra voraem. Uut •ogfMlcd to 

CuDOMU to tarn Anjkllv into an Uand of Lotd. Though AjiJidiT nay 1m tfc« hia- 


[Boatay Qi 



ItptoT ZXT. 



oomm&nder of tlie aecond Purtagaeae fleet, lauded at Aniidiv, . 
on the 20tli of Aueimt tbu wbolo of his ct«w confessed ana rcoeii 
the tsacrunenO ui Kuvumber 1501 Anjldiv wua viailed by Jotia 
do Kueva who commanded tbu third Portnguose vojagu.' la 
August IJ>02 Da Gsma'ti Kvcoud fleet, which n-ns i»cDttered in a srora 
o5 Dilbhol ID ilAto&giri, caiuQ together at Aujidiv. While tbuy w 
Bt the Island two great bargt«, ur, according to Fariw, eight ruwi 
boats Uakod togotiior and covered with boughs so ad to look 
fiottting iaiaad, camo near iho Purtugiit-sc ships hoping to sin 
them, llio FurtDgueso wore warned bv tbc Jew CiitHiier and 
oS thoir assailants with, houry loss. These craft bvlutigod bo 
Hindu oonairTimmaorTiumayaof HoD^rarwho aftt^rwurda provl 
BO useful au ally to the Poriugucw.' la 1503, after much 
and danger, stress of weather forced two Portugoeee stiuad) 
Bpeud the south-west monsoon (June -November) at Aujidiy, 
tney sufferetl severelj' from scarcity of proviaiojut.* About tt: 
time the Italian traveller Yarthcma {15U3- 150^) came from Bhatli 
to what he calls the island of Ausediva and deiicribcs as inhabit 
by Ifoors and pagans. It was half a mile from tha maiQland, 
twenty miles roand; the air was not good, aeilhcr was the pi 
fertile. There was an oscelleat port bctwocn the lAland and i 
mainland, nnd it was well eupplied with water.* In 1505, 
Francisco d'Alnicida, the first I'ortngiieM viceroy, was ordered 
the king of Portugal to forti^ Aujidiv, because of its favuuml 
situation about the middle o£ the coast, which, be«ud$s afford! 
protection to trade, would sucuro a supply of water for 
shipping. On the 13lh of September of the same year (1501 
Almeida laid the fouadutiou stone of the fortreaa. The want 
lima aod cement ou the istaad made it iinpoBsible to build a satl 
factory fort ; all that could bo done was to throw np walle of cl 
and stone. Accordbg to Portuguese writers, while digging 
foundation or quarrying the stones, a nnmbor of crosses of blue 
red wood were fuuud." One Manuel Pacanha wag appoiatad ca.\ 
viUi a garrison of eighty ruen and one galley and two bi 
A factor^' was ust-iblished ou the islsnd under Daarto Pereira j 
or provost with three clerics and other subordinate officers. 
Almeida wns al Aujidiv amhaasadors oamo from Uooivar briDgic 
presents &ud n friondly mesRnge from their chief. Several mer- 
ch&nts aUo waited on Almeida aud Moera brought presents fro^ 
Chitaknl or Sad^hivgnd, where the Bijipur king had lately bniltfl 
fort and garrisoned it with 800 men. About six montha after th« 
Anjidiv fort was Euishcd, Sabayo, that is Yasuf Add ShiUi (14HD- 


toriml oriitin of tlio Inluid of Lore CMiinena' wofiilerfnl fwcturv of it« bMDtia 
pointo which call b«Tobceut»kco from thdMtaal AnjiiliT. Burkia (The lnai 
444. Gbl , fAi) in pruliably ooimct in h«]<linjt that the riohaeaa vi tb« pacttuo a 
ti> O iniwi w *k" "■«■'"* FT" vf Zuiizibii iwd Imuil. Ill* rtonnu on tfao i*lkn-l hMn 
wtU rcadfiiwl bv UiMo (Lomd, U. 3S6.35I) moA hj Boiton (1880), Tlui 
II. M4.3S& 

' Kmt* VoyagM, U.405. ■ Kerr-i Vvthgpm, II. 429. 

• Detail* anstvea in tho HMor; Chapter, 103- 103. UlckI«(L»sMl,I. xclii.) 
th« Inclileiit in I>ft Oama'a Brrt vvvmo, 

•Ketr'« VoyagOT, II. 45«. 457. •BaJ««f'. Varthema. 120. 

• Hi«klo'»Cawd,n.aS7 I Jour. Bom. Sr.KorslAsutlo Society, XL Ip9- 303, 



1610) of BijiSpur or Tiia local goraroor, joftlonB of Uie Portugneae ' Chapter „ 

alliance with HondTar, sent a bod^ of MuHalmAna and liimhis with pi..^. JJjtit 

a fliiet of sixty galleya to attack (lie fort ami capture the garrison. 

Tbo (Joa force was oommaadod by a I'ortugncse Christian namod Asjiotr. 

Antonio Femandus who had embraced IsUm and taken the name of Bt^tvm- 

Abdulla. Fornandee aacceodcd in laadinj:; hici troop« at night and 

in thH absence of Almeida and his M>n. Thuugh taken by surprise, 

Pacanha, the Porlnffneee captain, knowing that ho could not trnai 

to the mud walU of the fort, aalliod out and uttacktid his asttailanta 

so fiercely that they were forced to retire. Still they succeeded in 

takinff a position on a hillock which commanded the fort and their 

artillery caused the Purtuguoso groat uniioyauce. In apito of much 

losa and riiilfrring the Furtugiieiso kept up bo dciwllr a tiiro that tho 

SD^my darod not attuck thy fort, and after a blockado of four days 

tbo ansailants withdrew hearing that Almeida wu« at hand with 

reinforcomcntA. In May 15iH), a council was held at Anjidiv when it 

VBs remlred that as the raiuy seaeou was drawing near and Kochia, 

the he»d>c]unrlors of the troops, was too distant to afford help, 

Aujidiv -rrould bo cooytantly o|K:n to attack. As enough men to 

form a aiiflScienlly Htron^ garrison wero not available the foi-tt* 

fioitiona wore razed and the iaUnd was aboodonod.' la 1508 

tber« 18 a reference to the delightful island of Anjidiv,* and ia 

IS 10 the fleet of the great t'ertuguoso general and etatosman 

Dallxu^ncrque auchored ut Anjidiv.* After 1510, when Portuguoao 

power VHsestahlifihod in (Joa, Anjidiv ceased to be of any importance, 

imd the it^lund was allowed to ruuiain waste. No further cluropoan 

rffcroneo to it has 1x<cn traced till, in 1623, the Italian travoUer 

Dolta Vallo noticed that Anjidir or the five islands was de«olato.* 

About 1668, tbo Dutch writer Schnltzon doseribea tho island as 

throughout plaut«d with oocoa-palms and celebrated for numerous 

S^hta between the Portuguese and the Moors.' In I6<f0, Baldiuua 

de')cribe3 it oa full of woods s&d bnsh and extraordinarily rich in 

fob.* Uuder a marriage contract dat«d the 2fJrd of July Itifil, 

fw part of the dowry of his sister Katherine, John IV, king o£ 

Portugal, cedwl to the English king ChaHea IT. (1630-108(5) tho 

iaiand and harbour of Boinliay, which the Kn^lish understood to 

iocludo SAlselte and the other wlands of the Bombay harboarJ A 

m. fia7 : Vwk>u < 
' 1 builb tba vmCIw > 

* CoiomsntwiM of Dalbwiuunju*, II. 199- 20a « Viwgii, II. 180. 

■TtkvoIs lAmsterdun, l«7i;), 160, 161. •ChiirokiH'* ^17'ft^lut, til. Klt7. 

' Brum (Aiui^ of the £ul India Cumpuijr, II. I3A-I3(i) ^fv* « aatntnary of a 
mmmul acnt bf king ClurlM to die FortowaaM Cnnrt coBiplMtiiair vf tbcir fuliira ta 
ddirar Bonil*^ uid ita dcncnilondM. TM fatknnnfl oxtnct tnm tho UaaMria) 
hulN«nlu»>Uyestm:i«tlbyAlr. JuncaDoiii^fnMntlieButorvwlAoooiuitoi Bombax 
to w(^1i Brucw [itfaraaBAnii «l hu uitlxiritics. Tlie<^xtntrt|iIOVCSb«yoiul doobt tlM4 
SilMlt* wn> oihIoJ to th« BukIUIi m it <rtka inclu<{«l in * nap of tlM tenttoriea la ba 
*"-~-lwl ov«r. Id Iko Mnmanal of IRfiS hia Majiutv vary canuBtly inoUled that not 
JMBtiM ■boald h* ctona on tho Vio«-KinK ta tlic Indiai who rmI to blaolf uid 
ttikoritatircly f«ilo>l hi the smrcailRr of tbo promlaeiil laadt Imi Ihnl Mponboti ba 
■■■■1b forclMliM*i>r£ll)0,00Ocauanlby thoosp«[itioD. Bmlrovrc^lTvctiialorinniaMMd 
for tho muTeaJw oC Uk mii mIukI to tbo full vitont tamaily tliowii to hk Uajeat; in 
tbo n>p <»rit<uniiig not only BomlMy but SUoetlo and Thlaa and to promlMd to hU 
llaJMty for tbo powrMicn ol wliwh the troop were yet detolnod then, nfleiiag mooli 

[9ombft]r ISutR**' 



ftCT XIV. 

lof Intarast 

letter was received FrotD the Portuguu»u litiig, tlatod tbo 9tb of A|ini ,J 

Eii^liiih. lit March 1 002, a fleet of five men -of-wiir, oader comnmj 1 
nE the Gar) of Marlburouf^b, with Sir Abraham Skipman aud 300 mm 1 
accompanied by anew Portuguese viooroy, luFt England for l*onib«r. fl 

}^rt of the fleet reached Bombay in Septembor 1002 and th" r-" 
tu October 16G2. The governor of BmsuIu refused to carry o. ■■ 
terniR of the agroement. He contended tbab the laLuid of Buc^Ldj 
had aloae been, coded, and, on the ground of somo allegisd irrofiniaht; 
in the form of the lotiers<patQnt, he relosed to give apereD Bombifi 
The Portuguese viceroy declined to interfere, Sir Abradui 
Shipman proceeded to Suv&Ii nt the mouth of the TApti, bat, u 
pr^ence caoaed aneaaineaa in Snrat, he was forced to retu-c ~ 
Anjidivwhicb watt then doaolate. Hero the Kugtish troops remained 
for nearly two years, during which time want of supplii'^ uad of shelter, 
the nnbealthineas of tlio climate, and, according to Fryur, their owa 
intomperaucejOaased the death of the general, Sir Abnihaut Shipmu, 
and 381 of the fiOO men.' Iu November 1664, Kir Abrtiitam*! 
Bdooassor Mr. Humphi-ey Cooke, to pruserve the remnant of hit 
broops, agreed to accept Bombay without ita depsnd6ncie& In 
February 1665, when the negotin lions for handing it over vcn 
completed, ouly 119 KugUshmeu lauded in Oombay.' la I'fTi, 
Fryer uotice<a Anjidiv an famed for the burial of -some hnndred 
Kngliahmeo.^ In 16S3, daring the government of the PortogoeM 
viceroy, Ooudo d' Alvor, a new fortroas was built on the island, sekI d 
was mado one of the ploasantost Portuguese fortilicatioiia in India.'* 
lathe same year, Samobiiji, who hod quarrelled with the Portngnee^ 
determined to take the island, bat, in July, before the stormy seuoa 
waa over, the Goa QoTdrument sent a body of troops to defend tt, and 
the MarithAs were forced to givo up the attempt.' In Septembtfj 
by way of retaliation, the Purttiguese Bflnt a fleet of small <res3eli 
ttom Anjidiv to harass the trade of KirmAr* la 1720 Hamihoa 
notices Anjidiv as an. iaUnd of the Portugaese about two nikt 
from Batcoat (Beitknl) which they had-fortilled in caae the Maslcil 
Arabs or the Shiviijis that is the Mar&th&9 should aeize it.' la 
1758 the French scholar Anmietil da Perron described AniidivM 
belonging to the Portuguese, lairly fortifie^l, and producing tna beit 
coltou stockings on the coast." In 1775 the Knglish traveUar 
Partons notices that, except the island of India Dave that iu Anjidiv, 
which belonged to the Portiiguese, the whole of the Kanara coasfc 
was iu Haidar All's (17C3-1782) hands. On the landward aido o£ 

EnoonvWoDM in lb* ArpMtntlint of it Thit •ame hutory qwAm front « letter of Utt 
Fml<I«nt &Dit ConneU of Bombay, datvd 3ni Febmar^ im, whioh atotw thia iUimM 
wu «xprenty diocrlbecl in ttie ohvt dellv«i«d to king CbulM u pact of what ««■ U 
be ■urr«udcntl to liim. 

■ Fryvr'B I^t India and P^nla. £3^ 

* Thv d«taiU wgrv, tbo Uovuraur. one oiiaiga, four Mfjuata, da oonMtala, f«v 
druutnsra, «ne •argOMi, on« aufgcoa'D iDAto, two sunntor*, <m« guaaer « m&tc, oo» 
muuBiith, and niuAWHuvm priratM. Brtic«'( Annnw, U. 197 i eoaipsre Gnat [>«>'> 
Martthia, S«0 ; Boinb. Oasattwir, XIII. 4iS-4;3 : Trvrr't Eut Ini]u nnd Pvrria. O. 

•TyrOT^ Bwb India aadP«ni*&7. 5S. ^.foiir. a It. It. A. 9>«. XI. 3iW. 

>Oniw't Hfatorioal Prnpaetit*, IU, 122. * Onno'a Bwtorical Fra^cnto, I83. 

' Kast ladia aod Pcraia, I. ^'17. * Zosd AvMta, l>iK0iui FwHiniBftire. catiL 

3*i<liv were llie town and casUe puxlhI with venlurc, !iiin*Bj plantains, OiapUf' 
cocoa troes, and a few gardens. Tlio ifilaad wiis cliiffly uned as pi-^jo- nfint 
m pvnaL mettle meat, fur Goa auU Diu. Tbu canvicbN woi-u ta^ighL to 
spiti tlirBfidand yam and to wofivc stockitimt, wliicit wure tlio beat in 
InJiauud Vi-r^oocap.' AccordiDK to Fra l^aoUno, who woe in India 
about the eame time aa Parsons, the Aniedib islanda n(.*ar Goa wero 
a great oontre of piracy.^ In ISOl Bucbnnan notices the i&Iaod o£ 
Aujedivu it» belonging toaad iuhabileJ by Portug'ueKO." 

Aakola^the hoad-quart'eni of ibe Aukoln. sub- division, with in 1^81 Anzot 

apopalatioo of 24157, lice about BftccninilcfteoTith-OAiitof KiLrw^raiid 
baa pout, aea-cuatoma, and chief constjible'a ufficeK. an Auglo-vema- 
cnlar school, a travtlIor8'bKTigslow, and a ruined fort; Tho eotranco 
to tho Ankola creek ia dry at low wat«r ; the town is nearly two milos 
inland. The chief inhabitAnta are Shonvis, SdsaBhtkrtra or Konkaois, 
Vni-ihya Vnois, XjLduru, Hul and Kare Yakkala, KnlAvnntH, Ai]C-i>U, 
Adbftdki^, Pliadti:^, Mhnrs, B»kat8, Chilmbliitrfi, Konkaniitor Koiikan 
Manithiii^ Gud^^rs, Bhois. Auibirs, Bnlegirs aud Uarkont&rs, 
ChriMiHiis, and Miisidniitna. Thoir chief occupatJoua are agi-ieultare, 
trade, and labour. Mnay of thu people, oipeoially of tho Musidmliiis 
who do not bold laud, fiud it dilEeult to earn alivelihood. Aukola 
bM • small markot with about sixty shops where rioe, oocoanute, 
butelnutti, tobacco, spicos, vegetables, and cloth, and flundry uther 
articlosi of ludinn roiuiufacCurc brouf^ht from Hnbli and Boiiibny aro 
•old. Tho sea trade returns for the ei^ht ycAra ending 18&1-S2 
show avemgo yearly exports worth £5314 (Rs.oS.IM) and avcrnce 
{nipurt<« worth £ti49G (Rs. 04,!}6O). Exports varied from £4240 id 
1^75-70 to £7iW in 1870-77 and importa'from £«385 in 1875-76 to 
£1 1,814 iu 1877-78.. 

Ankola fort standa on ri.>iiag ground about 400 yards east of the rott. 

town, it isrouud.tibuutGOOyardittn pii-cuinference, and with ruiued 
Oat-topp(>d walln about {ifti^en feet high built of large blocka of 
L^uil«^< aud laterito. The fort is Kurrotindod by a moat about twelve 
feet broad and twelve feet deep, though now much filled. Pnntbcra 
Hometiuwa take shelter in two hollows close to the moat. The fort 
had ono arche<l gateway which liaa fallon. There appear to have 
been battleraeuta ou tho top and there ara seven opeuiugs for large 
gnns, but no trace of the guns remains. The fort is thickly covered 
with guaras, mangoes, kdjit Anncanliuin occideutule, Inrnnd 
Oarciuia purpurea, and jack trees. Tho produce of the trees, which 
is fariued from year Ut year, reuliiied .£5 (Km. 50j in 1881. Th[?ro 
aro no houses within the fort. Tho only building is au old stone 
temple (Ztl* x 20') of UudreiihTar, also calk-d Kol<*ahvar, vrhiub etijoya 
a yearly Government allowance of £1 17». (Us. 18^).* A Havig 
pnest lives in the tomplo daring tho fair soaaoo. Close to thetomple 
Is a step-well^ about thirty feet across at the top, with a Hight 
of 8t«p8 loading to the water's edge. There are no inscriptions on 

* Puwm'Tnvfels, 990. * tteCnnha'* AaJcdJvsin Jour.B.B.K. A.Soa.KI.307. 
'HyMiraaiMlOuMn. in. ITS. 

*ltw«(lM Cb» mall ;jraut Uia banole eajoyi the moooM vi nxDe rfoo-Mda ia 
fttwdgeri vlUage, «bnal two niUo Durtli uf Ankolji. 





fliBpter XIV. 


or nenr ttio fnrt ; hnt tliaro iflnlonal trntlition that thn fnrt <n 
by a Soiida king for the rettidenco of Itia Fnvonrite nirntrof^ii a okUvi 
of Ankola. Subsequantly Shoril-al-Mulk tlta Biji&pur ^»eraqr 
of K&aara, vtho, about the close oF tlis eizteentb century \ui 
his hcnd-qnartora at AoVoU and Mirj^in^ onliuved tlie fortnw 
nod Hurro II tided it vrilL a tuoat. Besides tbe tori Aukola W« 
several well boilt temples sDd a Roniiin CiLtholic chapct under tW 
Arohbisliop of Ooa, which is occaeionally vieitod by a ricar *ham 
b«sd-auiirter8 are nt Binghi oeur K&rwix aad whose charge extendi 
to Vclltlpur. The coofn^j^ntian numbers abcmt 200. 'Die do^ 
vraa built about fifteen years ago oa the aho of an old calhednl of 
SL Mary. When Haidar Ali took KAnara in 1763, Aukola hail » 
Christian population of 7000 with a rich and handsomo c! . ' 
dedicated to St. Mary. Tipa plundered and set fire to the c). 
carried off the entire Cfanstian popalation to Soringapatam, aoJ 
forced many of them to tiiro MuHalmAns.^ 

Tbo corliost montion of Ankola which has been tnced ia in 1510 
when a usurpiD^ brother of MalhArr&o, the Hondvar chief, tried at 
Ankola to stop Malhiirriio, who was flj'ing to the Portngnese at Gu*' 
About I&'IO, when Portuguese power wan firmly ef'tabltsbei! , 
Ankola river i» mentioned as paying them a yearly tribute i-i ^ 
b»Ic» of riee.' In 15-17, in a troaty b«tween tho Portngnese Ticwuj 
Dom Joao Dc Castro and BodfUhir Bfti, king of Vijayiuiagar, one « 
tbo stipulations was that all cloths formerly taken for sale to BAoda 
in SAvantvildf xbould now go to the Portngnoae factors «t 
Ankola and HonlLvnr, aod that tbo Vijayanagar government BhoiiM 
teil the people bo go to those ports and exchange their wares fv 
cop|K>r, mercury, ooral, vormiUion, Cbinn and 0/muz silk, and otlur 
Portugese goods.* lu July 1&67 Ankola waa vifiit-cd bj tba 
Venetian merchant Csasar Frederick. lie describes it as on toe sok , 
in the territory of the queen of Qcrsappa. Frederick and a finoai j 
stayed at Ankola where they were joinea by another horse morcV''>r'. 
two Portugtiese soldiei-s from Ceylon, and two Chriglian ' ■ 
carriers.' In February 1676, Fryer de-wribes it a» half-deal i ■ .il 
by ShivJiji, and almont down or deserted. Hall llio market -.' ■ 
burnt ana the remaining shops were empty. It hud a well-ji!;u:i i 
and strong castle which commanded the Gang&vali river and w.^ 
armed by tifty brass guns which the Moors of Itij&piir had got WX 
of a Portuguese wreck.' In 1720 Uamilton notices Ankola f.t s 
harbour in tho Bondu country.^ In the same year Aukola api^'n.-K 
aa Ankola iu Kinara among the ftixleen districts of the Own lit ' 
tva-rdj which were granted to the Marath&s bv the Moghaia in l . : 
In 17^0 the Konkau territory from Silsi in Katnigi" to Ankola waa 
comprehended in tho soToreignty of Kolhiipur." In 1758 Ankob 
is mentioned byname by the French scholar Da Perron.'** In I7fi3 

' Ankiiln Chiiri-h Rrmr.l. Soo iihove Part t pp. 3S0-38). 
•CatninrnUriwof Dnl1>oquerqiie, IIL Ti. 'Sohaiilio*, IT. 2W-348. 

'Sulwidioa, II. l^Vt-'ia: ; CoUeccao de MouiimeBlM Inetlitoe. V% ISft. 

* Hftldujt'a VojagiM. II. 349. ' Baat IndU oikI Term, ISS. 
' Nair Aeootuit. 1. 279. ' Gmul Vafft MvdUia*. 900. 

• Gtwt Duff'* MAffttht*. S24. >" Zrnii Avv«t». Vm. Freltn. cxelx 




■Hfiihst ■Tftng', a general of Ilaidar'a, redaced Ankoln fortJ Tn 1783 
nn Kugliali tlutiMilitiicnt was sent to occupy tlii'i forU of Ankol» 
and Kadishivgad.' In 17tt9 Ankola was garriaonod by Tipo's 
woops.' In 1800 Srtnnro describes it as onoe flourisbiDg, now with 
tmly a few begpirly inbHbitants.* In 1801 Bucliaiian notioos it as a 
riDDt'd Fort nith a email market often barnod \iy rubbers. X( wae 
recuvering and had furty shops. There tcbs a poor manufacture of 
eotcctti.' lo 1872 Ankola had a population of 2«a5, Hindaa 2604 
Mu8Alniiiia 201 and thirty ChriEtian.s. In 1879 AJikoIa had an 
cstifn&ted pupula.t)un of SOOO, chieSy Bruhmans and Mosnlni&iia. 
Thoi-e was a siuall trade in piece-goodit helped hy the navit^abte croek 
which niTj3 to within a mile of the town.' 

AJlBhi Gha't or the Aushi Pass lain the Sahyidri raQ|i^ twenty- 
fiv« mik'Ji north-east of Kjirwiir and twenty-five mileB south-west of 
Supa. Th« pass, which is rather steep aud about fear mil&3 loDf^, 
has at ita head the village of Anshi from which it takes its name, 
kodnt it^fl foot the villa^en of Kndm. and Gotcgnli. A road, forty 
milos long and fit for carts, runs through the Aushi pass from Kadra 
on thu K4rw^.Dharw&r road to 8tipa. On the way it meeta the 
IX^knrju paaa road at Nugi, the Knndal pass road at Kiiinbarviida, 
and ItiL- Bigp pass road at ChlSpoli. The road is chiefly n&ed for 
carrying t(f tho ooaat timber, myrobalona, and other forest produce, 
and fwr carrying inland ooooonuts and small quantities of oil. Tho 
ro«d, which till then was nothing more than a loot aud bullock track, 
was begun by the Madras GoTernmoht in 1860-Gl who spent £1560 
(Rs.liijSOO) npon it. It was completed in tho eamo year by the Bombay 
Government at a total cost from provincial funds of £68{J8 

A'rbail Gha't or tho Arbait Pasv, one of the two chief Kaonra 
passtis, M in the Arhail range of the Sahyfidn's, twelvo miles south- 
west, of rellfipor. It is about throo mile* Jong aud rather Btoep. 
At its bend is the village of Idguuji, six miles south of YelUpnr, and 
,ot it« foot, the vilkgo of Arbnil with a travpllors' bongnlow, abont 
forty Utiles east of K&rwAr. Orcr the pass mus the K&rwir- 
.DhArwtir road twiaity-four foot broad. The only way through tho 
pass continued a narrow foot and bullock track till I86D, when a 
rough road fit for carts was made by Colonel "Walker, of the Madms 
Public Works Department, tiinco tho transfer of K&nara to the 
Bombay Govprnmcnt, botweon 1862 aud 1 S7+, tho road was metalled 
and greatly improved at a eo»t from proviucial fuoda of £137,820 
(Rs. 12,78,294) including the expenses incurred by tho Madras 
Government. The pass is now opon for traffic at alt times of the 
rear and is used by wheeled carriages, animals, and foot passeugera. 
Tt is kept in exoeltimt order, being like the Dovimane pass one of the 
two main roads which connects Kdnara with the districts of the 
Bombay Earu^itHk. Cotton from Gndng and Dhiin^-Ar for shipment 
to Bombay and Europe comes to Kilrwir> while ealt and rico from 

Chapter %l 
Places a? Intsriffl 


Ajnn Fjt t». 

AnBAIt ?i 

■ MtiritU M». * VhTiiU, M& ■ Arbutbnat'* hlunro, L SO. 

« Uwuro B Lvttor, SI«t M>v 1800. > Myvon tMi C*uu». III. 17C. 

*Kt R. Tmii>l«'« Tour io Kiu&ns B«ta\t*j Gasettc Jul; 1879. 

CBoBtey SmMM. 



hEptor xrr. 
SB of Interest. 






K^rtnm, and piece-gcx)ds and 1ianlwiir« from Bombn}* go ioltnil 
The tstimfited valuo of the cotfcou wliich has pnaKed to Thi-> "iii 
Bhovrs a markiMl increuee in the thrve yoan codinf^ 1881 
dowilB are. £179,b8« (U«. I7,98,8a8) in 1870-80. ^ 
(Rs. 23,60,346) in 1 880-81 , and £;)S&,7da (Rn. 36,97,»S2) in 1 

Arbitembi, three milp« north-ireet of K&dra at th 
spurof til*.- SitliyiUlm uetLr the Sonka p<ua, hasBcurioun ttji 
f^rotiibi 8t«DP8 pncWitin^ nn open space sboot 1000 feet 
According to a luo»t tradition tliis iitrongbold vrnti mnfle br 
alupwrecked crew of Anib utlors who toolc lo brignutln^p 
trooldud lb« oci|;;h1wurhcK><l until thov won) ficattMvd by SndisluT 
RAJ, ihu fifth chief of Sondft (167+-1G97). 

Agrakoilf a small port two miles nortH of Gukarn, appc-ara 
h&To bccu a place of some consequcnco in thd sixtetHnth cvatu 
About 1520, when Poriugoew) power was Gnnly established, the 
of Aprmkona, Ixttwccn C'uitnlcnl nnd Ankola, ia moDtioncd as p«, 
a tribute of 300 bated of rice.' About \L8() Du Barroa tneo: 
Kfcorapan, appnrpntly n mistake for Agrakon, with Ankola 
Mirjttn, to tbo aoutb of Cfaitokul.^ Of lute vt-an the trade of Agrsko; 
had boOQ almoec oDliroly confiDed to aolc.^ 

AvorsQ, about Bve inilcn north of AnkoU, has a famous ^bi 
ahapril >lirlno of Kuntr&dcvi, the ^mily (^oddeM of th«;.Kh»rm 
The iinafre of the goddens is oatd to ham been found in the wt. 
The goddesH in worshippod with great solemnity during ihe wat' 
nightH or HavarAla fautitlaye which precede DoMira to OcLubo 
llceideH by Kh&rris the worship of the goddeaa ia atteuded ' 
uiauy duuciiig^-girlH and Koiikanis. 

Ba'gvati i» a halting place on the HaliyAI-YolIfipur niad, tw<m1, 
niilea south-weat of Hupa. It is a small hamlel at ouc und of a ' 
plot of ground, in the middle of whieh is a marah or group of pool 
uhoub half a mile lung. The flat is partly rice ground 
grass U.nd,aud u surrounded by thick forest. The climato ta sickl: 

Bailur, a i;mBU village twelve miles aonth of HonflTnr, had 
1881 a popalation of 1806, i^iefly Kottkanifl, Shcrogars, RaT 
Halep^ikc, Divars, Mogirs, Subalgers, Christianii, and Navii; 
It has a very old temple of MarkaudoKhvar which is said to 
been re^^Kured and endowed with land by some Nayen about k'K 
1434 {Sfiok 1356). A small yearly fair which lastfl two da' 
is utbeudod by 500 to 1000 people from the neighbour 
Swootmeats, fruit, and country toys of the total valne of abo 
(Rs. SOO) are sold. The village has another temple of Laksh 
Salt was made at Bailur until the pans were closed ondcr 
system introducod in 1878. 

In 1801 Buchanan notices that Bailur was adorned by bean 
Alexandrine laurel trees that is the undi or Calophyllam inopb]rllan£ 
The shore was skirted with cocoa*paUus and the suil was qkhh 


■ SutwiauM, M. 2»6.M8. * DgcwIm, n. 319. 

* Agnknii Um been toggoted ta ^UAtmy'n Armigkn which Ik 4B«ni«s' Bi^lna. 
SM) placed by ban on the ^MtA ta tbe nurtb lY Nitn vrhirli •gTMNi in poahiuB «illi 
IfoMvM, A iii«««[ccoImI>1« itleatiSciilion oi I'tolcmy's AitoAgint » Manugutt In Ck«. 

good nnd nlmost all under rJco. TIid people of BaiUr lirod in 
Bcnttc-rud houseas. Tboy Iiad suffenxl much Erom iLe Ma.ratlifl& 
Idnny ut ibe psliiiH were dead and to till tho ground pn'iperly twieo 
«e ouiiiv p<x>pi(! were wanted. The roads wore yood but not because 
labour bad Iwen s[H>ittoa them ; every now and Uitm cnmo rirors, bills 
and rot'ks impa^^ble for n cartj diSicultr even for a bdluck.' 

Banava'si ur Vanava'si, the Forest SuUlomcut, or tho Forojtb 
Spniiff,' with in 1881 *p'>pii]ntion of about 20' JO, lies on the extreme 
east frontit:r of the distriui. about thirteen miles south-east of Sirsi. 
It IH a vei-y aucient town ailiiftted on tho left b:mk of t}ie Viirda 
river and is surruundcd by a Trail. Tho chief inhabitaaLi are 
Havigs, Gudg^rs, LiugAyatH, and Ato Mar4tbits, potty dealere and 
liusbaudmtin. A vrcctily market itt held ou WudaewlaySf when grain, 
cloth, and gpiee« are sold. Tho chief object of interest at BaDavtUi 
is the temple of Madhukcshvur which is aatd to hiivc been built by 
tbt* early lEiadu architect Jakhaniichitrya, the Uviuad|Kint of the 
iUnareae country. Tho temple is builfc m a courtyard or qnadrangl& 
whose outer wall is covered so as to form rouma and shrintu 
vbich are dodieatcd to Ganpati, Narsinb, and Kadambeshvar. In 
one of these ithrincs Ls a huge cot of polished black f^rauito eupportod 
on four richly carved legs. The temple is of consJdorAblo siiu; and 
is richly ocnlpturud. Over the bull or nanJi is a cauopr rc^sling un 
four grnnite pillars. According to the local tradition the temple was 
built \v Viahnu in meiuury of tho defeat oad slaughter of ibo two 
demons Madhu and Kuitabha. 

In and near this temple are twelvo inscriptions wliicb vary in 
date from about the second to the sevontoeoth century a.d. 

Thw earliest inscription is on the two edges of a large alale alab in 
B little modem ehrinoouthe east side of the oonrt o£ the temple. On 
tbe foco uf the slab is carved a fivc-lieaded cobra and ou its two 
Stdos is the inscription in three lines ; the firf>t lino runii from top to 
bottom on the luft margin of the slab and tUu second and third Itnoa 
8« on tho right margin. The iuseriplion, which from the form of 
ita Icitors appears to be later than Yajnaahri ShiiUkartu (&.O.S5-50), 
runs : 

■ To tho Psrftot^ IB tha rettr U of Um ooatnrr tha klnc boloc H^Titlptitrft 
Sbk'lAkaml, lh« oberMlicrof tboTeobu^uUdutu fniBllrtOn tiao firttd*7 oif th* 
■bvbbUi fortniclii. uf itu wintM moaUm, tho meriiorious giTi of a «cbrK, a 
oUMni. uid » moDaatcrr (wma tnado) by M&'lik'bhoji the king'* d«uKl>ter 8hiv*- 
khAadftna'sithri, wif« of JiT*putrit, with feer san. Tba cobra (h«4 b««a) 
UaJa bj HkUk* tba dlselpU of DuBOnka and aon of tlio pmooptor JayiuilAkB.'' 

' The remaining eleven inscriptiona are all in the old KAnarose 
Obknol&r and Inngnage. Fonrof them are on stones aot upright on 

■ Myan tai Caiuui, III. ).%. 

• The Bov. Mr. Kiltel {KA«av»nii»'» Kiiur«*» Proaody, 31 aoU) annvom tii* bmiw 
from Aoiw fgrwt vr wood mS l>aM or to** a BpHnit of wivter. and oonaidon that Vana- 
v4»i w D ^Diiknt {onn of tti* originttJ Dmvidlan immc. Mr. Fleet (Kinaroae nyiia«- 
beat 7 note 'i] incliBta t« take Vonaviai u th* original Kniiakrit Mid Baiwvuri a* Ui* 
modetn coiT-optiou. Thoa VanavAai wotdd meaD (nc oltj- oftlx! nrnvincr of Vamrlaa 
.ul(in<;o ur aBttlomuDt ia tbe foroals. Inaonptraoa abuwtliBi wbilc ibt fonoa 
«ad BoMVdaii ar« oonplod witb aooM w«rd rc[>r«*«Dtui£ diatrict or piOTiaM 

U coaplod witb th« wsid for eitjr. 

Separate i'aoipklrt, X. ol AivtootogiMl Surrsy «f VTMtfni ladia, pp. 100-101. 


Plawi " 






Inxriptian II. 

ifaaptfir ZIT. the groand oo Uie ri^t anil left nf the temple portico and four 
c^^teraat. <>° BtonoB looomg Bgutn<it thp wiill uf tlu) temple eadosuro. 

InscriptioD II. i» w«ll preaorvod. It ia partly boned in 
ground on Ibe l«ft as ouu faces tlio cenlrsl slirine. Above groi 
are tbirty-oiffht lines of about tbirty-Boveii lettera 
Except pert of the linff the embloms at the tup of tlie t»i ' 
been effaced. The inscription begins by Raying tliat ; 
was govornod by kiujr' of the Ch^lukya race, spmu^ itna 
Ulbasabliava. Tbo Ch&tukya kin^ mcwtiooed by name ii Vihlii. 
VikramadbaTala-PormAdidera or VikniinAditya-derik' The iu 
tion proceeds to give the jfcncalog}* of a Kttdamba chl 
Kirttideva, who was the subordinuU; uf the Clialulcya king.' 
first of the Kttdambait uontioned is king Chatta or Chattnirit, «1» 
also boro the name of Katabadagova. His sod was JnyiLsiTnhA. 
Jayasiiuha had five souh, MAvuIi, Taita or Tailapa, SAota; 
Jokideva, and Vikramilokft. Of these the greatest was Tail^K, 
to him and bis n-iio Chavundaladeri whs bora king Eirbti. Tbi 
inscription procoods to record grants made while tbe gwab chipftai 
king Kirttium'a wok governing the Baaarost Two! yo- thousand. Tf 
portion coataining the record of the grantfl uad the date of 
luacnption la below the ground. 

The stone-tablet containing the third inscription is also pa: 
buried. Abore ground are twenty-aeven lines of about twenty 
letters each. Ac the top of the stone are mdoly carvod oinbli 
representing the ling and Basava, with the sun and moon abu' 
them. The inscription is well prescrvtxl and records gnuta VW 
in A-D. 1368 {8. 1290 the Kihifca Sammttsara) whDe the pi' 
minister' or ifahaprxtdhdn MiidbaTjUika was gOToming tbe Baoa' 
Tnrelve-thuusand, under king Virabukkar^ya,* who was ruling 
Hastinnrati pnnv.* 

The stone>tablet containing the. fourth inacription stands by 
side of inscription III. The emblems nt tbe top of tbe tablet 
a ling in the oontre ; on its right a covr and a calf with tbo sun i 
tliom, and on its left a Hon with the moon above it. The iuAci ' 
consists of twoQty-nino lines of about twenty-five letters 
and records grants made in a.d. 106S<6g (8. 990 tiio Kila\ 
Samtsattara), while the great chieftain Kirttivarmadeva,* 
snpreme lord of Baoavitsipuraf he who had on his bauuir 

, hutrtplioft Jit. 

itutriftiiM I y. 


>Thia u VikritiiAditvft VI. tfia «on of tli« WMtern CUIvVy* kine Somf 
tA.L<.llH3- ICHiH). Fleet's KdnanMa DjkiuUm, 4S Mid not* fi, 65 tad noU 7. 

*TI)i* i* Kirtivkfoia II. |10C9IO(7|, tho Bnt hulonvd kiog of tkafikOMM 
Kitd«nib&«. FI«ct'K KUdaivm DynutiMr, 6S. 

*rbia t)riin« tnuu>ter ii tho oalebniUd Uidbnvilebirjrii-VidjrinHiT, th* aldar 
brotberof aAy>uiAchAi7&, the Biithor of the comoMnUriM on th* Bigvt^ln ftit<l o(l«t 
vrorla. MldhftvA«)ifii7a hiuuelf was a (choUr and author And ma asKiciated in t 
of hit vnitioKs wltli hia Inuthnr. Inil. Aut. IV. 20G. 

'BokkArAyit (1330- 1.179), the youtiKor trutbor ot HArUura I. tl» aoa of 
of the YAdAVJL Umil)-. sad tli« rnth«r of H^rihani II, «uoo«*dtf>1 hia ct<l«r brotbn-l 
Uta tbron« of VijsjAnngiLr. C&][]«-«irB Tmci-vclly, 46. 

* HxNtitiivatipnra or the Elepluwt City U pM-haps a Saaaknt form ol Anaguaflfri 
tbo^pliant Pit, tlic niideut luuiio of the niUf an wbicli VlJayana^AT vai liUUt, md 
is Uter tJmn* tlie popiaUr name of Vijayanagar itself. 

'"nii* KirttivariBMitTa ia the awne u tlic Kirttidma of InaoripUoa I. 



rapresBnlaJ-ion of Gnrntia tbe Icing of bircJa &nd nliose crcet wad a 
lion, was governing the BanavAHi Twelve- tlionsand. Jiist below tlie 
date a lowfD portion of tho tiorfiwe of thp stone has beenoWpped oS ; 
tfte reift ot toe inscription is in good order. 

Tbe stone-tablet contaiDiaff tlie Gfth ioBcriptton is on the rifclil 
to one feeing' the central sbnne. 'Die emblemH at the top of tbe 
tablet am a Umj vritb ibc bud aboro it und a figure of Ba»uva wicb 
Uie moon above it. Ttio iuscriptiou consists of tbirty-soven liiit-s of 
about twenty-five letters in each. The lott«ra are of a Inrgo and 
somewhat modern type and are rather clif^cuU to raad, Tbe 
ioscriptionis dated A.D.1399-liO0 (£.1321 tbe VikratM Samvat' 
tttttt), or perhaps a.d. 1599-1600 (S. U21 the Vilambi or Viktin 
8amvat»ara). Tjho first syllabic only of the name of the SanoTatsarft 
is legible. 

The stone containing Inscription VI. stands against tbe north wall 
of tho encloaure of the temple. At the top of the atono are rery 
rodely carred figures of a man on borKuback and of warriors or 
csooqaetcd enemies in front of him, Tho inscription consists of 
twenty-four lines of about forty-two loiters each ; it is in good order 
but the letters ai-e of a bad and aomcwbnt modoru type and aro 
difficult to read. Tho inscription is dated a.d. 1562-53*(5. 1474 tbo 
ParitUulvi Sainvatsnra), while th(> vietorous king SadiisbivodcvarAya 
was ruling at his ca]>ital of Vidyanagari. This i» the oleveutb of tbo 
\ljayauagar kings. He ruled from 1542 to 1573 and in 1340 made 
u ailiaoco with tbePortnguoso viceroy Dom Joao do Castro.' 

Tbe atono-tablot containing Inscription VII. atouds against ibo 
naae wall. There are no emblema at the top of the stone. Tho 
inscription is in good order, but tbe letters arc not of a good type. 
It consists of thirty-one lines of about fifty letters eocb. Except 
tbat it belongs to the time of Saddttbivaduvamah^r&ja (1542-1673) 
the date and contents of this inscription canuot be made out. 

The Htone-tablct containing InscHpLion Vlll. Htauda against the 
east wall of the temple euclosore. Tho omblome at tho top of tho 
■Lone are a ling with the iiun aboro it and tho figure of BosuTa with 
the moon above it. The inscription consists of twenty-two tines of 
about twonty-threo letters each. Tho lotters aro of a bod type and 
are niucb defaced. 

•^ Tbe stone-tablet containing InacriptioD IX. stands against the 
east wall of tbe temple encloRure, The emblems at the top of tbe 
stone are a ling with tbe sun above it and the figure of Basava with 
tbe moou abovo it. There aro trace.*) of about eighteen lines of 
writing, but the letters are too iadistinct to be read. 

Tho omnmentnl titone bedstead or litter,' of which mention bns 
already been made, on which the image of Madhukesbvar is carried 
aboat the town, has tbe foUoning inscription :' 


Flaota of UtwMti 

JatCryilkM K. 

>SMsbavttp. 115. 

r'Tlun it taul to be another lacrpd litter or IwdMokd, Iwl witliiHil ■ roof aod 
Vilbonu my «]abonl« Mrvin^-, laA. Ant. IV'. SOT. 

* BnoluiikB {UyM(« Mill Cuikrn, 111. 231, 3M) noti«M four iiMoriptiaoa it Bmui- 
vMi, ibn*. ^ifWaMj tmonotiotm II. 111. 4D<il Vi, which u^ wrongly rewl, mmI one 

t uteri fthm TT. 

JmteripUM VJJm 





FCIkatttar XTT. * '^ ^" '^^ VIbhAvm, in the deV7 MMon, In 111* maatli vt H^ la O* ' 

^^^ — ronniBUt. on WsdnoMl&r iha d«y of t&a jatnmifn. thi« tund^Mna m 

I of Interest lnt«nd*d for Uu spring fasuvAl, wm «lr«n u (Um Kod) Sltri-ll*41mk««k« 
bf king Bugbu of Sodn, U tlia DroiparMia ottjr ot JkTuiUpunu t& Uia p«vll 
RANAViM. a.^ M » h«U of (Mwllenoo.*' 

tmaifiwaX. In honuur o£ IUb ^od a car-feativ»l is hpld on Mah4*hin$THr»\ 

Febniary whoa &1>0U to 6000 people atl.eDd.= Tbe temple etijc 
yenrly Government grant of £400 (Rs. 4007-7-7}. 

Close to tbe tiimpTo of Madbukedivar aru the rumains of a 
wliere tbe Soutla kingd are tukid to havo stayed vvlu^n thcv 
to pa; tbe-ir respects to the god. Banaf^i baa oJbo a •Tain teatt 
a trardlcrs' bungalow, police and forest gaacda' stitticiui, 
Ternaciilar school. 
^Hiiiorif. A(;cordiu^ tu locul tnuUtiona BaoaTilsi was called JTuumati* 

the Muon-light City in the first cycle or Krita yuga ; Juymtti or 
City of Victory* in the second cycle or Tmta yiiqa ; n^-iiidm 
the PflJuitTco Goddoea iii the third oycic or Dtoparti yvya ; 
Vanuv^i or BanavfuM (hat is the Fonest Sellleiiicnl iu the pre __ 
oycle or Kali }/ifja. The earlieHt bitttorirnl mtuntion of Banaviifl 
about ».C. 2-10, whtn, shortly after the ereat council hi-ld at PilDa 
in the eightoeiitb yuar (b.c. 242) of Aahol:, n Buddhist elder or t>>^> 
namod lUkshita iv-os sent to Waniw&si tu sprood tbu nmluli.-^ 
faitL* About D.c. 100, BhutaplUaj the donor of the great Kdi-1" 
in west Poodh, which he calls the most excellent rock m-in^: 
Jambudvipa, is described as coming fmm Vejayanti which i^ 
bttbly B-viaviUi ; and tn inscriptiuii 4 in Nfisik cave III., Voj- ■ 
appears doabtfully to give its name to an army of king Gi 
putm Shrttakami (b.c. 5)> The local Pili inseription of a-^j 
A.[h50-100 in the court of MadhukosbTar's temple shows that al 

doted 1578 in tha r«ign of ArM[>p» N&ilc, pruUUj poe g| th« 
uwcHptions roferrcMl to bIiot*. 

iMr. J. F. Fle.t. C.S.. in Ind. Ant. IV. SOS-IVJ. 

■ Aocording to a locsl trulition Ibe cu-fMUnl wulntrodDOBdahout ZGOjatni 
1^ ■ Sonila kiog who acaidsnteUy discovtcod the t«ni|)l« Itid In Hip furaat. 
MM{Bed laikda for tt« mtuuloiwnc*. Tkit etory probaUj nfani to tbu £t<id« «ir 
lUufiBi^n of tliu lilt«r. 

>TlMnamo Jayanti, Vuijayiinti, and .tapntipara dou not anwar t« b»<d<krl_ 
BaoaviiL Bath naioM appear ia JDarnptionn and rMxinla. Tbu lalwt inentM 
Jayanlipura Cor BuLiTitN la in IC28. Ind, Ant, IV. Wl. 

'Twnour'a Mabiwainao, 34 ; Lul. Ant. 1I[. 273. Of ■cmi-titatorie or ilonb 
icfarenoca tn DanavAsi ths eaili««t Ii that tho Kara^tak vr«e cnnqucrDd tij on* i 
iroMXy ot seventy- levMi liinfiii -who riilml uC Itaiuriai is v,i\ HMd<"< 
IlntAfW tit Parilr kin^ HnliMih unA n,ll bin •nbi««t« t« tini-ery. l\\ : 
India, 1. IRI). Iu the li*taiir[i«n|ilnniRntianoi) inUie Mshliklmt (u.<-. I. 
samM VaiiavianluM, Vanar Aain*, ani) X'.'innv.'Uikna ( Wilwon** Worta. Yl I 
tomMnUieinhahitanbiof Vanaviai. Ittr. Flpotindiuuto think (KAnart 
7 notoS}thntth<: Vaaaviiaproviii«(ii»tli«]Ku-taf the couDUy m whkbtJK! Iauhhm 
Mcut the twelve years of tlicir bnui*hin«ot troia Iiidrapnutba or Delhi (UnhAtibfiat, 
Vanaparra). Tbo grannila of Mr. FlMt** optninn nra thai ui ui inacription at Bala- 
gAnm, tti|[hbDaD milM •outb-uait of BaDnvAni, thnrv j« na inKTriptiou vltith tav* lb«t 
aftar uio cclobratitm of the KAjMitj'a nnriiioc ' 'nio Rvc i'lndnvaa e*aiv to Bslli,ri*<! 
and eatablinbod ttit-BU lire Ungi,' and thnt tht town of flAngal, iixinni milr- - 
east «f liaaav&n. In oallcrl in ioscriptinti* ViratakoC and Virttani^ri ' tbc for: 
ti[ Vinlta,' Vinttn bcin^ the naiao of thv kin^ al wIlom cvurt the FAudavwi iM^ot tbc 
tfairUBntn y«^T of their ncilc and trhoac duU)(hUr [TtLii-a wah a»>rri*'l to AnuiM^ 
•on Abhimanru. Sir Walter Klttot baa thowa that tii« tradition tluit H&npd w th» 
|)]iuMi whera Lhe lUndavu lirad during th«iraail« la itUl onrrent aatoiiB th« i*mi4« 
(Ind. Ant. V. 176). ^^ 

■ Ar«ha»logi«lSarT«y of WcAcra India, IV. 00 ; Bombay Oiuettccr, X^*L 959. <M 

that time BaoaviUi and the territrtry of whicTi it waa the capital was 

givc-mod by n kitig nanuxl ti£ri(ipatra Khfttakitrtii (if tht> Datu 
mily. The mention of a monaatery or vihara and the Bodtlhiat 
way of daling in one of the three seaaons bo common in the Ndsik 
tutjt-riptiuns, show that the miniater who made the gift was a 
Buddhist.' The naxt known reference bo BanAyAni ia bj the 
Egyptian geograplior Ptolemy (a.o. loO) who enters tlie city in liia 
list ofplnrcs ncnr Limyrike, that is probably Damirikn or Iht; 
Daniil or Tumil country, under the forma Banaaiui and Banauasi.' 
Jn iha foorth and tifth centarioa Vuijaynnti or Baaar^i appoars as 
o&o vi the fapitah! of a family of mue Kadamba kings whu were 
Jikina in relif^on and of the sods of UArtti.' A stone inscription 
dal«d A.o. GSi records that the Clialiikya king FDlikeabi II. (a.d. 

*I>midaIoiio to V»naT«Bi sirt hj the rirer niunak* wblch dl>iMrUi ttM»lf In tli« 
ibaMre whloh la Ibe hioJi wbvob ot tbo Vu-MLt," nod BurjiaiiaAa In pro«|ioritj' 
Uw oltr of lb« gods ; (whit*) tbo fortntaa on dzy l*ad tMvliiK tbo aurf«oa of bho 
eMtb all round it, covoM'tl bf Uio gr«ttt ao«<ux whioh w»a hU nrmy, b»0MiM, a« 
tt w*f«. i& Um vwnr aigbt of tboM ttwt h>Dk«d od, • forti«M in tli* middl* of 
■ba •««,* 

Thoujj^li tho mier's name in not mentioned, it ia probable that at 
this time Banavdai was the <;a.pital of an early bmnch of tho later 
Ktidiimba d)'n]ktty. From this time Bunardsi soemti to hnvo 
remained euliject lo the Chilukya kings. About A-D.^-l-T-iS the 
Bonar^i Twolve-thonBand, (hat in tho B&naTJUi province of twelro 
thousand villageti, was governed by a family of feudatories who 
call tbomsolves Cbcllketans or Cbellpat^ks. In 1030 the Arab 
geographer Al Biruni mentioni; in bis list uf places in Western India 
BaoaviU od tbo shore of the soa." During most of tho eleventh and 
twolfili centuries and daring the early pitrt of the thirteenth century, 
though at times subject to the Katachnrie (1108-HS3) and the 
Bojaala BalliilH (1047-1310),' Banarfisi continued to be tLo capital 
of a family of Kildamba kings who call thomselvos anprenio lorda 
of Banar&ei tho beet of cities, and whose &mily god was Vishnu 
noder the name of Madhukesbvar, whicli, as has already boon 
noticed, is alill the namu of Ihu god of tbo great Baoavasi temple 
of Jnyiuitipura or BanavfU).* After tJiese Kiidambas in 1220 
and in 127-S, the BanavAso Twolvo-tbouaoud is recorded aa held 
by two of the Devgiri YidavB.' Ia 1251 tlie Banavfise Twelye- 
tbonaand was governed by MatUkArinnnll., apparently an indepond- 
ont mler." In the fourteenth century^, anti probably till their 
overthrow in itbout 1500, Bannv^fti was bold by tbo Yijayunagar 
king?, one of whom, Sad^sliirrAyuj bus left two inscriptions, one of 
them dated 15o3-53 of grantd ma<1o to tho temple of Madhuk- 
eshvar." After the V'iiaTanaKar kiuira Baiiav^ seems to have 

■Bepusto Fainphlet. X. ol Aidtwdogkal Survey oT WMtorn India, 100-101; 
Boati*; rtauttMr, XVI. S*i,MO. 
*Be«liu«' rtolNnr, Mia. 'FIvet'sKinAroiaDyiiMtiM, SD. 

* HwLBM nppcwa to b* tha (iM tuune ol a tnbutvj atrotua (A booi4 eiui Uut flaws 
lata tli« V«r.J. nUrat aaven miW Hxivt fiMwvtei. lad. Ant. VIII. 244. 

*Vmnil* u tha V'nrHa whiab Howa cloi« under tho w>ll« of m(Ml»ni BMUviri. 
■EllitrtaiNl DowioD. I. &S. ' See above ]>]>. tjD-OI. '»** above f. 3SI. 

* Flouts Kdnareaa D^DUtie^ 73. 74. "FLwU KinaTMB D^asttea, 87-88. 

" See alwK p. 9^ 

B9IS— U 

Flaocfl ef Intereal 






1 of laterett. 




passed to tlie Sonda Family, the first atid th^ tlitnl iif wbonj, Ar 
{1555-1698) nnd lioghn NAik (ItilS-liiSS), liasa left records 
1579 aud IG'iS of gmnts made by ihem to the tempio of Mndbi 
«sbmr.' In IH(I1 Hnohnnnn dcscrihod RnimvAiti ma siLimtt^ 
the west liHuk of i\n> Vurda id open roiiiitry inlfi good eoil 0X( 
wlierp lati'ritc cnnip (o the iiiiirfure. Voria^ the troublei! of iIil* Inll 
uftrt of tbc iMjjrliU.-eiitli century tho number of hotise* bud tJli 
from 500 to about 2W. The trails wero ruinoiia and no vif 
remained tbnt it bud uvor hcen a n^reat city. It wits tho t-{.-«id(rtm] 
a tahnlhhlr or sub-di visional officer. In tbu dry wciilber tlio V« 
was diuall aod muddT with Httle current ; in Cbe rains it ma aovlie 
fcrrdable and had to M crossed it) Ieatbcr<boBta.' 

Basavara'jdurg. Sob HonXtah. 

Bellkeri, abmit four miW north of Anicola, .witb in IS^L] 
po))ulatiim of lOGt?, is n einnl) port with a fca cufilomn oflii-v. aU 
lor the eight v«ir8 ending 18KI-82, nverBf?t» vhuHv L'Spc-rt* vals 
ftb £658 (ita. 5680) and imports valued at £270 '( Its. 27W) . Ejtix 
Taried fmm £;(9I in ]S«0-81 to 11108 in 1877-78. and imi»t.rl» fr 
£94 in 1876-77 to £779 in 1882-82. Dwriog the early yws 
BritiAb rulo Delikeri vras mach harassed by ntida of bauditli ut 
one of ibo leading KomdrpAik outlaws was ebot at BoliWcri in 1) 

Belikcri is a faroartto health rcaort. Cloeeto thebearh, nhadodl 
a beautiful grove of liauians, is a roomy buiifjalow iccladiog cb^ 
blocks (tt bujJdiiif^s vith out-housee and Btablc^,^ Thu bun£ 
■wflR built by a sub-collector when the North Kj(nara district 
under the Matlras Government. There ia also » roat-houjio nijar 
rJTcr-sidu, Tho i>cop]e of Ik-likeri are chiefly fitiburs, palut-tapf 
and busb^ndmen. 

Btaatkal or Susagadi, twcnty-Oro miles eontbof HonftvoTj 
in IdBI n |topul<)tinu uf ofilS, in the HonlhmosL port in the Boat 
PresiJeacy, and is a place of hi^tmcal and orcbojologiail iuiei 
It lies iu a valley i'iicirt.'Iod by hilU.' Of 5G1S, the total popii 
tion in 1881, 2o-K> were Uindtis, oUi>4 Muftatm/las, and foot 
Chriatiuus. Ku other tuna in North Kfiuara has Iwlf so li 
Musalmtln population as Bbatkal. Most of tbem bolon^ to the i 
known as NavriiyutM* or New-coiaera, wlio areprobfltly deeceai 
of Arab and Persian settlers between the oi;jbth and thf siitfl 
centuncfi. They aro peaceful and well-lo-tlo, generally tradS 
in clolh chiefly local nnd partly foreign. SInny of the NuvAiyi 
arw wealthy and for purposes of trade visit South Kinara, Cc 
MadnSj and Bombay. The town is about three milos irom 

>S**»bovei>, 26*. 

' Mysore ai)il Canara, III. S30. In 1709 n giiJinl wu MntlOBa:! at Roaav 
Panwnh tlie DiwMi uf Uiuatir to gnnrd ugAiiut riililwra. Iu iplte ul tb* guM^ 
in \mO, it wu Ukeii by the btuiditti wlio liolil it till Jnly ot tho aMM 
freileBluv*! SupiilomcJiUr; Dusimtclic*, I. 1^117. II- ->[>. 

* Outaili kbout the KomirpAiK and HalcplLik rvl>lr«n hn ^*<B nbovn, |. \ 
II. 147. 149- *l«ir It. Temple* Taur in KiniLin. l!.'>inUy CuotU Juty II 

'Coin|w»t Budiuiati'i -Myiiure anil CAniun, IIL 130. Tbia airalo of li' 
pouiblj' be Ui« ori({iit of iU ciuuit vbiiib U a oorru)it«iI form ot Ibe Uaritki 
ronnd town, AcwiUtng tu Hitnv Kconata tlic tuw:i tna aLw colled T' 

*SMaliove Put I. 400-410. 



mont'h of the river, wliichathigh water is navigable bjr boabi of » 
liftif to two toDR (2 - d]. No voascis but consters vinit tho 
part.' The nmnt of gooil ooramuuicatiuuj ivitli Mai'sur aud ibu 
Ooantry above the SahyAdrui has driv«n away trade. Wliat littlo ia 
still uarricd on is dne to the enterprise of the Nftv^iyats. TboQgb it 
is nuw in a ntato of docay, no town on the Kiinfvm coast sbuwB 
moruKi<^ftof furmorproiipeKty. None lukve such m'oII woUod garduiiA 
and Uuutws, such strong and extensive embiinkment-t, mid so iiiaay 
Feunkios of caiTed masonry.^ At present tliu chivi markot is a 
browl liR'l fairly kept tboroughfHre Imd out with some ragularitr. 
Tba oliiof articks of trado aro, rice, bcteluota, cocoanuts, and cloto. 
Tho HGH Uiuio returns for tbo oigbt years ending 1881*d2 show 
ftvcraj^c exports worth £5923 (Ks. 59,2,^0) and intport^ worth 
£ll,(>75 (Us. 1.16,750). Bhutkal has chief coa9bab]e'a,ciistoais, and 
post ofltom, and u KSuaroso and Urdu schoot. 

Thoro* are tbirtoen temples or battis at Ithntkal built daring the 
fiftounth and sixteenth centuries. M(»t of them aro of snperior 
woTkmiuiiihip. They unnally eoaBist of a hnll or agrashala and a 
ahritte with a flag-pillar or dhvnjti-gtrinthfi. 

Adike NieATAN's is n small stoiio temple much out of repnir. The 
guardians of tho eight qnnrt«rs of heaven or the dikpalaa aro 
reprtifiL-nt<,'d on the nmf and Shri on tho liotd of the door. KAmAti 
NiRXrAx's is asmnll mined temple said to have been built aboat 
1550. It has an inscribed sltme (6' 9" x 2' I") of which 1' 9" is 
covered with n partly cfFaood inscription. CHor.E.'^nvAB'a is a black 
basalt temple with two st^ireys, tho lower roofed with stuno slabs, the 
upper with tiles. At the door-posts aro doorkeepers standing on 
snulceit, and in front under a canopy eupport-od on four pillai-a is the 
namii or bitll. The temple hna a good flag-pillar and a shrine of 
Gancsh. There aro two short Tamil inscriptions on the door-posts. 
It enjoys a yearly ttovcmment allowanco of £4 'in. i, Its. 41). 
According to tradition it was built by a king of Cbolamandula in 
mera-)ry of the recovery of his new bom son from snako-bite. All 
the king'« Gtht'r uhildren liad died of snake-bite nnd thin ohildwaa 
mir.tcuioubly ^arod by a Br&hman whose spells forced the snake to 
■ook back its own poiHon. 

Jattapa Nateivka CaAKDBAJiiTHRSHVAit's is tho largOfit and finest 
Jain tumpli; iu Bhatkul It stands in an open space not surrounded 
by a- wall and oousists of an a^raeh'ita or hsll, a hhoymandap or 
dining hall, and a sbriuo or txuflL Tho length of the bnilding is 
112 fvet, and the breodh of the agrashiila or hall forty, and of the 
batti or shrine 6fty foot. Tbo banti has two storeys, tho area of tho 
lower storey being greater than the area of the upper slrtrey. Each 
storey ha?* thmR moms whitrh aro said to have onntained imngea of 
Ara Malli, Munisuvrat, Kama. Kenii, and P^bra, bat only frag- 

* 8ec *l>OTe Part T. 8. Tnyl'ir'a Soiling Dirccincr, 1.309. VmmI* naj wiahor tn dx 
fstlioiut mud. with Bli>tk&t' fort uortb-cMti Uia tiiiniedi«Ui noighbrnirhood ottkb 
anobarwi it fra* tnn r<>«ia tkaugh then aro many to the nartb, WMrt, and •onUt. 
DMA. ■ OrtoauTOimUfta RpocUtM- (IMS), 111- 59. 

' Dr. BnrgMi' Uitof AotlqaRma Raaiuiu, 3-!^. 

Places of IntoiMi. 



[Boiabftr Ouettw. 



kapter XIV. 
: of Intentt 


munlK of tbcmaro loft. Tbo vralld of tLodiiiioK ^" ^^ ^f** 
on the west of the ahrine are pierced with beautiful windows, 
ball or agranhata bastwo storeys i^acb of twoTxxims which cunt 
images of VrishabhuAtb, Ajaktisatobhav, Abhinand, and Cfa&n^ 
D&thcehrar. Thoru arc doork<'4riier8 it dtarpal/i at the door, 
flag-pillar or ilhrdja-alambh in an eli'gHnt culnma rifiu^from a pla 
(ortn about fourtovii fc-ct Huuaro, Its ahaf t ia of a ninulo blorlc of Hvt 
tweoty^oae fet'l high ana sunnonntiDg' it ix a quaaran^Iar ra^ 
Behind the shrine or bavti i» a snohllcr pillnr ndlcd j/nkthtihi 
Itambh with a shaft niDCtoeu fvot high. It Htauds on a platfonn ' 
foar smaller pillars at tho cornor«, with lint«U laidoTer t^em. Jal 
Nilik, whu built the ti-upk' nud whose name it bears, gave nomo Ufii 
for it« maiutcnancei but ibey arc said to have bcon csjnSscatcd 
Tipu Sult&n (1 78tl>17!)&). GavLTumcnt grualayearlj aUuwaoa 
4«.(Rs.2). Ttittronro four inscriptioDs in this temple : one on tfafl* 
of seventy liueaand seven feetlou^ bj three Eeet 1| iucliea btuadj.! 
wcond near the first of seTeDlj-nine lines and seven feet 
JQchcs long bj- three feet six inched broad ; on the back of tho 
stone is the third inscription of sixty-three lines, dated l5r>7 (i9.14? 
Nala Samvatgara) i and in the aoath-caitt corner of tht> court iHi~ 
third atone with the fourth inucription. The stone is six fe«t long 
two feet six inches brofid and has Jain symbota. 

JOBBt Su&KKAB KARivAs'ti 18 a pUin temple bnilt, aceordin^ loi 
inscripliou, iu 15&4. It consists of au open veranda ur 
fitti tidnp in front (32' x ] 3'} and beh i nd it a hall or ayra»hii In (1 i'i 
The roo& are formed of slabs with u duwnwnrd nlopo. The ~ 
or (ihvaja-Hlavihh is about fourteen feet high bnt has lost its top 
temple eujo^s private grants aud a yearly Government ulluvrancix 
£1 5ff. (Ilt<.12^). Outside the temple comt, snnk deep in tho grooi 
is an inscribed slab three feet broad, and there is uuo coppciv|' 
belongioi; to Vii-np&ksb l)ev of Joshi Shnnkar Nflrliyaii's teinple. 

Khetai'ai NArAtjis's is a partly ruined blsek stono Icmi 
(31' X IB') with n good deal of sculptarc on its walls. On the 
of the door is a figure uf the goddess Shrij and inside of the len} 
is a black basalt imago of >llr£yan which is the chief object 
worship. On the base of the temple and ou the inside of thu l-< 
■wall ore Dumorous econes saidto bo fromtheliUlmilyan, somequatal'^ 
and some indecent. The four pillars within Uie lemplo at« ih^t 
and clumsy. By tlio sidos of thcentranco to tho templo arc tw> 
pillars, The flag willar or dhvaja'atamlh, a fine iluted column, m:.:.^. 
close outside of ihe temple court and is sculptarod with tigiirt's nl 
t3ie founder and his family. Tho templo onjoys a yearly Oovar&r 
ment grant of £1 10«. 6d. (Rs.l^}). There is an mftcribod Ktoa* 
(6'6"X S'T'J in the court of thu temple with writLug en bulh ' 
Oneof the inscriptions is dated 15-iG(<S.140d Vighvdca»u Samvoti 
and theotherl567 (.5^.1489 Kahaya Samvalaara). 

KjkBstUH's templo mcasutVB about thirty-six feet by ninclc 
aud has a small flag-pillflr or dhtaja^gfumbh without a capital, 
inaeriptiou Bhow.i that the torapio was built in 1->3S ($.1460). 
is supported hv lands grsnled by the founder aud enjoys a yead] 
GoTcrnjneut allowance of 10*. (Ks, 8). 



' f TBmnlM in th» Dnridbn (tylo nnudljr oooriit of pillared lull* or cholbiu, gklm 
fnmiak or imnnu, porche* or mandapaa. aixt the *«hial t«iii)ile or viimimi. dm- 
m At^pUMD ■ HuWy of Indiui Archltectiiro, 3I9-32S. 
■TIm WKcipt«M rtcordiug Uu> date u ia tvgatjr linn oo k pilUr bo th« rijjhl of 


i&BSHVAxiTHiSHVAR's templo ie gftf-oight tcet looff by eight««D 
broad. Accordinf;: toaii iuHcriptioQ iutho porcu, ib nu built piu^QfiQ 
1JH3. The flug'pillar )h n fine ooltimu ou a bigli moulded baM 
' the small room on ite top coutaius u four-beaded iumge. Tbo 
imple has a. jo&rlj Government graot of -U. (Hs. 2). Tbere are foar 
iptions in tbii l^mplQ. One on a slab d'O" long hj S* 5" broad 
dated 1546 (<S'.14fl8 VigUndwuru SamvaUara) ; tbo second isneurtbo 
Ifiral; tlio third lusidu iht! porcb on a slah .V 9' long by 2' 4" broad, 
datt:d lo43 {S, 1 466 I'lavn i^amvatxani) ; and tbefourtb and fifth 
barely LraceabW on two stoDCS behind tbe tc'inplp, .sunk in tho 
", one of the stones being alwut 1' 10" broad and tb« other 1 '9". 

RAonitNiTti's temple is a small temple in tlie Draridlan atylo of 
architHcturo.* The hall or n^nufW/o is aeparBted from the totuplo 
'proper by an open veranda or eandh^imaniap. The shrine or 
I'tnan is bnilt somewhat like near or rath and is covered with carv* 
The temple is said to have been bailt by Batldai aon of 
Anantnkini, about 1590 {S. 1512 Virodhi Samvatmra)* The temple 
maintained from private donations aud a yearly Gorerameiit 
uat oF8a. (Kn.4>. 

SaisTAppA N.iiK Tirojul's J8 a black basalt templp built accordiog 
an inscription by one Slu^Qtappa in 1565 {S. 1-177). It meaaun^ 
ibwii thirty-two feet by sixt^wn and is in much the same plan as 
Kbetapui NilrfiyaD t«tnple, with a sloping stone roof but not so 
*y carved as the roof or the Kbetapai temple. The doors are 
lnl)i»ral-Hly srulptnred, as also thn inner base round the court. Tbo 
Ag.pillar which is ttbout ei^'lit-itcii feet high has lost it-s top. The 
pie enjoys a yearly QovCTDmcnb allowance of £l On. (Rs. I^t). 
here is an inscribed atone in this temple with in the centre of the 
<p a man bearing an iimbrt>Ua^ a domon on his right, and a cow 
d calf on his left. Tlie stone is 4' 9' x 2' 9' and bears date 15&d 
\S. 1 i77 JiakUikahi 8amv<U»ara). 

BiiAntisbtap/s temple is moch like JattspaXaikanaChandranrith- 
.Tar's temple. Tbcro are four inscribed stones in the court. 
(6' 1" X 2' 8") with a good deal of writing is dated 1 543 {& 1465), 
aooond, a Bmall damaged stone beside it, is 3' 11' x 1' 10". Near 
iBoo two are two other large slabs. SuiicAlk SiiauiiiiuIjINo's is a 
"em teraplH bailt on an old site. Traditiou accounta for itB 
rigid, as for the origin of many other tcmplca, by the story of a 
nan who accused his herdboy of making away with thu milk of hia 
WW. The boy protested his innocenco and watched tbe cow wbo 
ent into a. thicket and pourod her milk over a bole. He tuld bis 
rustor who dug up the place and Found a Uhi] in it oror which bo 
<aitt a temple. There is a copper-plate belonging to this temple. 

Vbmkjltr&uan's temple, said to bo about 300 years old, is much 
iko Raghuntilb's temple, and in ornatnoatod with sculptures. Jt has 


Ihftpter XXY. 
luea of Interest. 





f KlftM romif. 


a brick lialt or agraehdla und ia surronndcd by* Teno&i 
cfiamlraAdla. The templei-iecduwedwubti Urge tu-«aafbuid. Aj 
cur ceromouy ie beld at ibis tomplo with gn-sti, pomp. Viucrii 
KArAtam's is a small tamjil« much out of rapair, built W nne Jit 
NfUkial565 (^.1467). Tborv arotiro othur «miUl tempk-?, ~ 
riitiTu Kbismsadev'b nnd tho Chatoiicsii Basti. Murgupi 
temple biis tw<j iuHcribcd su>ncs, ouo with u Ung at its u^j\ 
near the first broken uud buriod. Thu Hl^jtica uf tl. -a^ 

tetcplo biLvo alniutitr all bosa cnrriod nwaj by thu vi! ,;-. . li 
yamou/ bush noar it in a 600 btrgi< iaKribod atouo (O'lU'xZ'i 
with Jain aymbots ; tbere is a second stone nenr thu first (0' 0' x 2' ' 
B«iid(.-e thueo thvro aro four iiuohbcd etooes and tvro cuppcr-pii 
ia or Hour Bhalkal. Odo u! ibe inMrihed Btnnes lies tii a 
conrw about 150 yards from the tnivolkTs* bunjifAlow. It is 4' 
X r 10" and ha«aJaiuiu8cription. About a nnnrt^rof nniJIi: beki^ 
the rost>hou.<w i» uu iaacribcd stono (<3' X 2' 5 ) with Sluiiv onyg| 
and no inscription of aiily-ouo lines. At Siinkadi^oli vilUf^, 
a mitfl east ol Bbntkal, ara two inscribed slabs toa ti'iopto nf K 
Virbhadrader. Tbo two copper-platoa are id the town uf UU 
where is not kuowu. 

Thorc fire four mosqtios, all of them plain, but two, tbo Ji 
mooquo and Iho Sult^tn mcwqac, ot cooBiderablo aisa Tbu 
jnosque ia tiled and is aoid to bo Tory old. It (mjoya a 
GoTemmont allowanco of MO (Bs.400), The SuU6a ma«qu« 
said to ho about 200 yoare old. 

In an open spot overlooking the mar and 9cr<?onod by tnwa ia 
piece of groand thirty -six feet squAxe. It ia surrounded by a 
and a ditch about fuitr feet wide and three feet d^ ep. The oarth fr 
tbo ditch had been thrown out so as to form a mound ulx>ve 
outer side of the dicc-h, uhicti is a foot hif^her than t\]v ium 
On this piece of ground stand tbrco tombs at nearly equal di^t 
foor feet high and two twl viiile, biiilc of stone, oncb aiirmc 
by a single granite slab. Tho inscriptions on tbo granite 

Here UoUi tha bodj of WUliMn Baitoa Chrrrrslon : Dw: 
XXX.: Novembi-: Addo Dnl ICri Cbrial 8*It: Uuadi 
MI>CXXX(\'>in : 1638 WilUwn B»rtoo. 

Hera Ijoih Lhe body of O«(o>rs« Wra Hkrt&uil. Dm. XXX : 
Murob Anno Dal Stl Christ BaXr: Huaai BCDOZXXVII 
ie37. OEOi Wy«. 

H«r« lioih th« body of ANT: Ter«wottby BbrolM : Dm: 
I: April. An Daj Nri COmaU 6*L Mvndl HDOXXXVH 
Ant : Voraworlhj ie37,> 

Abont half mile south of Hlmtkal, on the way to Muc 
Tillage about a tuilo coat of tho Bhutkal Uudiug, tbo lihatk&I cr 

> LitbogrfciA* in Oriental rhrirtUn SpMtator. ITT. (IMS). W. Tht trwulati* 
thcuiniQn[)tian«arv: Hcrolivtli lh« body of AVillum BMtm, Siirip-nn, 4i«tl 
Novemtisr, in ttia yMr ol our I^rd Cltriat Saviour o( the ^Vorid |t>3.t (n V or fl 1 
been worn oat in the original}. William tkitoo. 1639. Tho *tc-onil nmi : Hero I 
thsbodr of Oaorga Wy«, Merchuit. whodied nil tiia 30L)i M>n:li in tits yta>r(if< 
LordChrivtUkcSanonroftho Worlil. 1637. GoMvenVe. I03T. TlicUunlrsn* ;B 
li«tli tho body of Ant. V«r«vortliy, Mcrclisiit, who died on tb« lit nt April to ! 
ytta of our Lord Chrut th* Kkviour of tb« World, t637. Ant Voravortliy. 1B3T. 



)it« bridge. Tho bridge ia divided into 

croiineil by a mined 
two tin(?mir>t parl-^ liy a small i«lot aliouE 100 foot broad which is 
>vrrfil witli water during tluoda. Tho part of ibo bridgo oa the 
tfaatkiil Ritle nf tho isloc, irbich is tlie smaller of tbo two, is 
ty-foiir feet long by five broad. It ha» six spans c«ch span 
ippartcHl on two ^frnnito pillnrs which atsad ahont four (cct out uf 
JO wnt«r with a block of ^pranilo oorosii tbu topftof each pair of 
lars. About Imlf of tb« original p'rniiilt* p»v»uieut roiiistios, five 
each 8'x2'xC". The part of tbv bnd^^'u on the ^^Iiiuduli eido 
tho central islet is cighty-pix feet lor.g aiiil Bcven broad.. It baa 
igiit 8pai>!3 tiud was supported on sixteen pillars standing iovcn to 
foot out of tha water. Three of tho pillara. all the cross beBoig 
tevpt ODO, and the whole of the pnTemont have diaappeorcd. A 
Eiimroso inscription in Eonr linea on the face of the first pillar on tho 
^hutikal side ia too worn to be reath According to a local atory the 
idge belongs to the time of the Jain princeed Cbannabluuraderi 
fbo ralud Bbatkal and Gfrsappa about l-\bO. 

Tbe earliest mention which has been tmcod of Bhatlcnt ia in tho 
mrtccuth ccnturr. In 1321 Friar Jordauiis notices after the 
i^'dum of &fariit[iA, a Surncen king of Bntijjnlji.' In 149ft Vasoo da 
Evarna stopped at an island off Batibala, and with the approval 
it the peopir!, whaso friendNhip he won by the gift of shirts 
Kid other articles, be set np a cross and cftlied the island Kl 
idniu de Hancta Maria." In ISft-l Baticala ia mentioned an having 
9Como very noble tbrongh the horae trade and the quantity of 
icrcbnndi»c- that flowed from Ormns. In tbe aame year Vascoda 
Jama, after bnming Honiivar, went to Baticala, where there were 
inny Muorieh »hipfij bi-causc this waft a great place for loading 
rice, irun, and Bll^'a.^, wbich wdre sent to all parls of India. The 
rorta^ic&e found cannon planted ona wall uponarockat tbobar 
»nd tho peoplu threw stoneH at the shipa. Dn Gama pushed on and 
landing drove the Moora from Bomc wharTM, leaving behind them 
large quantities of rice and sngar. The Portugnese returned to their 
~]oat« and went np tbo river to the town. On their way they were 
net by an envoy from tho Baticala chief who had been eent to 
Ideclare his master's willininieSB to submit to the Portngiiese. Da Oama 
Bttid Lbut he bud no winh fo liarm them aJid would make a treaty 
30 four conditions : that tho chief paid trilmte, did not trade in 
)por, bnttigbt no Tui-ks, and had no dealings with Kalikat. 
Jio chief said he could not pay a money tribnte bat wonld give a 
lioutond loads of common and 500 loads of fine rice a year. He 
laid give no more because be Avas a tenant of the king of Vijaya- 
lagar to whom the country belonged.' Wlion Da Gnma waa 
itistied that tJiese t4tatement!i wcro tmc he received ifae rice and 
confirmed tbo treaty/* In 1505NHTsinga KAi II. of Vij^anagar 
[1 4ti7- 1 &08) sent an ambassador to the fort aguoso viceroy at K&naunr 
como to an agreement which would farour trade between hts 

Places of Intereat. 



' 1 VaU^ MimUlia DMOrlpU. 41. 

* Karr'i W.y^et, [t. 3JiJ. Th«w [ilitnda, whidi lio about forty Buln (<niUi 
~ Rtkal. mm aUU known u tbe St. Mxry Jslu. Taylor's tteiUng DtrMlorT. I. Wa 
' See abovq pp. 102-103. i Vsho Am Gmm's Tbioo Tojrsgv, 910-312. 




tor XIT. snhjecta ami tbe Portugaeaa Narslugs TL gave the viceroy teoTcl 

(tfliit«r«st. ^'"'** * '*"* *" '"^y P***"' **• ^" dominions oicopt IJatikala, hcevn 
lie haiJ ccfle4 it t<> anotbcr.' About tiie soioo time tlie Italia 
truTeller Varthema noUoes Bothokalft as a vory noble city, five dxft 
{liMLaut from tbu J><>ccAn. It fma a mlled city, rery beautiful, T 
a mile from tb« sai, a.lou|^ a ntnaW ri%'er whiL-li \v%9 tni? onlv appr 
and piuised closo tn tbo wulU. Tliuro was no wa-port. Tbekii 
wfao waaa pagan was sobject to king Narsingb. 1 bo peoplo — 
i^latora tutor tho muuiiur of tbe peoplo of Kaliknt. Tbere 
mlso m&wf Hoorisb merubauts wbo lived according to the Mol 
madan rulit^oii. It was a district of groat traffic with qaaatttial 
rici' and abiiudiinco of sugar, especially of sugar candifd accordiogl 
tbo ItAlinn manacr. Thoi'o were few borsoe, malea, or au««, bat i ' 
were cowi, buffaloes, sbcep, oxen, atid goata. There was do 
borlcVf or vegetables, bat naU* nnil tigx aftarUie maonor of Kalik 
and tbe otber usnal excellent fruits of India.' 

About tbifi time, in bis review of India at tbo establiahmeiit 
PortU|?uo»epower, PariamentioiiaHonAvftrandHatikiilft or B^til 
In I SOS I^ortiigucsc sliipa aro mcnlioDcd as guiuff for cl'irral 
Bateo^a, a fortreea niuoty milos (3U leagQeR) south of Uoa* 
1510 Dalfaoc)uor(iito oSL'n>d tbo VijayuDagar king Kri^bsa 
(1508>I&.10) the rnoDopoly of tho horso trade betwoen OrruoB 
Batikala if ho would allow him to build a fort at Bvtikala.' 
1510 Portuguese squndrous wereseuC to Bhatkal to take somm i 
Tvhi<;b contrary to agrcomuut bud come from Ormuz." In ^ 
of the siimu ye<kr au envoy was »out t'O Bhatkal to make a i 
tho chief OD two conditions, tho payment of a yearly tnb- 
2000 bags (8t,000 lbs.} of rica and leave to build a hou»i 
PortugnoBO fnolor/ About 1514 tbo Portofi^uese travnller 1' 
Barbosa descnbes it as the large town of Batikala, thirty mui'^i 
tho Bontb of Honivar on another Bmnll river near tho coasl. It ' 
a place of very groat trade inhabited by very commorciaMdiwni 
Gentile*. Tbo town stood on a level popnlona country andwaawit 
wuUb, There were many gardens round it, very good eatatoi ' 
fre!>b plentiful water. Thu town paid a yearly tribute to the 1 
of Portugal. The governor, a Gentile named Damaqueti, Mtl 
Dharm»kirt.I,wfta very rich in money and jewel«. He called Die 
king but lie ruled in obedienue to his uncle the king NaiBingn, Ml 
sIiipB gathered from Ormnz to load very good white rice, sngar 

> Ow rnrtnffuiwM H.a, II.IS9-I40. 

* BndAn-^ Vturtbama. 119-IW. Mr. Badsettake* tliewd«ta)l*lttan>1]r t/i Buitl 
thu UKArvAr. ItlatTDatbat V*rtbcnl!^ wEuiatravdliBgaoullL, menUioiw PbtC "-' 
bcforohfi mootloiu Cliitaktil, Ajijiilir, aud il^iuvar. It U also Dve tli*t bo _ 

tbbtibiof of Chitaku.1 •iit.j>'<;t tij Uir king of BiitliakaU. 8tUl Ul9 wut ot • , 

Uie jnila u[i tho rit-M-, tho likonen to K.iukat, »n<i th« five cI^ti from th« IIm««ii,I 
■■lit BiLitkul, met do nnt suit Eiklckul cove nMr KArvir. Tka sppareat <Ulii<.-«1t7l 
Vu-Uicnui*! Rtatcintiivt tbat Chiukul m\t subject U> ttke kbu; of BattukAla, wkikl 
another jtumkua ho rcfcra to a kliig of HoDdvu-. la proba1»^ lo ho exiiUiaad h 
pMBOgc u Da Bamm wlio (DecaulM, IL 319) UcrcribM UouAvu m the head d1 
whcrlo kbifKlom ot B*t>kalB, 

* Kmt'* VoyBfjea, VI. 93. ' C<Mnin*Rt«ri«* of T)fclhaqa>fqo*, II. 5S. 

* ConimMitariM, II. Ixv.; Oa PortngnexM H.», ni. St. 

* Kerr') VojraifM, VI. 132. ' ConuDeotarics of DBlbo<|Den)ne, LL 9S 




Jcr of vhicli tlioro was much, much iron, sn^ ^otno spicos and 

i]g8,of whicli myrobelstis wero the chief. Formerly many boi-ses 

po^rlscfLQiD to Bftbikala; tlieyuoTir weotloGoa. In spilt! of the 

jusM some nhijta went to Adeo. The Malali&ni bniuglit 

lDt«> pdlaiBQf^r, oil, and wine, aodsome drugs; tliey took rice, 

, and iruu. Thuro was much s»\e of copper which was nw^d lu 

py nnd mode into caldrons and other pans, and mach sale of 

lickiulver, vunnitliun, com), alum, MiA irory.' 

In 1538 Naraiiiha's t«mp!e waa built.' In 1512, an the queou 

it Bhnckal withheld hor tribatc, Martin AIodzo do Souzn, tho 

?ortugLioso viceroy, wanted her territory withfiroaadsword.' During 

1)6 iiiege of the town the Portngucso soldiers, n-hono pay Do ^oasa 

nd Inteiy reduced, quarrelled about the bootyj nud, while fighting 

ritlieacli othcir, were attacked by the nativeiaand piitto flight. Hoiim 

inandud them to return to the charge and reTenge their repulse* 

[Let thoae who are rich revenge the defeat/ gniinblod the Boldiora, 

came to good by plunder the pay of which wo haveb<>eil 

' * ' I do Dot know you/ replied De Souza, 'you are not the men 

tin India two years ago.' * Yes,' said the soldiers, 'the men aro 

I flame; it is the governor who is not the snmc* So violont was the 

intinv that De ^uza hadto retire to his ships. Next day hcrenewod 

I KicgL- ; the city was taken, and the strectH ran with blood.* About 

Sidi' AH Kupodhan notices tliat there was tradu btitweaa 

ikuii and Arabia^ In 1554 the queen of Uatecala sout a Naikto 

> and made a treaty with the Portuguese agreeing to pay a tribute 

SOOU parxlcu of rice, to allow a factory at Bhatkal to give pasflports 

id to sell goods belonging to His Majesty, to eqnip no vessels, to 

dftuage caused by pirates, to hand over all vessels belongiug 

tile Poudes, and to prevent them frooi building more.^ It waa 

io teu years before and after this treaty that most of tho 

[al teniples were built, r» tlio dates ou tvu stone inttcriptiuns 

)and in or near the temples vary from IhiS to 1567.' About this 

fimo the Byrasu Wudeyar chief of Kilrkul iu South Kllnara became 

" lopcndent of Vijayauagar, and, in tho diviaioa of territory between 

LSevcn daughtors which foHnwod the deatli of the Uat cbieC, 

Idest became queeu of Bhatkal." Tlic Suntmary o£ Kingdoma 

)) in Ramostosaya tho king of Baticala was a Geutilo Ktwuresa 

Places ot Interoit 


i8tMal«y'aBul>0M.7fi-Sl. '&v>iJbow¥. 799. 

■ 8al«ii£<M, n 348-248; HIdcl«*i Laauul, L olix. Ouaoeu honour* IbU ricWj' hf 
^viiigit «placa*iai>ngthagTwtdM>dsoltiM PoitsgUMe in India. Mickln trAniUtM 

ini, n. ii~} : |taUkal> liUlunca \rr (runhtroua tula, 

■■mirakM Uis hortnn ol BadaU't tau ; 

Htt nw hi blood, hwlkl«iniwn>|>t in Ai«, ' 

OufdM* tli> n«*|iln( COCBi of SODM'i In^ 

« UicUc'i LndAd, I . oix. ■ Jour. Aa Scm. Bcng. V-S, 494. 

< C»U*>»-''>n -le SlonamenUa InoditoH, IL 242;Si6,9l7. PADdM u dosltful. It oAf 
»(or «itl«T ta tho tlijl]>iir «tn>ng)Mld of I'bonaft, or to t]i« Bijipur a<li)iifala eb« 
Lvanti of Villi, amomji whnia tlio niune Pbotid a[i[)e«rt early in tli« WTooteeiiUi ceo* 
. Rnmhny nusttMir. X. 4t). 

[he >lct»ilii aro, two 1JM3, twn \M6, one 15C0, uuo I5&4, ivo lASS, «bo 1S57i »d 
S7. iJM abuve |in. 247 ~270. Aa the imuj-iptiun* tittv* iwt b*oia proiiwlj 
I it !■ not poMiblc to lay wbulbcr th«y rocwd UwlnUUisgof IhvtMSfdMor 
I to tomptas klr«kd)r built. 
1 tmdltian Htau iii»cri]rt»w ^ Booluuun'a MyKre, in. 133.134, IG&. 

(Bombay Ouett 



> Chapter XIV. 

ei of Interest. 


. ItitCorf. 

greater than him oE Honor ; Ibe gorerDor being a Moorish 
name<l Cnipfaa.^ In a Portagnoso map of 1570 the <id1v \*b 
iihowo oil lUu Kiijiuru coast are Anjiiiiva, Ooor, nud Bhatknla; 
De Barros' map of «bout loBO sbowB only AnchiJiva and Batet 
Do BaiTox (lesuribefl the city of Qon^Taras the ho&d of the kit 
of Batikula. and llaWkala.* Aboot the same time Vincmt 
Blanc describes Bhatkftl as a fine place &tiU of gr«at trade.* 
1590 the Dutch trareller Jean Jitigues de fjinscot mentiaiis 
queen of Batikala as the queen of Honor and the pepper-eoa 
She arranged with the factor wbo lived at Hoa&vari bnb the 
had always to be paid six months in advance.* In 159P, 1>'ob 
Orevil, ou whose Memoir the measures of the 6rst Ei 
East India Company were based, describes the qneon of Balili 
as sclliDg great store of pepper to the I'ortuguese at Honiivar.* 
1G37 tho Rnglish, attracted by the pepper of Soudu and Got 
opent'd fact(>ries at Kirw&r and at Bbatka)/ and to this time 
the threci Knglish tombs already dcucribcd, two of which are 
1637 and one 16^< About 1050 tho Dutch trAveller Scholt 
deecribeB Batlkala as formerly indcpondont hot madc! trilmtaiy 
the Portnguose* In 1660 the Dutch traveller Biildanis oc ' 
Onor and Batccalo as tho only Kilnora towns of importai 
About 1(370 the chief of the English factory at Bhatkal procai 
fine hull-dng Irom the captuio of an Gnglish vessel *wfaioh 
come to Bhatkul to luad. One day the factors went out si 
and on tho way, ntrur atcuiplo, tho hult-dog seised a cow 
killed her. The mob, excited by gome BrAhmans, attacked ihe I 
and murdered every one of them. Some more friendly than tin ' 
cuiiscd a large grave to be dug and in it buried the eigbtct^n 
Tho chief of the KArwdr factory sent h monnmcntal stone withj 
inscription 'Tbis is tbe burial-place of John Beet, with soveot 
other Engliiihnicn, who were sacrifipcd to tlio fury of a mad 
hood and au enraged mob.' " In 1 67!! the Knglish tntvollei 
sailed along by wnat he calls Bntticalai on the Caaatick con 
IG7S tbe Pui-taguese were allowed to build a factory and a ctii 
at Bliatkal.'^ In 1707 the Portuguese made afresh treaty with I 
Bcduttr chief coDfirming the leave to hold a factory at Bbat 
About 1720 Hamilton describes Bhatkal as the next sea-pc^rt sn^ 
of Honor, with the ruina of a large city four miles from tbe : 
Nothing wsM loft but ton or eleven small temples oovcred 
copper and Rtono. Tho country produced g(t<Ki qaantities of 
aud Englishmen ctune to buy, thoagh since the miirderof tho 
in J G 70, there was no establishment.'^ In 1758 tho French 
Anqucbil Du Perron notioos it as Batokol, a fort built on a rook ' 
a river." In 1801 Budiauan deafriboa E^takalla as standing on l 
bank of a small river, the ^aukadihoti, which watered a beauti 

1 Title'i MinbUia UMcnpts, 40. 
*yul«'i Mtnbilu l>e«.Ti|jtn, 44. 
' Bnice'n AitiialH. I. 4.5", flflfi. 

■ Dacadu, IT. SIO. > liabon Editfon of 11 
'Navisation, 21. * Bnioc'a Anuk. 1. m^ 
•So* above p, ?70. 

" HMnilbon's Nco" A«<«niit, i. S$<l. >■ Ewt ludu uwl Puaia, S'. ^ loato^cohvi, 
**liMtnicnu>, 8. ■*N«wAc<aatit,I.2&2.283, "ZAodAi-iwU. Disc. PrI. ciflti. 




Inll-girt vatley. It was a large open lovrn with 500 faoasog. It had 
tw(i mn«<]Des and many wealthy Muealmftn families who tmded 
to difTcreut p&rts of tho coast TniH vas thoir homo, and whon tliev 
went awaj thoy toft their fiunilice here. There were sovviitv-six 
qiuiia or templeM beloDging to the followers ofVydHn (Brdlin]»uR-&1). 
Buchanan saw the rains of a Jain temple built bj onu of tho 
Bymim Wudeyara of K&rkaL Tim worlctnannbip of the pillars and 
Aho carving waasnporior to anything he had seOD in India. Thia 
lio tbon^ht wasdne to tho nature of the stone which cut better than 
graoito and wore bettor than pot-atone.' He notices a tradition 
that, in tho time of tho Jain priiiofsa Bhaira Devi, Bhatkal whs a 
large lowu.* In 18d2 BbatkaJ had a population of 3000, the greater 
part of whom woro Briibtnans.^ 

Bhodasfca'Tfirudda. north latitude U" 47' east longitude 74^58', 
a tn't^iiiumutric-al siirvi*y utatiuu about 2500 feet above the ftea, is tho 
chief peak of tho KaiiAne range which runs eaet from the Safayildris. 
The KiiliiUie mnge begins between the villages of Devanhaiti and 
Uanjguni, and litrotches cost a& fur ur Sirsi. Froin Sirsi the rauf^e 
turuH north-eaKt to Bbartauhallij Bbedaag^vgudda, two miles to the 
south of the village of the Eamo name, being one of its chief peaks. 
From Hhedasg&v a minor spar Ktretchof! east to Malgi, and, from 
lUlgi, tnms north to Magnaro, eight milw south of Mnndgod. The 
sidcti of BhfJasgAv bill aro not etecii and tho top is Qat. Close to 
the foot of th*.' hill lio tho villages of Skitnvalli, Togfirhalli, BltL>da^gilv, 
and Bilokopp with gcwd rico laud cultiratod bj LiugitvutM, Arcrs, 
Karo-VakkHJi;, and (iotigdikiirs. lutbe villages uear aro uuiuy rich 
bctulnut and epico gardens owned by well-to-do Uuvigs. On thu bill 
aides until lately, itwinrtor wood'a»b tillage was carried ou. Tho 
coQotry is covered with thick forest abounding in valuable timber 
jLud iu game. 

Bidarkaani or Bedkani, with in 1881 a population of 702, is 
a villnge on the road from Bilgi to SiddApur. Abont a quarter of 
a mile to the ea^it of the village, a little to the south of the road, is a 
£^up of thirteen whole and two broken carved stones, some of them 
of large siwe, covtrcd with carved figures illustratiag scones of 
Worship, feasting, and war. Near a Bmall Jain temple, a little to tho 
iK>utb*4jBRt of the main groap, are two inoro carved stoues, and iu tho 

Chapt«r Ziy. 
Fhioes of Inlfli 




■ Myiorauid 1»).I3.1 

'Aocnrriiog tct a tniLitioa ■till ourrcnl, (lueen C^nnabKalrwlaTi rulM orerOcr* 
••(>(*. ItiulvalU, BhiUliiJ, niul Niwm' that in Bcdnur iu MwBur. Rhv liuit a Diiiiiitt-T 
SMOM KMLunbrla and a oomiMaaw' in-ohi«J namod Tuuiuitiiiis NAik nl Bltktkil. la 
a aWnn kt UhntltAl, at)tui)<tcrlx>lt rtrufk » a««et pluiuin Ia4f, And uliding down tbo 
ImJ formed & ball iatfae trunk of thepUntaia tne. N«xt morning n Mhi^niunedSoma 
SoauA tlu ball and mad* it into a bi uhook. Thia billhook bad ttw virtna of attackfag 
■ajr one irito caina to i4l[er orain or food of w kiob it wu Id charge. TimnMina hoaiiac 
of tbp hggrtgalrt biUhoak d«tanninoil to turn It Into a •wont. H» madv trieoai 
wiLti iU wooT, pemadml Lira to u^rv it kirn iu ■ prcaont, aoA tarmng it into m 
Hwor<l uaud it to Ogbt hi* battle*. Tbo (ami- of Timmiutoa'a victiMlea rawbed tbo NiTa of 
tli09aMn,whoaliow<Jblintho;;r«itt«it favourand niada bimfccreomniuMlar>tn'eliiaf. 
QocMi ChMDoabbunulevi b utd tu huvo built, arnwd, and garriwMUNl thr«a forta in ber 
tasriiorr. ooe at Bhatkal to keep off the PortBfnMo or Parinjcin ; one on tbe eaatcni 
liuatinr to giuud amiaat tbe Mw-aihia orFcndEiila ; ami thi- tb-rd iu tli«i llflKcvmlili 
paaa. The old bridge of vrhkb tii«iition baa b«eD BM<k m alao lud U» bavo btiin boilt 
by b«r. » Ihorotoa'a Oioott^^r, 7$. 

iBombaj 0< 



lapUr XIT. 


mad n'all of tfao toicple are four othns vith linga at tL»u>p. 
liftli elaadx a little vray olf on b smoU pUtfonn and s sizLli at 
foot pf a tree close to the teraplw.' 

Bilgl, 6vo miUii west of Sidddptir, irith in 1881 s populatioii 
757, has a raiord fort and palace The town was once eiirl 
A mdl tlie foDndatiouB of which can mill be seen, Tho Til 
moBtly Line^yatfl, Havigs, and Ualon&ilca. Tho chief oh 
interostisa Jain temple or fcaj^' of PAntovan^tli. This is Kaid 
beeu boilt about 1593 bjrNarsituh.thofousder of (ho to^> 
been enlarged abont 1650 hy a Julii princt- (}I!ll^l■e^l^il. 
K^ihappftrAja, who sonplied it wilhimagoe of NpminAth.IVi 
and VardhatnAn. The temple is la the minutely onmrno!.; - 
which ia knowu aa the Omvidiau or southern styJo, of which 
Hoytiala UntUl t^Mnptca of VisbDu at Hutebid or DTArttaani 
Weflt Matsur aro among tho most perfect cxamplea. The 
iho shrinu uru furmud of slabs whiob reach thu wbolo height 
Walla, with, for support, squaro pillara at the oomera and in 
middle. TJiu npiKT [lart of tho walls of tho hall or mandap 
formed in the same way nud are mt on a oarred screen wall. ' 
oat«r ball has four round pillars of black etono and ac oaeh iHt 
this outer ball is a fimall shrine. Tbe nioi of the hall is 6at aoil 
8\ippcTted by carved basalt pillars. In))idc tho door of tho temple 
two large uud well preserved slabs. Ouc of them (()' 10" xlf 
with Bovcnty-eight and a hnJf lines of writing, bears date I 
(8. 1610); the other (0' 10' x 2' 7"), with eij^htyfour and a 
liuea boars date IG2tS {S. 1550)- The two inscriplions recurd 
grant to tho temple of aioti villagoa with aa income of £1' 
(Rs, 1772-7-8) and land yielding seven toss (300 kbamUs) at 
Bdgi baa two other temples, of \ irap&kah Uah^dor and of Uanai 
The temple of VirujvlkHh is a plain building with an inscribed 
(5' 10" X 3' I") to tho right of the entrance. Tho .slab hsa n linf 
the top and to the leftawoman linldinga small dram anda bell, 
to the iright a cow and ralf, and a Hnii and moon and a d 
above. The inAcriptioD is in forty-two lioeB and bears date 
{S. 1403}. The Hanam^ t«mple has a smaller inscriptioti 
is much defaced. lli!git originally called Shvetpnr or the 
City, ia said to have been founded by n son of Naraimh, a Jain pric 
who i-uled about lot>3 at Uoaur, four miles eaat of Bilgi. iJiiriBi 
the KeTeuteentb ctiutnry Bilgi or Sidddpur was a separate princi- 
pality under chiefs called PdligfArs, who were closely connected wi' 
the Coorg family and were tributaries of the Nagar or Bednnr kin 
of West Moisur* In 1799, when Major, afterwaida Sir Thoi 
Monro began to adminislcr tho di.strict, Bitgi was held by a pe 
chief or PAIigAr* The chief rafnaed to submit till Coluoel WeUejl 
Hont a detachmrat into his territory.* The late chief left two wtdo 
the elder of whom receivee a yearly pousion of £27. In 1S72 Bilgt 
bod a population of 707 of whom 694 were Uindns and 


* Dr. Bums*' Litt of ArohiMloeta*! Kemniua, 7. 

■ Mr. J. Montmtti, a9. ' AHmtbnat-* Mnnra, L BO. 

* WrJl«>li>y'a Supplenxiutaiy I)t«p«U)hPK (Indu, 1797- 18IU),30X, B0S,31S, SSS, 

Binghi, three miles to the soatli of K&rw&r, itrith ia 1881 a popn. 
lation of 1 ^Q^^, in a port with a cii!itoiu-liouM> tind a liarbuur afFortling 
tbronffhpTit tho year safe nncliorago to vcssols of any eiz©,' IJin^lii 
bajr is sheltere*! from tho aorth wind by tbu Bia^^lii tills, a spur of 
iho SabyadriB, and from tho eoiith-wcst Btorms by the island of 
A-njidiv which lies alwot two miles to tlie south. Tho principal 
inhnbitant'H are ChriKtina Koradrpiiik atid Bhanditri palm-tappers 
attd cultivators, SdsaeLtakar tradcre^ and HlUakkt Vakkal and 
Habbu busbaodmeQ. 

ChfindS'Tar ia tfao Hoottvar siib-di vision, about 6ve miles 

kK)utb-«>ast of the town of Kumta, with in 1B8I a population of 

'46, is ft desortod city, said to hnvo boi?D built by a MoKolm^ 

ofig Qnmed Snrp&Dmiklik, apparvutly Shcrif-ul-Molk the Bijilpiir 

Bfaeral who conqaered the north of K^nani towards the close of the 

siilwnth ctiitury.' In 1G08 Chandirar was occupied by Vonkatesh 

jNiUk of Ikkeri or Kalaili who stopped the southward progreAs of 

the Muaalmins,'^ In ltJ78 and 1701 it had a Portiiffueso ractory,* 

In 10H6 its last MuBalmttn chief died witboot issue, Since then the 

|)lace has been allowed to decline, and most oE its stones havobcon 

Dorried away.* There ia a larjro Tloman Catholic Church dedicated 

to St. Francis Xnvier and held tn great local veneration. 

Chondiya t^ a largo village five milos sontb-cost of Kitrwilr. 
3310 people aro chiefly Sfoashtnkar, Vrini, and Shenvi lauded 
iroprioton and traders; Chi-i&tian, Kom&rpiiik, and Bhandiri 
idlivators, pntm-tappers, and labourers; and Harkantar Sahcrmon. 
Lt has a custom-hou^o at the inouth of a nnrigablo inlet called 
Tfai-udiya Hola Tliu inlet or creek is op<.'» only dunii}; tho fair 
iresther and admits no vessels except of small burthen. The sea 
rndc returns for the eight years ending 1&414>2 show avvrago 
(Xports valued at £643 (u-f. (1430) and average impoi-ts valued al 
eSlK (Ra. 3180)." Eiporte varied from £29 in 1875-76 to £2333 
n 187d-S0 aud imports from £20 in 1830>S1 to £1917 in I879<80. 
h ISOl Bnchnnaii described Chendiya as in the plain somo diBtuuce 
torn the sea. There was no market bnfc there wore maoy iscattored 
Loosos shelterfMi by groves of cocoa- palms.' 

CUta'kul, on tho coast abont Four miles north of Kdrwiir, is tho 

uuuc of a smiJl vilhigo close to the north of Sadishivgad. Though 

t ia now oooliaed to tho village, before SadlLshivgsd was built ia 

1715, the namo Chitiikul iuuludud a cunaidcrable tract of laudj and 

it i» still locally known as the old name of Sad^hivgad.^ 

Under the forma Sindabnr, Chinlabor, Cintabor, Cintapor, 
iatacola, Cintacora, Chittikula, and Chitukala, the phice appears in 
iu> writitigH uf many anthars from the Arab traveller Masudi. 

' Anilf haalda tndiiu in tb« f<uT va»tb«T Whreen tli« M&UMr OQtwt aoA the 
^«T«iin <i\dt, cat] at Binghi >nd Kodar Mrva fnilc* atiiitli o( Binghi for nppliMof 
Mod uid wator. Taj-Ior'a Sailing Uirortocjr, I. 30S. 

■ 8m %.h»-n p. 122. Chiuull<.'ai- witli Hoadnr ii nid to be m*i)tioDed In a Kidufilka 
nut to Uw founder ot the bhoin Devi ta Bhatknl brail;. Mr. J. MontMlb, C.&. 

< Munra to BoArd, 31st Hay IfifiO, puK 8. * Iiutrncaao, 8. 

* Dr. Bari{eM'Uato{ArahBol««iealItflnMinB,S. * Dettuln an inTOD 

' Mywn Md UuM*. UI. m. » Ur. R. B. UaJy, CJ 

above, pp. 69-ISfl. 











Ct»pt« XIV. 
ices of laterast. 


(about 900) to tlM EngliBli ^ogiapher O^lty (about 1( 
Various attempts liaTo been mado to idontify tlia place. 
Ifttost aod most cfcncrally reccircd ig ite idontification 
Gdh by Sir H. Tale.* Bac tbero is nothing in tha uame wb!^ 
con bo IdoatiGcd nritli Ooa and xuch dotuila na kro siroQ an . 
auilablu to CLitukiil as they art- to Ooa. IHie earliest 
trf CliitJtkol is as Sindabur by the Arnb travpltor Mjiendi (91 
who uotee that ortwodiles abound iu the bay of Siodabur in 
kingdom of Ritghmh in India.^ About 1310 Basbid-nd-din 
Sindabur Ibo first city on the Malab&r ooa&i? In 1342 
Batata niontiona an island of Sindnbur, three daya' sail from Kb 
or Gcgho, with thirty-sis inland tillages clo«o to aiiotber ilL 
wbicb Heema to be Anjidlr. Iba Uatoca adda that the island 
Sindabur was aurroundtMi by an eetnaiy, the month of the 
nadi, in which the water wa,-; Halt at the (low and freah 
ebb.* Ibu Batuta nmlcoB Bindabnr tbo nurthuiOHt pL 
Malabo/ and notices that the chief of Uon^v&r or Hiooar, ' 
MuhaiDmadau named JamUl-od-diu, with a fleet of 250 
took Sindabur by etorm. Bomo time later, Ibn Batuta raoiu 
to Sindabur but wout away uh be foand it beaipjjt'd by the 
chief from whom it had boon token." In tbo Portulaoa Medic 
(1 350) the name appears aa Giatabor and in tho Catataa 

Aboot 1&&0, Sidi Ali Kapodhan, tbe antbor of Mobit tbo Tut 
book of Narigation, has a aection beaded. '24th Voyngo : &oni Kc 
Sitidabar to Aden.' This lias been taken to prove that Kowaii 
Goa and Sindabur aro tbo same. But Ooa and Chitakal are 
enough to bo cronpod together in laying down seasons for 
Toya^ from Western India to Adoo." In 1498, when Vasco 
Gama'a ships nncborod at Anjidiv (hoy were eopplied with £._ 
fowlt), uud vegutabloa by fishormcn who lived on a rivor abooti 
mQe distant^ uniaed Cintacora.* In 1505 when Atuieida, the 
Portaffuoao viceroy, was baildiofi; a fori at Anjidiv some iHt 
waitud on him from Cintncora where the Bijipur king liad 
built a fort and garmoned it with 600 men."' About the 
time the Italian traveller Varthema mentions Centaoolaone day ; 
Anjidiv. It had a pagan lord who waa not very rich. In the a| 
were many Moorish tnorchanta and a great quantity of cow-l 
much rice, and the usual good Indian fruit. The ponple w( 
tawny and went Qakcd barefoot and bareheaded. Tho 
was Hubject to the king of Babhacala the preseot Bhatkal in 

■ Vul«'a UUiAy, U. -W-MS. 

*PruriM d'Or, 1. 207. Bdghnh u> appuvntly TUItilr* ttut i* probably 
SiUhiTM a briuiuh of n-hnm ruUil at [i<ia [mm 8(JS to 1 008. Jniir. Ho. Br. R. Aa. I 
Xm. 13- 14 : Flfet's KAnnrMc DjuuttM, 9S, • Elliot Mid nnwwn, I. 08. 

^Lee'iTmndKtiDin, IM: Yulo'a Cntha.}-. 11.444. Rmfuml (AbaUods, Introda 
MbviL) DOtioea tlul MtKirdiufi to Itin Bntiita then won two ciciea al SL 
<■■• bdouging tv Uindm. tba otkcr Inult by MuMlniina. MMudi'* «iitl Ibn Batiit*'a 
Suidnfaor nuy kbo p«rhMi> b« the minud oity of Siildliinur Uir*e iiuIm o^it di 
Kndvftd. S«e below p. 343. *Lm'i Tmiwlation, l66. 

•Lm'i IWuIutiun, 174-176; Yule't Cathay. IL 4SI-432. 

* YaWm Cnthny. II. 4H. * Jonrrutl Aiiatic Sncirty. RonKiiI, V>3, 4fi4. 

* Thtwi Vojne/at ol Vbwx> da Gauui, 242. '" Kerr'a Voyagr*. VI. 80. 


iftooth of K^nora.' In his rovtow of Tnilia at tlie time of the Chapter 

OBtbblisliaient of Portuguese power, Farin meniinaa tbe riror of ^j^^^ oflDt«ntt 

CenUcoln opposite Aojidir. lo Febraarr 1510, under orders 

from Datboqaerqae, Timmaya, Uio pimie chief of Hooarar, took 

the fort of Cintacora which had » commandaat and a body o{ moa 

and destroyed part of its ^vall. Its buildiiigB vr&re bnmt and aomo 

pieces of '1 arkioh artilh>ry wore capturod. The tortruas is described 

Be oD the bank of the river which divided tho kiiig^loms of 

HonATar and Una.^ On tho t^nrrondcr of Goa iu April 1510 

Dalbuqtierquo sent ono Dtago De FernandeB do Uija with 200 

foon to rubuild CiuUicom and to Tomain there. Diu^ found tlio 

fort too mined to he hold and went back to Goa." Before Dalbo- 

quoruuu was obliged to Icavo Goa in Julj 1510, the Bijdpur king 

asked him to give up Gus and t«ke Cintacora with all its lands, 

ite great rcvonno, and its Tory good harbour where he conid baild 

a furtre&s.* Whou tho rortiiguese were driven from Goa 

Pallwriaornuo'B commaudftnt of Cintacora had to fly to Honitvar.* 

Iu NoTomber or Deceoibcr of the same year, after Lis &ocond 

conqaeHt of Goa, Dnlboquorqno sent raon to Cintnoora to meot and help 

Halu&rr^i a chief of Hondvar who had been ouBt«d by his brother.* 

About loll the Portuguese traveller Dunrtfi Barbosa describes 

CiQtacolA as situated to the north of the river Ali^, which. 

separated the kingdom of Ueccani, that in Bijiipur, from the kingdom 

of Nftrsinga, that is Vijayaaagar. Ciatacola was a fortress at the 

mouth of tbo rivor on tho top of a bill. It belonged to ijabayo 

Uiat is Adil Sh^b, and for tbe defence of the country it waa 

•Iways guarded by home and foot soldiers.' When Portugnose 

power wan Grtnly established tho river of Cintawira had to pay a 

tribute of 400 to 600 iKiles of rice.'* In 1o80 Do Barros duscriboa 

Sint^acura a^i a furtretiii ou the Aliga which juts out dicing tlie 

ialaod of Anjidiv twelve leagues from Goa." Linscot's (1590) 

Cintapor, close to the suntli of DabiO, seems to be not Chitakul 

bat JaitApnr ia RatnAgiri.'" Ogiiby (1660), apparently from 

PortugH«e authorities, notices tho stream Aliga of bintacora falling 

into tho BCfi opposite Anjidir." In 1715, according t;o a local 

maDuscript, Basva Ling, a Sundu chief (I Ij07- IT-ffi}' built n fort at 

CbitAknl, on tbe itorib or right bank of tbe river month, and called it 

(JodAahirgud uftur his father. From this time the name Chitakul 

has been supplanted by Sadtisbivgad.^' 

Dha'resllTar, more correctly Doreahvar or the String-God,'* 
about Bre miles south-east of Kamta, with in 1881 a population 

1 BmUot^i VftrtlwiDa, 120-121. *CDiiuneatariM of [)nlbo<)iionin«, It. S6. 

*C9ii»n«n(ariMof Dulbo(|iiuri|uu, U.I33. 'CooiuttiEitu-iua of DtkllK^uvrqav.ll. 180. 

* CommtMituici f,f DiIhrMiuungaf^ Ixxxt'ii, SO'i, In this pMtuiae I'iatAcani in m«n- 
tioai*d AS tlw (ouUicra Und of On*. Th« U'Xl is ' All Ui* UmU nf Ooa uiJ M^to U 
tmr u Clntacnc* on tho ono «i'l« itad u fur m Cond^ ithatii KuiUI in S.l\i.ntTiili) un 
tba oUiar aUlo,' 

■OMUBout«ri» a( Diklboquoniiio, III. 28-27. 'Stulor's B«rboM,76L Keep. 112. 

■.SnWaiM. II. MO 24S. M)o««dMdcB«io«, 1-2 (LUboD 17771, 2W,2l», 918. 

■* %'nl«-s OiUuy, IT. M4. <> AUm. V. 2«8. " 8o* bfJow, SiulUhiv^. 

" Tho nuM Striiy.nKl u loully «xpUin«(l by tha itorjr that tha Domb var li»^ ia 
tba conl nr dw of ua olath which covcreil tho &ng which RApbd brought from S^it 
and loat nwr Ookara. See balow p. SIO note 2. 




iptor ZXV. 
I of Intereft. 


A1IUXB Gsir. 


of 329, lias on a bill slopo a templo of lAohidcv (105' x 68^ ■>!' 
be abont SOO yaara olu. Tbcro are four lUBcribud Lablota ia 
temple from one nf whicb it a^oara that tho tumplB was '. 
lUidroji i'andit, son of N^i^ji, and Boisbuil by Soti«npa. i t... . 
buH not been made oot.' Tho U)Ui|ilc is' bulk of lAnck Btoau and ib 
walle are orDamrntc-d witb sfulptnivK Itoiiud tho teruplo 
holy pools or iirthn, Rudrftkiind in fruul of UiB tompV', CI 
Shonkb, nod Va.smlbu bcbiad tho tvuiple, and Nagtirth U> Uio i 
Tbe teiriplt! rect^'ivus from Q-uvernmuut a ^L*arly ullowance of 
(Rs. HiO), wbich ia managed by a comioittoo appo)ui«d 
Govurnment. A fair ia held every year at Uio car-feativai, abunl I 
middle of January, when beaten and parched rico. earthen 
cuppor and brass reascU, cocoanota, and plauLuns ivorth alt 
about £fiO (Ra.fiOO) aro sold. 

Devimano Glia't,ortbe Dovimane Pass, in the Sabyddri mg 
ties twunty-ouo miWn »>ut-h-nro»t of Sir^t and aevtiuteen miles i 
Enmla. Tbe patis is lees etii^p than the Arbail pasa It baa tbo ' 
ofBelanga,Antravalli,Katsnl,aDd Upinpattannt \\» foot; and 
Sampkand.Kurehi, Hebro, MaajgDnit Balvalli, and Matter atit 
'Jlio main road from Kumta to New Hnbli, vrhich ia next in itnpc 
to the Kilrwilr-Db^nvflr road, goca over this pass. Tbo roadi 
twenty feet broad and mctivlled. Before 1856, vrbon a wboel 
road was made by tbe Madras Oovertimeat, the pass «rati crossed^ 
bullock track and footpath atonff wbich, id packs and hoad-loads, I 
produce of Slnt! aud SiddApur Kiund its way to ICamta. Biace 
transfer of North Kiiuarn to tho Bombay GoTOramont the 
baa beun kept in repair ut a yearly coal to provincial fuuds i-f £J7fll] 
fKd. 27,6)0). The pikss in nsod by wheeled carrtagos, auim&b, anj 
foot passengere, ana \» the chief route by which the ootton of Dliir- 
wfir and other parts of the Bombay Kam£tak passes to Kumb 
And Bombay. The ralue o( the cotton earned throngb tbo poASi' 
3879-80 was £-191,326 (Rs. 49,13,250); and the corrv- 
returns were £S09,423 (Rs. §0,94,230) in 1880-81, and .'. 
(Rs. 41,55,140) in 1881-82. Bolides cotton, botelnuts cardamui 
popper and sandalwood from Sirai and Siddiipur go to Kumta ; 

fiieoe-ROods salt hardware and dates from Bomb^> and rico and 
rom Rnmta, go to upland Kiinara and to the Bombay KarnAtak. 

Darshingudda, north Ifttitudo 15° 31' oast lon^todo 74° J»',i 
tbe extreme north of the district, the highest point m North Hii 
rises 3lX)0 feet above the !<ea, two miles to the north of l^di 
four to the north of Tinai. It; ia easily climbed. Prom thu Hal if 
is a wido view of the Snost mountain soonory in Kdnaro, tho biUs I 

■Dachansi) (Myworo &ud Oto<jm, 1C9-104), giroa Iho wihitaawt «f two 
p]«tMMMl onb grant t« D)i&T«ehvkr tccnplet Ouo of tli« «of)Mr-plkt«« wm Jalcil' 
(&'. 1412 Si/MMrtAi Sammltar) and reuonled a graot in tho faun (vf D«Vk Kif 
WodiMni Triloobla. Tbu uthar plat« km Sntod TAAO {.f. H8) Kabi/nKa .Sfli 
4UmI nturileil a grant by Holva Krishna IVt'nrwD Wodntni Triloohu. TUt . 
waa b>- Kritilina Duraraau Wcdcnm TrilwliU aod bw« date IMO iS, IWt '. 

* Him* ttr« iiooLb art taid to ban flrot>i>«d with Uiv DUivahTar lull rmtii 
Saptailiriiig p«kk of th« hoav«nlv monnt KaiUa whick(:»ni<l \r4a cu-niWE U>C-iXa 
S^brfowp 2Wi»We2. ' 



les roand being cororei] viUi magitiflcent [oi-est abonmliiig in 

DiKSi Qha't* or the Bi^i Vass, in the SflhySdri range on the 
A*Siip(t. frontier. HeR close to tlio vi'llnge of T>iggi, set-enteen miles 
of Supa. This ia a minor pass with the viltagos of Wggi, 
, aiiil ilhivai in Bupu at ita bead ; and of f ulieui, Tudon, und 
:^m at its fo(}l. A. road acroft^ thu pnss joiuu Saugcm in 
'ort iigii*?s6 territory with Sapa. The roadvray ia twolre to sixteou 
t broad and twenty-four miles long from Oiggi to Sanjhode, 
'here it joins iho Aiitthi pass rond Iculing to Sup*. Thu lirfil niuo 
iloB from Suujhodo are practicablo fur wlioolm carriagCB ; the 
laining fiEtoc-Q radcs arc i>assablo only for paolc bQllooka and foot 
igera witb head-Ionds. Liko other passes leading into 
LguoM torritoiy the DigRi pnss is chiefly neod for the Mvit traffic 
Oca to Supa. Boforo 1S-j((, when the road was opened hy the 
Oovwnmont, thcro wna a small footpath fit only for foot 
(isiengers. The average yeai'ly repairs coat prOTincisl funds aboat 
J60(Ri., I*H>0). 

Dodimani Ghat, or tho Dodimani Pass, is in tho SahyAdri 
□geon the Kumta-SiddApur frontier, twouty lullea enst of Kumta 
.aiabont foartoenmilcfl west ofSiddlipur. 'i'ho villag«« of Oodimaot 
od Shii'gunA lio at tho head of tho pas», and the vUlugoa of Basoli 
nd of S-intgal, which bos a trnvcUors' hiingnlow, lie at ita foot. 
"he road fmui SiddApurund Bilgi whioU is twenty-three wiles long 
aoa orer the Dodimani pnKS and ntoctJt the NilVund pass road 
rom Sirai to Kumta close b^low it. The road was made and tho 
opened in 1873-74 at a coat of £908 (Rs. 9698) from local Fandft. 
lie average yearly repaint cost about £150 (Rs- 1500). The road 
cross the pass has rery little traffic as it is onlj twelve feet wide 
nd cnuncit bu u<tdd by wheeled cnrriagos. 

Dokarpa Gha't, or tho Dokarpi Pasfl, in the Sahyiidris on tho 
>apa-Gtia frontier. licM dose to the Tillage of Dokarpa. twcnty-fivo 
libs aouth>west of Suua. It is a minor posy chiefly used for salt 
rnffiti. A bullock trucu srith stticp grudienta runs over the pass and 

road twulve foot broad aiid Hcvea aod a half miles long joins it 
ith Nugi od thu Aushi pass road to Bupo. TUb paaa appears to 

vo lM>en opened by thu Madras OoTeruineul and the sevHo and a 

If miles of provincial road Mrhioh joins it with Nugi aro kept iu 
cpair at an average yearly cost of about £16 (Es. 160). 

Gflneshgudde Gha't, or the Ganeshgndde Pas!t, in in the 

ifth^idri range nine miles west of YellApur. The villages of Katiga, 
trial, .A.ugou,Hnd flilekargod lie at the beadof tho piviis; and tbase 
f Birkol and Ulvi He at its foot. A rood thirty miles long from 
'i-IUpur (o Kadru through Bfirballi runs across the pass, and -was 
jadu from local fuiid>< in 1872 at n cost of £240 (Its. 2i00). The 
olro miles from Yollapur to BArballi is practicable tor carts; but 
rem BArbnlli to Kadra the rood is 6t only for fool passengers and 
mok bullocks. There is not tnuob trulBc and there are no tolls. 

GftUga'vali, five miles north of Ankula, with in I8SI a 
opulatiua of 982, ia a small port with a sea customs office. During 
be oigbt years coding 1881'82 the average yearly value of 

Chapter XI! 
Plaew of Int 

DoDIHASt r>«a. 

DdKAnrA Pi 




[Chapter XI7. 
BB of iDtenwt 



exports is retnrncd at £8063 (Rs. 20,630) ami nf imporix 
(lis, 4180). Exports varied irom 41380 in I877-7» to I 
1880-81, aod imports fmm £181 in 1881-82 to £870 in 1»7M 
Tho poopio Aro chiefly Eioabandmen of tlie NAdor caste, 
fiibera and pHlnDqiitD-bearers of the Khiirvi and Ambig cutos. 
tibc town thn only objoct uf inten'st is a tutnplo o£ the Koddl 
Qiiiij^, tlio wi(e of Shiv. The tomply ia rogHi-deil aa TOry holy, v^ 
at daybreak on the Oanga Aihlami Day, the eighth of tho 
baU of Aahvin (September -October), all tho Siullrts of tho 
bourliood come lo batho in the rivor in front of the toinplA.' 
the same day the iniaf^ of MabAbaleehvar is bronf*ht from Gok 
in a palanquin and bathed in tho rirer. Near the ttiuiple of Qu 
is a tiny called Kj^meahvar, said to have been set up by Vislnre 
when he perfarmtnl the auntcritica which ri^Dud mm a knowl 
of divine arwhil«ct«re. In IC75 Fryer notioee it as Goagola 
cnllfl it the first town in the country which still retains the 

Gersappft, or tho Cnshewnut town,' is a stEialt vtlta{|;c on 
SliiiiivHti, iibrmt sixteen miles east of UonllTar. The villas 
pleasantly placed on the left bank of the river, shaded by n 
of cocoa-palms. It. oonlains aboat fifty honaos, inhabited 
ShorigarH, IfKlei*aikii. BrdhmanM, and Mmalm&ui. There is a 
bouse bnt do travellers' baug^Iow. About a mile and a h&lf 
of Ucrsappa are tho vury t-xUtnaivo roimi of Nagarbiutikfri wl 
waa the capital of the Jain chief* of Geraspjia (1409-1(>10), 
is locally beliuvod. in ita prosporoui duy«. to have cunbunoill 
bandrod thouiiand houaos and ^ii;)ity-four toQiptoju. About IS70 
ruins wcru dcured of gn»» and bniabwood ; but tho placu bad 
beoomo overgrown. 

The chief obj(MTt of internal tfl a ci^sa-shaped, lit^-ally f(.iQr-montl 
or cJuiiurmukhi, Jain tompic, with four dnors and a fnnr-l 
imngu.^ Thu temple is &i' 8" from door to door and tlu* shrine 
22' 0' square within and 24' 11' squaro witbuat. The tempta 
boilt of grey granite. The veranda roof, the spire, and tbo floor i\i 
are said to have been cartod away ahoot 1865 by a miiralst' 
of Hunifvar who n'ua building a tumple. Each ball lias four 
roond pjllarg with square bams and ovorhangini; bnurkots. 
doorktvpers. cut on stabs on eaob »idc of the dour both uf tbu lu 
and of the shrine, wear high crowns, and oach holds a cinb 

There are 6ve other ruinons temples all of laterite in wbicb 
fow images and insiM-iptiona. The temple of VarddlmniSti 
MiihAvir Svanii crmtninft » tine black stone imago uf Mrdiitvir 
twenty.frtOi-tb or liisl Jain lirtlianknr. Tliero are four inNcribod kU 
in Varddbamd.n'a temple. One slab (6'3"x2'5'') baa at its topi 
fignrea of a Jina, two wombippers and a cow and a calf, and ' 

' Til* looal beliel b Umt the river Mid thu voddMa rmroMnt tho riror Gangs* 

cuuefroiii the SahyMrU to dean*B thouiu oTUiVHun JanhM wbo drank Uw rirsril 
ta It waa being liruuglii, Ijy king Bhagiratb. * Gut India sod t'cnix, l&d. 

' Prom ifiru a c^aaliev-uut aad mppi a lokf. HiegiolNythaiii 'a Aidktic jvanial 
Sftlcctwua (Pint Strive). S77. * l>r. burgvai' List of ArchieologKnl IUwmju, i*. 




' Mya»r« witl Cin«r», fll. I(B. 
i).*enMHl etono* noUvt^l atHn'c. 
'BccUmvepp. S73, S7fi and ftotcZ- 

Tbia gmtl ia [frblMlily tV'K'rd^vt uo on* of Um 
■ Bodianiui'* Myiore toA C^a%n, nt 165. 


the figures a long insmptioti. Another slab (I'S^xSTS") has a Chapter 

Jioa and attcndiuitH above, trm men worshipping on each side, a piacM ofXn 

omeBleggod table bcJow, and still lower two wuidoq tvorshippiu^- on 

Moh tnde of a aocood cmsalogf^d tabic. I'ho third slab (5' 2" x 2' 2*) 

iias 63k inscription of six and a half lines, aod, abuve the tuBcriptiaD. 

■re tgareAf ttimpltw, and ima^it in throe ooDipartmeDta. In the 

topmoBt oompartnient is a Jiaa aitti&g in a temple ; the next 

eumpurtiDcnt bus a cOatL-d man and bulow bim a tabic, and threo 

womeu tvQ sfpmtliug uud cint> statidiug; iu the third compartmoDt 

•re six womoD, a tomplo, and a female imago. The fourth stone 

■bcinb a foot broad is behind tbe temple auok in the earth. It liaa 

an in^ription pArtly effaced. Acro&a a footpath from Mnhitvir'a 

temple is the lomple of Nemimiil), the twenty-second tirthauhar, 

with a tine \Mgc image on a ronnd Roat. The seat has a back of 

three 8lal» neatly joined aad elaborately carved. Bound tlie edge 

(^ fcbe scat is an iiiscripuon of two verses in Kdnnr&<iQ letters. 

There is a third temple of Parehvaufith, the twenty-third 
lirtitankar. Hero manj images have bcon cotloctod from other 
ebrineij and one of them ha« been cast of an allojr of five metole. 
In tho eu»t oonior of tbs area round Fdrshvanfith'B tomplu ani tbroo 
carved stones tuucK wwitber-wom. To the west of I^rahvauiltli's 
temple is a largo titonu building with loog atone bcAms. In a corner 
of it about twelve figures of naked Jinaa lie huddled together. 
There is a Sftb building called the Kado temple. It hax lost it-s roof 
md contains a black atone figure (4' 4') of P^ahvan^th with the 
hood of the oobro beautifully carved. Ontsido the wall of this 
temple is an iuscribtsl slab 3' 5" broad and ♦' 3" above gromad. 
Tbo sixth btiildiug is called Yirabliadra Doval. A largo tree has 
grown on what waft the back n-all uF its shrine. Them is a fine 
image of Virabhadra wearing high woodon sandals and armed with 
a sword, a shield, and a bow and arrow. Thero is also a YaisliuaT 
temple called the TrinialU Devasthfin, and, In its aonth-west comer, 
ia Q sUb (5' 6'x2' 3') with a robed man holding a vessel, and 
near him are a cow and a calf. Below ia an inscription distinct bat 
overgrown with moss. 

According t<i tradition the Vijayaoagar kings (t!^0-1560) 
raised a Jain bmily oE Gereappa to power in K&nara, and Buchanan 
rooorda a grant to a temple of Gnnvanti near Mnnki in ItOU by 
Itchnppa Wodearn Pritjkut, the Oer^ppa chief, by order of Prati^> 
Dev Riy Trilochift of the family of Harih&r.' Itchnppa's son was 
married to one of seven dmigiiiers of tbe last Byrasu Wudcyar 
ohiofij of Kdrkal in Kooth Kanar^ a sister of the famous Bhairddovi.' 
The issue of Ihia anion was a daaghter who anited the territories of 
nil her aunts as thoy all died withont children. She became almost 
iudependeot of the Vijuyunagar kings. The bead of the family 
Homi-times live^I at Bliaikal and KometimoH at GerNtppa.^ The 
chief ship seems to havii been very often held by women, as almost all 


[BoBbaj Gi 


Chapter XIV. the wntera of the sixtoonlli nntl nnrly part of the seventoptith • 
I of Intemt. >^f<ii' to the queen of Gersappa or Bhatlia).' In tlia furijr jvt 
thosereDteenlheoDlar; Bbairddt-viof Gersiin)», tliQ Inatof thoi 
Trasattacket] and defeated bjr Venkatamn Nf^ik, the clitvf of 
Acoordin;^ to a loral acouaut thu dit-d in 160^.' In 3C23 
Italian truri-llcr Delia Vallc, who accompanied a PortQ^ueae i 
to Veukatappa at Beiln nr, Tfent by tiersip[ia. He describps it an > 
% famoaH city, the scat of a qtiocn, tho tnetropolis of a pr 
Tlio city and pulacu tind. bUlon to niio and wera overgrown 
tr«oa; uothiiig was loft but some poasADta* hats. The loat i|i! 
had married a foreigner of low birthj who was uh' 
to lako the kin^om to bimtielf. Tbo quet^n ^oiig] i .ml 

Portuf-netto but they did not help her. The bu^boud radJcd' 
Venkatappa who seized tbe kingdom. Nine iiiilea bu^'uud Get 
th© country waa most ploassant, waving land coveiMd witli 
forasts, crossed by beantitul streams wbose shady banks 
with bunboos and gny with flowers aad creepers. The 
was the most beautiful river Delia Valle bod ever seen. So rai 
was tbo conntry for it.<i peppor that the Portngnesc called the e^ot 
of Geraappa Rainbn da Pimenta or the Pepper-qiie«u.* In l| 
Mnnro doscribcR Gersnppci as onoeflonrishinR' but now with ooli 
few beggarly inhabitants.* In 1845 Captain Kewbold calls iB 
pleasant village with fifty hooaes, and noticasamontf remains lyfl 
ancient town, nioundt), enclosorce, wella, aad ore or six 3i 
temples.* In 1!>*V2 I>r. Ijeith callH it a Nmnll villngo inhabit4>d 
huBoandmeu and a few traders. Its few hats lay at the eodi 
thickly wooded range and between the huts and the river the j 
hardly a furlong wide was terraced for rice. Old Gersappa 
mile acrois a smiill otrram wns a tangled forest with heaps 
nibble and horo and there square and dreeaod stoues beloi 

The Oersappa Falls, called after the ruined city of Gi 
are locally known n-^thoJog Falls fi-om the neighbouring villago] 
Jog. They are iu north latitude H" 14' and cast luiigitudo 74" 
on the K^ruira-Mnisur frnntior, about eighteen miles oast of Get 
and thirty-fivo milee east of Hop^rar. Tbo waterfall is on 
Shiriivati nvor, which, with a breadth above iho falls of about 
feel, burld itself over a cliff 830 feel hi^liJ TLu bent timoJ 
nev the falls in early in December when the river is low enough] 
make it posaibte to cross to the loft or Maisur bauk. B«l* 
June and November, when the river is flooded, Utile can 
aeeo aa the hanks are shrouded in clouds of mist. Fr 
Gersappa village, which has a rest-hno»e but ttu traveller' buags]^ 
through nuble atrctohi^e of forest, the road climbs about tt>n mt 
to the cret>t of tbe Gersapin or Ualerasni pass, and from the oi 

' Gsaurri Fjilu. 

>Sce obonvp. 102, 1 14. J19, 1S1-1S3. 124. * Bucbama'a Mywrc, 133, 171 

■ VkSKii. nr. 1 W, 109. * Miu»o. Slel M«r 1800. 

* Janr. A*. 80c. Bcng. XIV. 4S3. «> Ktport. lOth Febniftiy ISOl 

*Ur. r.. E. Caiid^, C.S., ilth Aa^iit IHS'I : Aciatm JoumAl Sel«vtiun*, D98> 
Joar. As. Sw. Bwog- XIV. 4IC-42I ; Kim* Myaon, U 387-380: Boniba* ~ 
Examiaer. SAth Mat 1878 ; The tlmei of Indis, 22iid April 1882. 

puses elghb miles 

ike tho journey ia 

OD tho vrny. About 

Mid about two miles 


fiirtlior to tho falls. Strangera gennnill; 
pnt»uquiQ3 nod spend about seven boars 
six niilus beyond the civst of tbu pass, 
from tho f&Ila, at Mavingtiiidi, wbere three 
rt>ftd8 meet, the Grst whisper of the falls ia heard. Beyond 
UairiDgiindi the whisper gniduAlly swells to k roar, nod the track 
]oiiVi.-A the high road and pn0aie& through an orergnx^u [urcat wbusa 
tti1li«t4-ii].sai'c festooned with thoshotjt^of the wild pepper viiif. Clo&o 
umlcrwi>oJ hides all trace of the rirer, till, at tho bungalow 
near the falU, the plat«iaii comDiaods a glorious vinw. To the 
north thickly wuodod bills riuc aguinat the sky, and the riror wioda 
■oothward ghsiniiiig like silver among the inlands of ita rocky 
bed. As it uears the crest of the cliff, vast masses of rock split 
it into separate strenmH, which, along fonr main channels, hurl 
tliemaelvea over th« cliff into a chasm 830 feet deep. Tho Tock 
ot the rivor-bed and tho cliff vrur nhich the river falls are gncisa 
asactriiLtud witb bypogene lichist^. The fjiiciBa iB composed of quartz 
ftod felspar, with buth mica nnd hornblende, and alternates with 
micaceoua, lalcose, aclyuolytic, chloritic. and hornblende schists 
imboddiog iron pyrites. ThoBo rocks are seamed by veins of quarts 
and felspar and uf a fiuo-gr&iued granite composed oE email grains 
ot white felspar quartz and mica. The masjt of rock has been CAten 
back several huudrud foot by the wearing of the water, tho softer 
taloose aud mieueoous schists suffering most. The bod of the river, 
which is curved into the rock, is broken by basins and by rugged 
water-worn massog. The Gorsappa Falk oclipBO every other fall in 
India and have fow rivals in the world. llkODgb excelled iji height by 
the CeroKoli (2400) and Braniiou (1200) cascades in the Alpa and by 
tho Arvo cotATttCt (UtW) i° Savoy, the Gersappa Falls (832) sorpasB 
them iu volume of water.' On thu other band^ thongh mnch 
inferior t^ Niiijfara in volnme, Gorsappa far excels it ( Ifrl) in height,* 
The Shirivati leaps over tho cliiT aluug four Be|«rato channels, 
MuA of which keeps a coneiderablo body of water till late in 
Fohruary or early in March. The odgo of the cliff over which the 
river is burled i» shaped tike a houk with a straight handle, the hook 
hciug on the Kilnara or right side and the straight handle on the 
left or Maisur side. Two of thtJ four falls, the Rija and the 
Roarer, are in the hook or curve nearly oppo.qite each other ; tho 
other two, the Ro<rket aud 1a\ Dame HIanche, fall over the xtruighl 
line or handle of the book. All fall fn)m the same level with a 
aheer drop of about 830 feet into a pool which souudiugK have 
shown to be 130 feot deep.' Tn ordinary years until lato in 
Norember the front view oi the ^la ia much hid by tlie clouds of 

*Ckptsiii Newl)oId, who*isJtml(}en«pp«ia Auffuil. roughly calcaUtwl that wbwi 
ha WW then about l.SOOtont of water wun? tieiiif; ourlod over tlm cUff every wcond, 

* At Niauan mboat 11.170 toos vl water vn bwl-el «vary mcouiI tmm a haight of 
IMkot. B»lW8«««t»p1ij,« [ EacyctflfHwU* BriMftnic*, Aiticlw ou Canwl^ 

'IVo oiKi.-unvf ibeludtMi N*v;, dcfwlod bf OovemiiiaDt to neanm tiw &UI>, 
arri<r»1 tKcro ab tho Cth of Maioh iSStL Their aooount, writt«a Id Uie old bungalow 
VmiIc, ii aa tnllowa t 

' We ibmw a tigbt flying bridun acroea the ctiMm (rora tho tr«e overiutngliij; the 
Buanr, f> the rock wcetwaidof that callcdtbeBija'a rock. To tkia wd aluau a cradle 

Chapter X] 
Places of Interest, 

tBoratejr Oi 




lof iBterett. 

tpny, wliicb, rising from iho boiling cooldrOD, hutg orer the rint| 
aod curl ucroaa Lbv crcuL ol thv cliff. 

The IUja Fa.ll,' the fall nearVHt tbe Kltnara or right bank, ii) 
eaUed tbc GraDd Fall, the Main Fall, and the Horso-ahoo Fall 
deeply cut. back on tbo rij^bt aide of Lhu book or etlipse. 
clcn., in one buga mnddy masti, « great volome of water 
a nmooth and gmcclul cur\-c, 8SU fcot dovro, in an unbroken 
until it III lost iu clouds of spmj. Tbe Bija Fall hoB held %t» 
poBitioD for about forty years. In 1846 one of tbe crag« ai 
edge of tbe cliif gare way^ and, as it fell, carriEni with it 
outetandin^; tcdgo of rook Uytop bare the face of tbe Bcarp witki 
□oUe thai HtartltHl the country for uiileit. 

«t tigbt Willi v», ojiiablo of boldinfttwopMftleeaarfcrtelily. TTi« ctuilU wm bwiijl 
Mi« aiiide an-l twk dnublv block*, tlifou^ wbieh wons'u tb* four b««-wM • 
Om brids*. Wa hwl Dntvioualy pUcad tliv bri(l|t« frum the lUja's ruck to thai 
but w« foniKl thattheleMl Ium wMild not, from any •inslo |iart ol tb« bridi 
olMTof tliaRiittrcf.acatthoroduoDdtlicriiiilei Umi pronug bcyoai] a ilimt 
povl h*d ii«vor been pliitul«<J frcoa tbc liilcs of Ibe cumiu. 

■ In t>i« CoNthMn tit the I'ith of UaivIi, Ul um^eiauita Imng oMDpletvd : 
proviaion iiu>de uamit remoto eonUasancie*, we nwda tbe [mim> in i))« cnwlb ft 
Bido to nrio, hiiliiiit In Ihs eentn to puur * libation tu thv guarillui Bjiinu cj t 
cbuNL Thu uniii£«iniuiU being loonid porfectl* MliifKtorjr, «ro pnMewM to i ' 
the pool. Tile andle witli ona iienoa wu auM %iny to « di^iioe at foi 
(wt iroia tba tro«, Tbe IsmI lia* wm lowwcd frooi the skon Uiroagli a 
pallcy uD tbe cndle, pauiiig down tbroii{{li Ita c«ntn>. tlw plaaHaol 
of taveti pouQiU of lead tiuoed in Ibe ccmtre a( an "tfilar life-t>u!>t i 
horunntolir. tbe whole vetgnt being kboat 18 tba. When llio Imd raaohcd tba 
the tifa-buuv Honted it. and tfaoa ifae lead inaa ia the cmlle felt tbe luaa of , 
IlaTinsdurluif uureerviuc had a little enmrieoce id tWji water, wo lucrw Hiatal 
of 20 Ibo. from a uloiaVlm* of iipwnrda o? 100 UthoiM woald Iw acAztvI)- at 
and ao wu found it. Bat by hanlitiD up half n tathom and Utting uoeadifalr, i 
lif«-buoj mado a discvmiblv ii|>liksh in Uh water. A marie tiaa then pUnxl •») Ik* Iim 
oloeeta tlie block, odiI thoanf-leol iu dip takvn with a thoodoliiti oii the brmk..4tk 
predplce near the Irae, at the hvpoteoaaal diatance of 47 fftt. Tbi± ntt 
pamedicuUr dsprcaaion of the cradlo bolow ^ biatnmeait ion a level with tbe i 
aa U feet ; vbich, addod to tbe line paid out, SIS foet. gave tii« uaot deptkl 

' tu lh<:- aftDmaon we deeeendod the rarme, utd wlldi a raft o( a few bainfa, 
three boat's braakeni, podiltod and aoniidod all round and a«roai the pooti 
prcvioualy, from above, turned oft a gruat part of tho Bonrer into the Kooka 
louiid that T2 (atliomn or 132 feet wm the groatoat depth. TUa aoimdic 
rei; near the wcat aide, about 30 yard* from tbe WkI of the nxd or 
Oraad Fall. We climbed the rocK on which tbe Boanr talla, and whaD i_ 
f««t tipil, the atrtam, which before had been rather aaild, oaiue down with 
on nnr dnretetl htnda tliat we bod to 'bold oa by oare^ida'to fns 
washed filT. 

' Hy mrjMiiHnjf a haae we saocrtidiied tbeboriiontal dlataaoe between tlMc 

the Caaaro and Uyaora bnagalowa to he 710 yarda ; and the dlatancv beta. 

lUia'a rock aad the tcoe Uut pluaa the Boarer, to W 74 yanb, Tbo top at 
BAja'a took ia fir* (att below tbe level ol the above nuntioaedtm. A plumb Um 
lowerad from Uiia tree into the bed of the Roarer meaaured 31S feet. 

' Ou the 15th ol Marc)i. wo lirolce uu our biidM, from whloh we had takun _ 
aatblactory viewa of the chasiii, and donMuded by a rope Into the cup of the Itc 
whoro we wenktatted, and aiterwacde, with aunie little difficulty at one point, r 
down by thu aide of the Roarer, and reached a poeition at the back, of the ( Jranil _^ 
wh«ttee the Booket and Roarer were aoan to the right Fton thia ptaoe abiac ^P 
a eorreet Idea be formed of the groat depth of tbe eavera in freni ol wbiob tlie Gtwul 
Pall drops. The sky otonded orer and tfaondsr pealed wh4tn we wvrv below, "nt^ 
was i.-iuviiiely grand. At 9 we ntcliod the top ol the obfl iu aaletv.' 
MvMirc uid Coore. II. SB9-390. 

' The lUjft Fafl takaa its name fran a ehi«E of Biltfi wbe pnUMd tu bdlld a 

ahfiae oiwthetop ol the dilT. Liuea for the fonndationof theBUiaa may be traoedf 
tlu Urge table-abapod rock which hanga over the ehaam. 

line "M 

(;iiiuL\ppA P» 


About 1000 Foot to iho left of the Rdja Fall, and atill m llic bend Chapter 
of tilt* liijok, 18 tho second fail, whosu noisy fury has giveu it llie piac*soflL 
luiuu of tlir HoABEK. The wotur pasiwa over the clifl aouttmurd »iid 
tunu sudJouly wost, and tumbling don-a a sloop oliuuuo] in caiiglit. 
in • biwio. Frout tbu buKin it niebott doiru a obiusm, aad, in mid sir, 
](MiiB the waters of tbe RAja P^ll, and che two streams togetbor lAgftt 
along n rnggod gorge dashing on a huge mass of rook, whicli, oxcopb 
in tbo slrongest winds, they bido with clouds of spray. From Ine 
territic doptli3 rise Ruoh a roar and turmoil, ana gucb sheets of 
bliuding foam and mist as Byron saw at the falls of Yelino: 

Tliv Iwtt (if watan I wliere Lhvj liowl and hiai 
Aud boil in endleoB torlura ; viulo Uie aweut 
Of their gtmt agony wning oat from thia, 
Tb«ir Pblagelhou. curU r«uu>l the rock* of jet 
E_ Tluit girtl trie ipUf arvuud ui |iitile» horror wt.' 

^KUMttt 700 foct to the left of tbo Boarcr, in tbc handle of the book, 
Vtfae RocKRT, a cascade of extreme beauty. It falls sheer about 
A hnndrcd feet, on an outstanding- prong of rock, and, from the 
prong, darts out, forming in the next 700 feet a rockct-liko curve, 
chrowing off brilliant jets of foam and spray like falling stars and 
ahooling meteors, 

About 500 feet to the left of the Rocket, La Djlvi Ulamciib 
glidos qoietly over the edge of the cliff in a sheet of fi>am. Though 
rt iallsthronghthe niimi; height iix tbt; utbu^nt, the White I^y spreads 
lea violently over tbo fat* of the clilT, stretching down to thoaurfaco 
of the pool like folds of silver gauEC alinken by giant banda. 

The TiLrying effectd of light and »bnde at different times of blia 
day are one of the great boauttea of the falls. In the aft^rooon, 
rising with the loworing sun, a lovelj rainbow spans the waters, and 
iKimetimes at night tbemoou tlirowe across the sprar a bolt nf faintly- 
tint(><l light On a dark uiyhl rockets, bluzing torches, or bundles of 
burning Btraw caat over tbo cliff light tho raging waters with afitful 
and weird glare. From abore tbc beat view of tho chasm is gained 
by U-ing down and p*>ering over a pinnacle of rock which stands 
out from tho edge of tbo cliff. ' I lay on this shelf/ Cantnin Kowbold 
wrote in August 1815, 'and drew myaelf to its edge, aud as I 
Btretcbed my hca.i\ ovor tho brink, a sight burst on me which f shall 
never forget. I have since looked down thefamiDgand sulphuruus 
cralon* of Ktnn and Vesuvius, but have never experienced the 
foelingd which orerwlielmed m» in the fir»t downward gaxe into the 
afa}-sH at Gersapp*. One might gaae for ever into that seething 
chasm where the mighty moss of the Shiriivati'a waters ceaselessly 
buriM itau'lf in amist-sbcimded gmvo.* 

The beat general view of the falls is from tbo left or Maisur bank. 
Trom tbo right bank of tho river a bamboo bridge crosses tbo 
Bija channel to the rocka b^'yond. Tho path then keeps well 
above the edge of the cliff, among large rocks, over small channels, 
and acrcMs seven or eight oE the broader stnmins by rude 
bamboo and pnlm-atem bridges. On tho loft or Muisur lunk 

■CkikleUanM. lV.6Bk 



Chapter Xrv, 
I or Interest 

■uii'ri. PALiJt. 

rA Vauh. 


a wi^l kopt jwth leads throngh diady woods Id a p'>ii>t. t»1l| 
Wiitkm'ii PIntforii). which cutnmiuida a view serosa tliu L-boam ' 
the deep cloft where fcho vatcrs at ilie K^ja and tlie l{oan?r jt 
and ptuuge info the pool below. Mj-rindH of swallows and pij 
circle aod Aash through the air. And slowly as the sun tot 
there flliiuos from t1ie dark dnplhs of thu chiuini a tovidj rainL 
which, Its Lhu Hun ttloiies wt>stward, riwa ht|^lier and hi^ht-r till 
brilliancy fad«H in th« waning light of evuning. Fmin Wutkil 
Platform a path through the wood teada down a M-riett uf H 
atepfl Lothe open hill eido which alopoe to the bed of tho rivor. 
the lower sloped bbe path iti bluck«d by bouldars, and all la mc 
chill, and slippery from tho cvor-falliug spntv. From tbu od{{a] 
the pool u> a fine g^ntiral view ot the falls, of [.ht magnificent roj 
chasm, aud of the d(«p winding gorge throiigti which in tho en 
of ages tho waters of the river have untirioglj eat«Q their way. 

There are two bungttlowH near iho fatla. Ooo. wfak-h is roaaoDl 
built and tiled, vaaaeeigQed iu 18(>S by Captain Crnickah&nk, 
tho Koyal Engineers. It atanda 1670 feet above the sea oa 
edge of the cliff ovorlooking tho chaam and so close to the falla 
the ronr of tho waters soiuctiiiius shakes it8 windows and docJI 
This biiugalow is ftdly fui-nt»hed and liits room for thren riftiu 
Tho other bungalow ia a suiall boilding with tuud walls and n til 
root It stands 1850 feet above the sea, 180 feet higher 
Captain Cruickahiink'!! bungalow, and further from tha Ealla Jt: 
chiefly intended for the use of district ollioers and has no farait 
Noar tho bnagalows is good stabling for nix horsen. 

Oorsappa Qha't or tho Gersappa I'nsa on the UorAvnr-l 
EroDticr, also called the Malemani Pass, in in the Oovardhaugin rat 
of the Sahy&dris eigbteon mileR ea-st of Honivar. The villages] 
Kodkani, Kndgnnd, Malvnlti, and ^falemuui \'w at tho bead of 
pass ; and Oeraappa, Larlign, Kuilrign, mid Magod al its foot. 11 
paas is five miles long and less steep than either the Arbnil or 
Dcvimane passea The road from Gersappa, twenty-seven miles 
Talguppe m Maisur, runs across this pass aud is fit for wlic * 
carriages. It is a provincial road and was opened in I B&-t by 
Madras Governmont at a cost of £7848 { Rs. 78,S40).' Rice, _ 
pulfic, tamarind, aud Tiigi como from Maisur to Goraanpa 
HouAvar, while salt, ooir-rope, cocoauuta, oil, ureca-nuta, and pe| 
go to Maisur. 

Ookam or tho CoVs Ear* with in 1831 apopnlation a£ 

> B«foM 1854 ther« wm a foAtpftth ; ktt<l in 1854 Uiq |iaM wm imimircd and I 
braxl monsh for cuiru. 

■ Tha traiutiuual oritflu ut tlie uuao Cntr'i Enr tii, tluL Btahina pnultKo'l fonr i 
vittitboobjrct iifrtitruBtingto tliemth« workofcroatiaa. TbawceN nfuHcd U)«r 
and DrnJiintt h»'i to pivducu Kudra or Shir from bla forebnd to do tbo UTtrL. Ki 
Mid tlut in liLi world ibrrn should be iiotlttDjr pcnshsUe. Ho to mi:i)it«l« 
dotiMUi imparialuiMe vorlJ ho dirod, and for ham KnituDctl un ' 
wUoh befon tbe nuking of thu world smiw wu ftUed. KraluBH, » 
bb raedllatlOD on ui inipeiiihablo wuli). binurif raoalded tbe ca.-^ i 1 < 

Ufa. KewB of BrabniA'a world cttiuo U> Hliiv, who. rDra^ed Kt tlf 
fflonoiMljr of oroatioD, nwo tbrougk Che u-oUr Knd sunicic ftni > > __ 

WM uuking nmiy to force bta way tbrou^ IbebuJ with bb teid«iit, nUvu tb«l 



is A fiimnaR plurc of pUf^mago, about tnn milns north of Kumtn, 
Uf'kurn litt^ n tmreller^' bua^loir, a police i^tation, ft vi^rn&ciilur 
sobool, mill a muuicipeilily (liiring Che three months of Jnnnary 
Pebraary aud March, when it ia crowded Lq coDneclioa irith the 
grent jH'iha^hvpratn fair at bhe temple of MahAbaleshvar. The 
mauicip-ility was started lu 1970 and la ]88l-82 bad an iucomo of 
£Io7Ut».li»"0} and an expenditure of £96 (Rs. 960). 

According to tho tiokaru ftUbilnaya tho boiiDd&rics of Goliam &.ro 
ihg Shalmari^iiga. or the Qanfravali on the north, tho Aghnilshtni 
or Tadri on the south, Siddhwhvar on the east, and the se& on ths 
west. Tho uiuuioipol and tho holy to«m of Ookaraare bouudud oa 
the north, east, ftud south hy a eomicircular range of low ba.ra 
hinockfli it li(^ in an oblonc plain open to tho Bca in form nob 
atilike the eta of a cow, iu a long stretch of cocoa palma broken bj 
plot-a of rico-land. Tho tuniu road runs betwefln xtouo walls to tho 
aea-sUnre near tbo greai tt.'mple of Mahdbaleshvar. Oh either sida 
oftlie main road \» a row of ehopa, most of them tiled and twa-atoriod. 
Vbe rent of the houses which are oiio-storied and have thatobed roofs 
stand in garden!*. The town ha-s liule or uo trade except during tba 
rearly fair in Februurr, whon cuttle, copper and brass Teasels, clolhee, 
jewelry, and provisioos vahie.1 at £oOOO to £10,000 (Rs. 50,000- 
Hs. 1,00,000) arc sold. The temple «£ Mabiibale!>hTar is botlt of 
granite iu tbn Draridinn style with a shrine and an outer ball. 
The ahrine is thirtj feet S(|tinre and sixty feet high and haa a 
damod poof ornamented with serpents, the figures of the god* who 
pruijidu over the eight quarters of benvea, and the ten incarnationa 
of Viiihuu. Over the roof ia a cupper spire. The outer hall or niandap 
in sixty fiset by thirty and haa a gijuare roof. The shrine ia said to 
bo the work of Vishvskarma,' and the copper spire and outer ball 
to have been added by a Talav BrShman of Kundapur in South 
Kiitara, There is an outer court or ehwuiriiahdla of Uterite with 

mrfag tke tnrai mf a cow, bceieil tli« trngTy god, iiuiUad of kUUiu b«r, to riM ta 
Ibo HiiiiaK tluDUgh bo* ear. Sbiv puxnl thraugli tbo wnr'a Mr Andonio out uii th< 
G«ktfB \>t*eh. In % o^Hen ai>t>g»it« tt« t«atfilc of Timngatm, t. cnall cavoni 
eallad fUdn-jvioi or Kodn'a pawik^ niarki tbo dIam where 8hiv (tnniNM nn th* 
Kufjua of Ue earth, and « •brine ai:it it lu> a muuII i^nLiiit* djiiiirc of HhiT. When 
be ttcpiwil uut uf th« uaroni ^hir prvp«ml Ui cuiiBuiat evcrTthing by the 6n> at hla 
v-iiitli. Itralinui, \'Lihtia, iumI tho otiicr kdcU iliiiiii«;o<I by hla aofvr, cane wber* 
he -t'-.l w< ^ivnuDod M*t he aliDuld bavo t)>« toto Hgbt to (lo*lii>y, ami in tim* 
nil. •vncv, bat that for tbc prcaoat Brahma kIiduM coiitLuu» ti>cra>,t«i, and 

%'ui> I < < rve. Tbe nroinuc of a uaivctnl An&l ruin pacified 8liiv who tonied 

tiia j.i^oi tu .1 [Kjrtion nf Uu: muily (oMt. a. little to tlieiiuctti-veat of Radr^yoal, 
• t]Mit. wliicli baa aiiicu hma kn»wa ai Kudra-kUuuti vX Kiutra'a land. A» ttoi sixrt 
ooalii not ooBtAta all tShitr's ouiccr lie took frani tti« fjoda and fxam all other liring 
bliaB ttieir •treni^h or umcocc and imide an aiunMl uf il ; aad Iron hia ovn «tr«n^a 
and tba •b«ng^ of Viatmu and Brohnui be adorned the nowljr GrMt«d animal with 
tkrwhnrnft, Thennfcebtcd world oIlivinitbniuacYiinplanMdto Vi«hnu, who rvforred 
tbon tn 8Mv, who pitiod thorn atiil rtatuTMl tbelr Htretigtb. Hia own ktreB)[th 
bo bosaed lu a tuiif luid wore it xgund bit ii«ck : VUlinu'a itrrazth he houMd in the 
ikltigritm •(one ; and BnUtma*! strength be pltioed in thu boly take of Pnihkar naw 

' Vuhvnkanu WMpreveBted from fin iahics the temple in cmo night by lUvnn. who, 
au»AyA.I by tlM racocM d Manpati'ntlevice toilcDrivi. him of tho lin-j ol wbioh mi 
iKvuuDt It civen on p. SOO ati\A I, became a code auil urow long liefore daybratk. 
when liw ilivuieannitac* had liniabulUia body oftbe abhae and wot going tobqgia 



Flaws of Xiit«rMt 




Jtf.- IvififitriAvar 

Chapter IIV. B. iilinl roof binlt by the natne Kumlapur Brfihtnan with the 

i8o7lat«rost ^'"K*'?'** ^t'"? <** ''"^ "''*o " ""•'^ tolmve paid forbrinjfinjr tfc 

from ^I^lgnutnetta rillage aboat twelve milea north oE Gokwn 
" libpmlly endowed tbo temple. 

The ling in tlie shrine rises aboat two ineh« above the 
Except thut its top iit somewhat fiottened it ia round and fiigh 
tapenog. Tc is said U> be tho (Uma or atM-Uny which, iii bli m 
with Br&hma's world. Shiv made of his own e«3euoe aod loog-i 
ou his neck.* The roots nf the ling art! said to rtnch the lower wc 
In the onter hall are tmages of Pfirvati and Gaiipati with u 
bidl in the middle of the hall. Upwnrda nf a haiidriMl 
n]wn_v» barnin^ from faad» set apart for the by 
Every day there are ntfered to tho ling I JOikiuiuU (00 ghrrn) of i 
rice, which is afterward* eaten by llie temple-servants, 
marinotoa or bcl Icarcs, and tho panehtimrita, milk, clarilied bot 
honey, curds, and sugar. Pilgrims perfurin iiio jianrhiimriia nhhi 
or the fire nectar worship, pnring^ tho niini^trant I«. (3 <u.] 
the i^d lit/. (-4 a*.) ; or ihey perform tho fhidwh ruJnt ibo utej 
rudra, in which they pay jiriest and tho god 2*. (Ke. 1) ; or j 
laghtt riiJra, tho littlo rudra, m which thoy p«y the priest mail 
god 10«. (Rs. h) ; or the nui/ta radnxt tlio great rudm, la wl| 

>ThB (olUiKrinf ■lory ia toMof Uie ikU-Iiub ■■ KaiLwi. llm aiothftr oF Itl*_ 
grrJit foe of Rtni and Kiverciifn of Otyloa. told bur mwi Ui»t ulir vaa uixb 
wornlii)! lO.OnO.OOO lilts: Itilv«n. fatlinn to ctilUit.'t «o lanrr n r: 'wh^r •xx f* 

ooniultod Boine iMK** irbotoldkim tint the ui«nt of w 

eottlil be &ttAiii«d by offering mi X^t inuiiii'to* ut bd Icftf 
Iw £blv of hia own subttanrie. KUnui lH>:|{ftii lu tKHom. n< 
pUMtid witb hit d«vottoa, ^ve Uiin llie ehuiiw of ■ [mud. i:a> 
tbetftntAJiaiTarMlf-Jiw^ whicli tlie god wurit ruaiid bis nock. .M 
OD L'AiiditioD that tlie Jtnjr •lioiiM nut 1m act <m tlie gronud nnci 
capital. Tim injnn uf lhi» gift aJariKvl Ifce (("da I>k«o»« sach >■ . 

/i*j that if It w>is woreliijjpe-l (or tbrMywira in aucc«MiAn it i;a\t iW 

l>ou'(tr nriuAl ta MiOiAdev. Tlioy wmt with Viihuu i« Shir who XiAA llipn tha 
vuly way of iliajntMaiiig Itlvan'of \heliiuj iiiaa tucuutriveLobaveiiaRt oti tlia 
befun lUvau nacbod Coylon. Tlia goila vroiiMtl UtU Uaiipati, Lh« ton 
disguiaad oc a Brthiuao ud, ihouM Inttur at GoKani. aiid, wivb Ike help ol 
outwit ItAvaa. Tlw ^uiialud tliiui8olv«a at aaburt diilAncc from tlt>-ti>wu . ' 
watching thit iwiA of tlin utraLajoin. (iacifiati eoiiii; Ui the •ca-iihi.vte ■_._ 
ooiuing with tho liaij in liii hand. RAvaa wa* n rvliKiiaa man who waa alwaya* 
toaayHiia mcmingi uul ovoning jirajara. Wfann ho reaohB.! (;ok.-irD it waa 
in tho aftcmtKio, htit to UmiI liiran to aappoao it waa nnMt VUhmi hflil liis 
bcfon: ihv suit. Rii-na Iiiinird to balli« an*! any hia rvmiiir* iiravor. Uit bis1 
be uwa yomi({ Biuliuiiin, the din^iacd Uanpati. incbargvof a JiFril of oiwa. 
Mked hiiD to bold the Uag whiU he aaid hit praycT*. din[>alj f«t£wd uowtlJ in;:nc 
00 b«lag prtaatd agrocU mi ciniditiiiti that if. xiStn waiting and uaUiii^ ro-.i ),;• 
ttaTM tSRua. KavKD did nulia|i|HMr, he iiil^jht Vh.- allnweil Eoet^ i^Nn^ 
FcrgeUlng Shlv^ butractioB*. Havanunvr the tug to (iuijiaii and w&l, 
K oticng sft«r be luul itonc Ranpati oaTlcd out hi* tuuiie Uim tijinw au tii.. . i.-':<vi 
befoM lUvan Muld turn thu lin-j waa on tlie {{n»uid. Uiraa triad to pick ii]< ibti 
but Ita roots had paaaad d«pp into the earth, and ai, In Bnilo af kU ^c-^.i.:. ..r ^ii..,- 
(ailed to morn it, Kivan called it Mali&bali^irBriir th4.> VL-rrl'.iu 
laint Tho goda lan^hMl aiidOuipaU went forty puouKhekuui l)<. 
On rcGovdrioe coDacioDiacw fUvaa, beddc hiiiiwU with nfft, ftim^ titv 
tbc liny bto cbc air, rort of It foU >( Munluahi-ar, fifteen mitca mutk <4 1 
an^Xher port at (luiivanU, fiv» mil)-* noeth ulHonivar ; a third at DLiUrehvar. L. 
aiiuth ol Kumta ; atitl a fourth at ^eavad, about two intle* ««tiUi-«ait of ..^ 
AU four ipvw into (iiM* cmlM Mnrdeah^v, Ouiivaiiteahvar, OlutnafaTar I 



Hiey pay tlio prif st and the god £*i (Rs. 60) ; and the ati rudra, "the 
grcfttcst Tiflni, in ivhich I hey pay thcnricat orlliu god li.\o (ila.IoO).' 
Ooce in sixty years the ground rounu tlio liitg ih dugoud the upace 
fitted with powdered jema and pearls tho cost being met from the 
fcemplo funds. Tbiit is called closing the eight quartora or ashlabaitti. 

The tL>mp1e is managed by trustees and an accountant who nro 
sabjcct to the control of a committco appointed by GoTeitiroeDt under 
Act XS. of I8fi3. The yearly incoma of the temple varies from £300 
to £H)0 (11b. 3000- fta. 4000).^ Id bononr of Mahfibftloehvar a fairu 
held every year dnring the Afahushicrdira hulidayd, from the tenth 
of the dark half of Mfigh to the second of thp.bright half of Fdlfiun 
(Febriiarj--Mji.rch), the thirteenth and flftecntli ht-ing the great days. 
The fair iu »ltoiide<l by 1 j,000 to 20,000 pilgriins ^om oil parts of 
the Deci.'un and religious beggars from Coutml India. Tboy tbrong 
in htrgo numbers fruin the thirteenth n.nd begin to leave from the 
MXteenth. Of Iat<iyear3 the number of pilgninsiasoid to havcfallen. 
On the 14th of Miigh, the day after the MalnufiicnUra, the pilgrims 
fest, and, bathing in the Kuti pool and iit the sea at the mouth of 
the 'J'llnjrftparui rivtdet,^ give money to Itr^hiiiiLns, and Afl*r wor- 
shipping Oanpali go to worship^bal«ahrar. On the new-mooa ' 
^y, the third day after Mrtlniiiftii^riltra, no irai^^ of Shiv about a 
foot long is mounted by Havig priCHts on a large and elaborntoly 
carrod car which the people drag to aome dlBtance And again drag 
lack to the temple.* Every year before the (air care is tolcen that 
ho place is kept clean, and a ho<>pital assistant is sent every year 
from K^rwdr, Tbc chief constable and the mlmlattUr, or a sab- 
lirisional magistrate of Kuiuta, camp at Oolcara during the fair daySj 
;d an additional guard of police i» sent from K&rwiir. 

Besides the great temple of Msbabaleghvar twenty smaller sthrinee, 
hirty lings, and thirty poola and holy bathing- places or tirtht arc 
leld in special reverence by Snutrts and Lingiyata. hike Benares, 
3»T», Pushkarin llajputfinft, XlUik-Trimbak, Soranitth in KathiAwAr, 

d other great holy places, Uukarn is said to have been Tisitt?d by, 
r to hare been the scene of the austerities of, various gods and 
re-historic personages, especially Brahma, Shir, Viahun, Agaatya, 
Hm, &ud R^van. Almost all the smaller shrines, pools, and bnthing- 
'Isoea are called after the^ and other deities and personages. Pit- 
fhns visiting these rsrious holy ploees are said to obtain freedom 
roni the groat«at of sius, to secure lasting merit for thotnselvcs, even 
o send their ancestors to heaven. Of the smaller shrines nod lingg, 
ipposite the porch to the north, in the open epaco between the 
ipanUe hall or chandra»hdla and the temple, is au obluug Hhq called 

> Tba Rttdfa u a book of eight pula of \ifiBXA in praim of Rndm or Shlv which 
• rpciiail whit* wBtop ia penred over \ht fjw. A««OTding M the tinportanoe of Um 
r»r«r nuln, or tha da«diinMM of the tin M bs WMbed mrnvf, Um liook of h5titm to 
nan i» tvpeatod chn-n ttmn rtrfrf<MAa niiJra, 121 time* /ot/Au or the UUI« nxfro, 
\ UvnncAaM'ttiebignMfni, orl4.(MI tune* ufi or tlw graalcit rittfra. Mr. P. B. 

CTba dotailauo, • OownuiHint cwh gnnt of £70 2). (Rk.791), mA a aooond 
mmBHot gnat of £I00 (R«. 1000) from lU ■hart of the rantal of laiul hold by tlM 
hml»atfvanla. Tlir rMt la trom tdlirriBi gift*. 
*S»Wowi.,295. * 'S* Part I. pp. 122.123. 

Chapter ZIT^ 
FUcoa of latSTM 








ipter XI7. 

I of Interest. 
Gorakic , 
, £kruiM ami 

Rhftstrenlivar, about eighteen incLes long and abont two ani 
lialt £ect rmind. It is of polished grftmto snii standa oi 
pillar or nnrtMpana nndcr a Btnall tiled roof. Immcdintcly 
the .Shistrcahvnr hwj, bnt bolrtw the level of the (Ioit autj otidwi 
small lili?d roof, h auutbcr BtOo« of tbe aamo kind niiil «liiipc mllr 
Adi Gokani. Further east is a granite figure of Tirabhadra, 
destroyer uf Dakshu's aacriflce.* 

Aboat forty paces bohind tho temple of Mahibaleshvar hUndB tbo 
temple of Gaopnli, with a gmnito iinago whose liead beara •»«•■ 
mark of a violent blow. lliiH is the Gaopali who cheated RA 
and he still hcnra the miirV of tlio blow which R&vun (jb 
when he found that Ganpftti had cheated him oat oE his Un^. 
ia sud to have rewarded Oaopati for rescaing the f'tH<j by ordotii 
that ho nhonM be wor»hippcd before Mahfibaleshvar. A pil, 
devoliun loswall merit if he fails to honour Ganpnti beforu ho 
Sbiv. To the aoulh-taet of tho Mahibaloahvar leinple ta a _. 
oblong dirty pool called the Koti-tirth with a brokou uij^ht of bIp', 
The water of this pool i« oonsidorod toBcoure tor tboso whn ballia 
it H8 much happiness in htiiTcn as bathing in any other bxm 
million holy placed can bring.* 

Id the middle of this Koti pool is a itm7 onllod the Sa', 
or Tjord of the Seven tVorcs of I'ools antl before it is the fi 
gnnite hall.' Near the westuru corner of the Koti pool ik a s' 
domed and stone-built shrine of KdlbhairaTeHhvar, the furious S' 
tbe patron of b«rbers, to whom aweetraoat-*, fowls and sheep an* je« 
ofTorcd. Besides with Killhbairar'a toinple, the sides of the pond 
lined with many Bhriues and niationiT domes called gu/ii/i or temp' 
The chief of theflo are Ganid Gndi with the figure of 
KriKhnapar with a fignre of Auiruddha the god of love and the son 
Krishna.' Near these are Agastyeabvar, Kadmeshvar, and Vaahiehi 
eshvar, linga wud to be set up by Agastya, Vashistha, and other as ^. 
To the east of the Koti pond is the BmaJl temple of Stiiiukar-Naralji 
who ia lialE 8hiv half Vishnu/ The stoiy ia that iho Aab- 

1 Sm Moot'* Hindu Pantlinni, 1*7. 

' The Koti vool 'u mIJ to have boon tRVugbt to Ookam frutu t)i« BbiaiiijiM. 
when tiBrad, Viahnn'* tiiuJi'Vulturu, wa> wandering iit Manb of f uud keuv OB BID 
Men) tbb >nitk« RmI Paoo or Durmai/i. He catiylit Bad Fam lii liIs hetk *ai i 
mat. Jtiat a« tie rmctiod the }1hkbu>iriiiK p«nk of U«ni. the abode oi Itiiihioa. tbt 
lite of mauy holy (hviIs aud the dmllinii uf iiuuiy swca. Hod Face vrrijiyilcj nut u[ lia 
tAloDa and glided intii a hiAe in the inoiititain iaUi «nii:h Rontd could tiot fulluwlte. 
TllC only way of ^ttinK .it llod Fkco w^ to coat thv hill into Ui« m«, irhvii thv ami* 
would b«fnwedtola*vi>liuhidiiifl. Oikrnd took tbe hill in libliMk and inad« for Utaaa. 
Thia tr4M.tin«»t of hia hill earngM Brahina and bo laid oo the roolc th« waagbt «f Itarn 
worlda. Ganid prcMaed tiu groajiln^ uodor thn Uiail. At (ickarn the n^a AuMtTt 
from hla cav« bmrd (lit-nul'ii urnajui, and. inuvod with pity, hi-ld tbe hill on 
buid aiidMltlr;<l it to tho sooth .<iaat of MAliAVattnhvur tempk. ThoabMJi in. 
faundrad inilli<'ii holy ipriaK* <ui(l itrevnu) in the bcairt «( tbu bill t\>ll into on* an] lbi>, 
wUeb ci>iiUiiia the virtues •;•( them all, is tbr Kuti pool. 

■ Anirudtlkb wt>a l«v«l by Uafaa, th« d&aghter ol VUig Ban, wbo 1)»d bMn akown Ul 
pi<ilvr< by a wandorfng painter. With e)i« help of her familiar Rbirita ^« bfxat^ 
AnirudcUia thronob the air into ber pabn. Uere ho waa touad by Uan. tha ^am 
tatlicr of C*ha aaci tlirown into piinon. Re noanod to Gokani whcic HUt rewaiM 
fcli anaUri^ by (tiring him power t« kill Bin and many Daba. 

* A draormj! orthe i)iiai;F of Sfauikw-Nariyas U g^*«n in Baidkanan'a Uyaon aai 
Caiumi, 111, ItiD, plAU xnv. 



BbtMm^ur, having pleased Shiv by performinj^ au!iti>ritio«, gninod 
{rooi him tho power of rediicinf^ to fwiiea or hhasm any pcrsna on 
wbOM bead he abould Iny his hnnd. To test the realiry of thn fnft 
the giant tried to lay his haod on Sliir'a bead, tjbiv Hed to Vaiknnth 
Uie abode of Viabnu, and Yishno, seeinf; tbe dangi^, divided hin).»elf 
in two, Ooe-baU became a beautiful n-omaa whom he told to 
wheedle Bhaxm&sur oat of his dangerou-* pownr and destroy him. 
The other half jomed Shiv and went with him to the nnder-world. 
ITie wiiman whom Viahnu had made cbarniL-d the Ash-giant, became 
his wife, got him to promise her anything eho wishudj cUimed. the 

EDwer that lay in his right hand, and placing bur right hand on his 
aad tnrned him to aah(». When all was over Vishnu and Shiv 
came bock from the under-world cIoko io the temple of Sbankar^ 
NiLrayun at a pool oallfd Vnmajjani or tbe Out-coming. Close to 
the Vamajjani pool ia thu Vaitami pool, through which the rivtir of 
hell paxiMKl nheu tthe tvas driven from her home by tlie cunte o( 
Varun tho wat«r-god. A bath in thi« pool froet tho bather from tho 
lormentii of hell-hre. 

Opnoiiite this temple are said to have been three masonry domes 
tailed the Shrine of Knowledge Jndnamandapaf the Shrine o£ 
Reslgnatiim Vainigyjamandafia, and tbe Shrine of Absolatioa 
Miiktimatniapa. Persons who live jn the Shrine of Knowledge gain 
wisdom ; those who live in tho Shrino of Reaignntiou got patieooe; 
ftod those who die in the Shriue of Aboolution go straight to heaven. 
Tho dyintr keep thoir right ear upwards and Shiv whii^ipcrsln the 
ear tho Fivo-lL-ltov spoil or jjuneluikahnri vpadenh^ which acarcs evil 
■pnita. Uppoatitc: the stnith.uast corner of tho Koti pond, nn the 
northern slope of the ShaLshriug bill, is a timall temple of Man-Linn 
or Nitraimli, the fourth incarnation of Vishnu." To tbe south of tbe 
Koti poud ia the cave uf the aage Agastya ; and to the south of 
Agastya'i cave i* tho cave of Snmitra, and tho Gan'ja pool." To 
the south of the Qanga pool i the Bkimkodia pool, where a kins 
named Hhiro performed austerities. To tho sooth of Hhim'it pool 
on the top of the Slmtshring hill is the Oogarbha pool where lived 
the wiBh-fulfilling cow or kdmdhenv.. Close by is the Jtn^ma 
htmundalft pool, and to the south of it a beautiful grove called 
Malienbvar-van where Shiv lived with Pdrvati and where numboiv 
of worshippers have received an annner to their prayers. At the 
foot of the hill to the south are the MdUni and SiimAHni pools^ tbe 
SdD or Surtja and the Moon or Chandra pools, and tho A nanl^ pool. 
To tbe north, on the sea-shore, is a pool fonncd by Vishnu's 
dieeua which staid here for ages performing austerities. It is also 
oa)le<l Ballala pool from one of tbe Hoysala BalUU (1M7- ISlO) who 

*7licflv«-l«n«riMtt laBnw to Shiv, tbe fire MCars ImIus |lKl)(>u^)(^f)(•«tl(|u). 

'Vjalmii l>*cMn« Alkii-UoB to deatroy tbu stuit Hiniay>liulii|iD. wbo, luurnag 
tbe power of Iwlra, pUyvd tlMpart of Umbud anil mvoD aod ot ui wRt«r aadar*, 
■nd wStti iir<Trl>MTing |>ri(l« ntlitd tti« goila for « biinilrod KuUUin jvon. CMapu* 
MoM-'n lUrula PantbMD, IM-IWI. 

* ^i'lmltnt ma « ptonm BrAhoikB, Vko to won the favour tit Shiv tbitt thv feoA cama 
ko live witb him. Tht scor)- of tli« ffoMifa puol la tliat sQ tbe Mfea bciuK iindnm tn 
Mb^ the river Ouijies from the ]amct world, went to tbe care of ^iraitn where 
Shiv WM Mid pr«]^ Ulin to Mof ap tke Ouigw. 8biv struck hU tnd«ot m Um 
giQUud Mid the Gsa^ta •pnuig («rta> 


Chapter Xnr. 

Plaoee of Intvnot 




lof latoreft. 

S/lriitf-t and 

made a path to it. To the nortli of tlie BaUal pool h tbr 
pool, wlucU is Haid to have beeu prodiicetl ai tlie prayer of tlio fo 
t&gOB Eb-bindQ, DasIi-t>mdn,Sliut-l>indii,atidSaha$ni~bindu,lliRtr 
sncred wsler of tlie Gauges iiiiglit nlwaj-a flow thcrn. Not furi 
this tbo Jatka or Mattcd-faairpool eprings from tlie roots of « buii 
tree, wLicli j,'iveit itsuauie. To llio uorth of the Mr' ! 
the- Bbimgud poul wliioh van lost ju thi.*hi1laud > 
bxBhiiii, tliL-ginuc Pdndftv. Tlie |.'!But, whrn bcvisiipd (ioltarn' 
hia bi-olliers, struck the rock with Uh ivar-maee nnd the <f 
giuhed forth. Further north on MnuiaAg or the SiiHke-Jeirvt, i 
et«ep hlack granite rock, is tho trail of the BOHke Bad Pa 
who, after Gnrud bad dropped Siiatsbrinz hill, escaped to thai 
Sklon^ a track which can BliJI be traced, and, id the sen, diirinf* tl 
heaviest storms, keeps smooth n Rpooe oboat SOO foot a<)uar«.' 1., 
the north of the Siutke pool is Itflai'a pool with inuigvH of ftiis, 
Lakshmaii, and .Sila, whure 'RAm olHanscd bim^olf from the siD 
BrAhmaD-^TiDg which he had incurred by killing }1ATaa. 
gnilty of tho «ftme «in get rid of it by battling in thin pool. To 
DOrUiis Kurun pool, and to the north of it Miinkfghvar ymol which' 
brought by Minkoshvar, one of Shiv's Bttondanle at KailAa, wl 
caino to live in Uokam and is the gusrdiau of tlto went of Gaka 
Closo by aro two unturned feet of graoito Raid to be the ft-ol 
Milokoshvar. To ttio west of Mjtnkeehmr's fv«t is tho Braliu 
pool where Itrahma did penance for bis incest with his daugfc 
SarasTBtl To the north of the Brahma pool is tho ViahvM 
pool and a ling called VishvAm itrr^h rar. This \% the scene 
Viahvfimitra'B auetcritipg which raituidbim from boicfif a Eshkt 
to be A Bribman. Nvar thoeo arc the QCttjntrl, Silrr'tr 
SaratfL-ati pools and Ji'igg, tho seen© of ausl«rities por: 
the threo deities whusu names they bear. To the ui'K ^ 
Amrittishvar and Saptaȣgan>8hTar /tn^. Arariteshvar is soidi 
hare been eet«bIi&bod horo by tho gods on the occasion of 
ohnming of the ocean, when the demonii having partJikon of 
nectar or avirit defeated the gods. This Iwg inWporated tl 
beaten gudo who attacked nnd routed the demons. Saplasignreshi 
i»eaid to have been established hero by tho acveueooans oreaptfud^i 
when thoy wcro oniutied by Agaatya, who drank all their water i 
one draught, to enable the godi* to destroy the demons nv daitM 
who, when defeated in the second battle, took shelter by retiriiur i 
the bottom of the sea. The demons wore destrared, hot tho so 
SCM remained dry. The seas set ap tho Baptaedgoreshvar limj . 
prayed to it that their water might be restored. Their pruvrr 
grantedt king Bbaeirath was bom, end brooghfe the G^> 
refilled the sea.' In a small rained temple to the oorti^ '._.. 
SaptasfigU'esbvar is the Vidhutpfii>Bth:ileHhvar Uiig, a visit to whic 
purifies from Bin. I4ot fur to the north of VidhutpilpsthaleiiliTar ' 

> .Sm jitiov« p. S92 nota 2. 

* Tho RiUniyui (Orifitbs' TVkaalKtlou) has, * Tbn KOMt Dhaginttli, nyal 'ttft. 
BO fftir KD to oh«er bi* ije. He, groat in kIoit, pure m nitl, loocinf f«: *.-ii« wtt 
ctuldlem >tJll. Th«n oa ««i« wia}i. (mi« thought intent, pUmUng th*liuveiil> btnmim'w 
dtaaoil, iMTtng hi» ministM* tlie eitn and borden of hU sUt* to btw, dwotJiBg la 
br Ookiun ho •ii£ii({ed in long anaterlly. ' 


Pilristhaleslivfir, wliere pilgrioiB are belleveJ to ubtain freedom 

&UI11 u futlier's or a mother's curse. Fnocral coremoniefi performed 

Iiere are caid to be as effeclivo iw thtwL* pert'ormud at C!iiy«, liJO tnilea 

Aoalb-east oi Benares, Behind thetse shrines a etrcfttulet called the 

Timraparnl or the rod-colourtd Howa suuth-wcst ioUi tbo noa from 

TAnirjt'Iinl or tbc Red HUl, » hillock a little to the aortb-ea«t of 

UaliAbilfiihrAr temptu. Tbo billoclc and rivi-r an ruddinh or copper 

oobiuriMl.' The iTiUt>r or Gim<j;!L in nrnbiua'!* goblot wiijlied bo marry 

Sbiv. IJrabma iign'vd iiud advijwjd biT to |*i» t-o Gokiirn where «bo 

lived in a cavH iu tbu Tam rt'u-bat bill and pleasc-d .Sbiv who afrreed 

to marry bor. llo widbcd bor to live soar bim both in tbc foi-m of 

wat&r and in the form of a womaD. She came down the bill io tha 

shape of water, and flowed near tho A{ahitbalc«bvar ling meeliitg 

the sea ut u place called San^ine.ihrar, a little to tlic sr>utb of 

Vi<niulp^paThaloshrar, wlioro pi.-ople batbo on tbc Shivnitra day. 

lu tbi! turm of an ima^i^u Gauga fixed ber abo<le uu the L«5t jusb 

b^'biiid tbo Willi of tbe outer conrt of the MabtibnlojihTar temple, 

n-bL'rc she is still called Taiiiragauri or the Rod Qaiiri. Tbo wat«r of 

the atrearulot is reddish up to the te^rple of the goddess Titmra^uri^ 

A little to tbc north-eaat of n-bicb, belovr the Shatsbriuj^ hill, tlirntigli 

an opeudrain, it rereirea tbo water of tlip fiokarii springs. Like tlia 

tU>iii;;«ya pool in tbc Godavan at Nisjlc this streamlet is asvd by 

the Hindus of tho neigh bnu rill fj; parts of Kfliiara a.t a placu to lay 

tbo boues of tbc drad. When Ixmea ai'e thrown into the river 3d. 

(2 orf.) are paid at tbe Rbrine of Tiimragaurif half of wbicb i;<x^8 to 

mo priest of TU,mn4raari and haU to tbe priest cf Mah^balcshvar. 

Tbo toacb of tbe water cni^iires tbe dead happiness in tbe next 

birth. People come from long distauc«s with the boncn of their 

dead in jara and hnry them in tbo ^vater of Ibe Tiimrapami. 

The image of Tanintgaiiri which is about two feet high in enshrined 

in a fiin.'dl temple, She wears a oloth and jowctr>' and holds a 

balance in her bandii, one soilc of which, tboug-b it huIdK all tbe 

holy places ta India, bangs light and high, outweighed by tho 

oCbor Male iu which is Ookaru alone. To tlio north of the 

TAmragauri temple across tbeTAmrapnrni,i8 Radrn-bhitmi, the place 

where Hbiv is sitid to have laid bi9 auger when bo found that 

Brabuia bud oimio tbo world without his help. Tt is a saudy t^pot 

about seven feel by four and in believed to have onco had the 

property of consuming dead bodiea without fuel or fiptn. Ou tbo 

norlb-Cttst comer of tho burning gronnd is a email temple of Pai-vati, 

whoigknonnas ^nrnjvAnxiiWt'nr Kdliof tbe Burning 'ground. About 

half a mdo north of the Rudm-bhnmi is Rndra-pad or Kudra'a feet, 

wfaere Budra or Sbiv stood when he determined to destroy Brahma's 

'Tile HoTjr in tlut Aiirv, tl>e ktviiImo af tho aaga BhH|,'n. iMmiou *^t the miu 
of kbto Kftrt«vir}> wtia btul alalu Aiir>-'B (atli«r and broUien, vok gnin^ to limy htni 
aha wliilc ntill iit tim wnmli, ilckniiiiml tt> pariorm •natvritJM till be cMild produce 
19m <r^Uih wuuM iniablii him to iliwtruy hn «n«niea uul th« whole vr<>rl4. BraliiiM, 
tiilaklBg It duflerom lh>t any miui dimild haT* mdi {MWtr, crMted rir«l Hra. 
Au* In hH wTHla cuad«aHMd Bratuna's fin to «at bMli «be clean and tli» niMlaiu. 
Ta Tree IimU fraui UU» owm Brahma'a llro oune to Qoluoro and p«rfannod aantvritlBs 
ia « oare In the Tftauitelial bill. Shir freed the fin fma the curee and it wfttidnrw. 
Bntfrimtlit hvat wbicfa Itatwocbedduiagtlw rtay «{ UmHiv IL«biUbccMDO«>|)peT 



iikfinr* ami 

IBombt; Qai 



Obftpter XIT. 
lacei of InterMl, 

Shritir* aiW 

cretttion. One of hU foot is uu<l to h»T« reated liorc and IfaeotfaerJ 
tlie Hudm-bhami. Tliose who burn Iheir dtsad on tho Rudra-1 
pyrform the fiinoml ceromonica at Itudra-pad. Koar thonorth-i 
cnrnei- of tho Koti pond is a granite imn^ about two ft»et tigfc 
BlmlniLth, one of Shiv'tt uttondanta the goardiiui of ci-nlml (M 
To the »oath of ilie Mn)iiibiiU>3livar U5in])lo under r ~i 
ne^loeted and pnrtly broken inutge of Uralitna of blu . 
six feet high. It is a well carved tigTiro with four facea njid 
on a Wnuti fully polished elnb of bluck granite. IVo of tlio 
lie broken at the feet., the result of Shiv'a vurso.' To the ' 
ima^o of Bmlima is Tfutra'ii pool, whore Indm did pimaooe 
kimaelf from the curao of tho sa^ Gautam whose wifo Ahal^ 
aedoced- He propitiated Sbiv, set up a ling, and got the thtfuss 
■OToa with whioh hia body wiu covered torutMl into eyes au th^t ' 
beonrue the ^d of a thousand eyes or aafutnrilkjiha. To the east 
the Indra pool ia a Hn<i whiob wna tinod by tCuber who came to Goki 
and obtjiincd from Shir the sovereignty of hia capital Alaka, wl 
he was deprived by RAvnn of his sway orer Lanka and of 
poMossion of the Pushpnk balloon. Not fur from Kuhpp'a litu 
thn^e livgn Bftid to bnve been set op by R4fau and his hrot 
Kumbhkarn aud Vibhishau, during tUuir ntay at llokam. Ft 
othor lint}» are Maid to have boaD set op by the four Veda wt 
were ODffaged in Buaterities to please Shir, Boaidci these, ol 
the Radrebhunii are the HuhrahmaNva pool, and the Barisdtand 
Samvartaka, and a largo number of otoer I'ngt. Boath-west < 
Kn^ u the DattAtrayn pool with an image of Dattiilmya in a 

' Once wlieii Ttnihuia (iiiJ Vuihnu werr cnntctulinff fof iop«iflrity, Sfciv nf 
■ad Hud UmI wbuuvvr wu tlie fitat tii cut ciUior U> tliQ top at ttftfar Uitturu cil _ 
ibU) wbioh Iio would truulmn biawo If would lie oonridcrHl the miiHifior deit j. j 
tbNi ehMurad himwlf Into • ling vblcli atretched trMn the lowxat wodd to tb* Ul 
baaren t Viahna bmlc tb« lorm at a buw amt lUg iuUi tba twrth. while Bm 
nouitad an h» awau wul Kurvd In )i«aTvu. Viihnu Ubiiaml luu-H Ixit ia vaIb, , 
ovnwitnewith toil, returnud liujecud t<i thetpot whiince he had tlarti'd. Itndiin— 
hU flight ou the Bwan, mot tbn lamuu* cow tiimMrnu whidi had gonti to ImUm!^ 
with milk Mid tlio X-WoJti flvuroi which b*d l»cn wora hy Shiv oa tbe prcivMma C 
ku<l |f(it iliinn to bair out li>l« atatninant tlwt h« had dMcovarail the l»[> •>{ the I 
nnhnia rvliitncil to the apot wh«pa Vlahnu waa waiting and danuidcd ■ul>iniist<j« \ 
th« Hlron^b oI the tealliDiwy of tiia oow and th» Bow«r. Bnt Khiv miain«d hla p 
form and apbtwdina Braliinit Ui« cow aud tho flower, curaed thorn, dMsUring 
Bfahma from that <Ujr aliould mcoiva no worabip, tliaC the iniMtb of the cow i ' ' 
defiled, nnd that tbft bdalci dowvc ahuuld ncT«r be uaed in hia wvtuliip. G 
cow, uidthv H<iw»T fa«^g«d union, and Shiv r«l<<utin(( aid that tiiwiu^ not u, 
Bnhaw would \i* fint uivokwl nt all aaorifioaa, that ascofit her nouth the wli 
of Uw mm would be laored, and that the telaii flow«r apllt into two wonl>l 
Sbir'a hcail uii Uic day of the Mahathimilri iii February ■ March. 

*Tba taKvnri uf Dattdtntya 1b bliat onu day, wli«n Bnduna, VUuiii. and Sh(« 
Hlttjng with their wivM 8ftvltri, lAkabmi, auil P&rvati, tba saga Kftntd, who 
alway> (ond of nrabing quarrtfla, cajnt and aald tbat Aaaauyq, the wtf* uf 
•a« Atri, waa ^« ohaitast of woman. Tbia roinark diajtlMaad tb» tkr«« iiudd^ 
an^ thsy janvnA in bag|tn8 thalr hnahanda to tast Anasuj-a'a ohaaUt/. Tba 
diuaiaad iw kuuigan wa«it in hia abaaoea to the dwelling of tba tMoP Atri. 
w» offorcil the befuara alma, but thoy refaacd io take aaytldaB ual 
faranght it to them nukod. Ua